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Encyclopedia > Cell culture
Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green)

Cell culture is the process by which either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are grown under controlled conditions. In practice the term "cell culture" has come to refer to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells. The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. Cultured MDCK epithelial cells were stained for keratin, desmoplakin, and DNA. The stained cells were visualized by scanning laser confocal microscopy. ... Cultured MDCK epithelial cells were stained for keratin, desmoplakin, and DNA. The stained cells were visualized by scanning laser confocal microscopy. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Organ culture is a development from tissue culture methods of research, the organ culture is able to accurately model functions of an organ in various states and conditions by the use of the actual in vitro organ itself. ...


Animal cell culture became a routine laboratory technique in the 1950s,[1] but the concept of maintaining live cell lines separated from their original tissue source was discovered in the 19th century.[2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

History

The 19th-century English physiologist Sydney Ringer developed salt solutions containing the chlorides of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium suitable for maintaining the beating of an isolated animal heart outside of the body.[1] In 1885 Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture.[3] Ross Granville Harrison, working at Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Yale University, published results of his experiments from 1907-1910, establishing the methodology of tissue culture.[4] Sydney Ringer FRS was a British clinician and pharmacologist, best known for inventing Lactated Ringers solution. ... Lactated Ringers solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. ... Wilhelm Roux (June 9, 1850–September 15, 1924) was a German zoologist and experimental embryologist. ... Medulla in general means the inner part, and derives from the Latin word for marrow. In medicine it is contrasted to the cortex. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In medicine saline is a solution of sodium chloride in sterile water, used commonly for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation or jala neti. ... Ross Granville Harrison (January 13, 1870-September 30, 1959) was a American biologist and anatomist. ... The Johns Hopkins University is an internationally prestigious private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ...


Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The Salk polio vaccine was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... John Franklin Enders (February 10, 1887 – 1985) was an American medical scientist. ... Dr. Thomas Huckle Weller (born June 15, 1915) was an American virologist. ... Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916-2003) was a Nobel laureate in Medicine and Physiology in 1956 along with Enders and Weller. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


Concepts in mammalian cell culture

Isolation of cells

Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. Cells can be easily purified from blood, however only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. Mononuclear cells can be released from soft tissues by enzymatic digestion with enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, which break down the extracellular matrix. Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. This method is known as explant culture. Ex vivo is a term used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism. ... “White Blood Cells” redirects here. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ... Pronase is a serine protease found in Streptomyces griseus. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with explant. ...


Cells that are cultured directly from a subject are known as primary cells. With the exception of some derived from tumours, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. After a certain number of population doublings cells undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing, while generally retaining viability. It has been suggested that Longevity genes be merged into this article or section. ...


An established or immortalised cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. There are numerous well established cell lines representative of particular cell types. Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when growing cells in a synthetic environment. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...


Maintaining cells in culture

Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37°C, 5% CO2) in a cell incubator. Culture conditions vary widely for each cell type, and variation of conditions for a particular cell type can result in different phenotypes being expressed. Fig. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... A cell incubator is an apparatus used to grow and maintain cell cultures. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the growth medium. Recipes for growth media can vary in pH, glucose concentration, growth factors, and the presence of other nutrient components. The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from animal blood, such as calf serum. These blood-derived ingredients pose the potential for contamination of derived pharmaceutical products with viruses or prions. Current practice is to minimize or eliminate the use of these ingredients where possible. The correct title of this article is . ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Blood plasma is a component of blood. ... Stop editing pages god ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ...


Some cells naturally live without attaching to a surface, such as cells that exist in the bloodstream. Others require a surface, such as most cells derived from solid tissues. Cells grown unattached to a surface are referred to as suspension cultures. Other adherent cultures cells can be grown on tissue culture plastic, which may be coated with extracellular matrix components (e.g. collagen or fibronectin) to increase its adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth. Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ...


Manipulation of cultured cells

As cells generally continue to divide in culture, they generally grow to fill the available area or volume. This can generate several issues:

These issues can be dealt with using tissue culture methods that rely on sterile technique. These methods aim to avoid contamination with bacteria or yeast that will compete with mammalian cells for nutrients and/or cause cell infection and cell death. Manipulations are typically carried out in a biosafety hood or laminar flow cabinet to exclude contaminating micro-organisms. Antibiotics can also be added to the growth media. A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... The loss of cell division when one cell contact with another cell when optimum size and volume of the tissue has been formed. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... UV light desinfects the sterile laminar flow cabinet when not in use Laminar flow cabinet or laminar flow closet is a carefully enclosed bench designed to prevent contamination of semiconductor wafers, biological samples, or any particle sensitive device. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


Amongst the common manipulations carried out on culture cells are media changes, passaging cells, and transfecting cells.


Media changes

The purpose of media changes is to replenish nutrients and avoid the build up of potentially harmful metabolic byproducts and dead cells. In the case of suspension cultures, cells can be separated from the media by centrifugation and resuspended in fresh media. In the case of adherent cultures, the media can be removed directly by aspiration and replaced. A laboratory tabletop centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. ...


Passaging cells

Main article: Passaging

Passaging or splitting cells involves transferring a small number of cells into a new vessel. Cells can be cultured for a longer time if they are split regularly, as it avoids the senescence associated with prolonged high cell density. Suspension cultures are easily passaged with a small amount of culture containing a few cells diluted in a larger volume of fresh media. For adherent cultures, cells first need to be detached; this was historically done with a mixture of trypsin-EDTA, however other enzyme mixes are now available for this purpose. A small number of detached cells can then be used to seed a new culture. The passaging is the process of sub-culturing animal cells. ... Trypsin (EC 3. ... EDTA is a widely-used acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (and many other names, see table). ...


Transfection and transduction

Main article: transfection

Another common method for manipulating cells involves the introduction of foreign DNA by transfection. This is often performed to cause cells to express a protein of interest. More recently, the transfection of RNAi constructs have been realised as a convenient mechanism for suppressing the expression of a particular gene/protein. Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... Introducing DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. ... Protein expression is a subcomponent of gene expression. ... In molecular biology, RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism in which the presence of small fragments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) whose sequence matches a given gene interferes with the expression of that gene. ...


DNA can also be inserted into cells using viruses, in methods referred to as transduction, infection or transformation. Viruses, as parasitic agents, are well suited to introducing DNA into cells, as this is a part of their normal course of reproduction. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ...


Established human cell lines

One of the earliest human cell lines, the cultured HeLa cells shown here have been stained with Hoechst turning their nuclei blue.

Cell lines that originate with humans have been somewhat controversial in bioethics, as they may outlive their parent organism and later be used in the discovery of lucrative medical treatments. In the pioneering decision in this area, the Supreme Court of California held in 1990 that human patients have no property rights in cell lines derived from organs removed with their consent. [5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dividing HeLa cells as seen by electron microscopy for other meanings, see also the disambiguation page Hela A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ... Transmission image of HeLa cells, with overlay of Hoechst 33258 staining (blue). ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... This article is about modern humans. ... {{}} Bioethics are the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ...


It is estimated that about 20% of human cell lines are not the kind of cells they were generally assumed to be.[6] The reason for this is that some cell lines exhibit vigorous growth and thus can cross-contaminate cultures of other cell lines, in time overgrowing and displacing the original cells. The most common contaminant is the HeLa cell line. While this may not be of significance when general properties such as cell metabolism are researched, it is highly relevant e.g. in medical research focusing on a specific type of cell. Results of such research will be at least flawed, if not outright wrong in their conclusion, with possible consequences if therapeutic approaches are developed based on it. [7] Dividing HeLa cells as seen by electron microscopy for other meanings, see also the disambiguation page Hela A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ...


Generation of hybridomas

For more details on this topic, see Hybridoma.

It is possible to fuse normal cells with an immortalised cell line. This method is used to produce monoclonal antibodies. In brief, lymphocytes isolated from the blood of an immunised animal are combined with hybridoma cell lines in a selective growth medium: only the fused cells survive. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... An Agar Plate -- an example of a bacterial growth medium. ...


Applications of cell culture

Mass culture of animal cell lines is fundamental to the manufacture of viral vaccines and many products of biotechnology. Biological products produced by recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology in animal cell cultures include enzymes, hormones, immunobiologicals (monoclonal antibodies, interleukins, lymphokines), and anticancer agents. Although many simpler proteins can be produced using rDNA in bacterial cultures, more complex proteins that are glycosylated (carbohydrate-modified), currently must be made in animal cells. An important example of such a complex protein is the hormone erythropoietin. The cost of growing mammalian cell cultures is high, so research is underway to produce such complex proteins in insect cells or in higher plants. A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune... Lymphokines are a subset of Cytokines that are produced by immune cells. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... u fuck in ua ...


Tissue culture and engineering

Cell culture is a fundamental component of tissue culture and tissue engineering, as it establishes the basics of growing and maintaining cells ex vivo. In tissue engineering, cells are often grown and maintained in a standard culture until they are seeded into a specific form, such as an engineered scaffold or even as simple as a cell aggregrate. The considerations of cell culture persist during tissue culturing, often with added complexity as tissue cultures tend to adopt more three-dimensional form, more extensive maintenance and directive stimuli to induce functionality as a tissue. Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ...


Vaccines

Vaccines for polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox are currently made in cell cultures. Due to the H5N1 pandemic threat, research into using cell culture for flu vaccines is being funded by the United States government. Novel ideas in the field include recombinant DNA-based vaccines, such as one made using human adenovirus (a common cold virus) as a vector,[8] [9] or the use of adjuvants. [10] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... South Park episode, see Chickenpox (South Park episode). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... This article is about large epidemics. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ...


Culture of non-mammalian cells

Plant cell culture methods

Plant cell cultures are typically grown as cell suspension cultures in liquid medium or as callus cultures on solid medium. The culturing of undifferentiated plant cells and calli requires the proper balance of the plant growth hormones auxin and cytokinin. In biology research a Callus of Cells is a mass of undifferentiated cells. ... IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... Zeatin is named after the genera of corn, Zea as it was first discovered in corn. ...


Bacterial/Yeast culture methods

For bacteria and yeast, small quantities of cells are usually grown on a solid support that contains nutrients embedded in it, usually a gel such as agar, while large-scale cultures are grown with the cells suspended in a nutrient broth. A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ...


Viral culture methods

The culture of viruses requires the culture of cells of mammalian, plant, fungal or bacterial origin as hosts for the growth and replication of the virus. Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses or viral products may be generated in cell types other than their natural hosts under the right conditions. Depending on the species of the virus, infection and viral replication may result in host cell lysis and formation of a viral plaque. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e. ...


Common cell lines

Human cell lines
Primate cell lines
  • Vero (African green monkey Chlorocebus kidney epithelial cell line initiated 1962)
  • COS-7 (African Green Monkey Kidney Cells)
Rat tumor cell lines
Mouse cell lines
Invertebrate cell lines
Plant cell lines
  • Tobacco BY-2 cells (kept as cell suspension culture, they are model system of plant cell)
Other species cell lines

This article is about modern humans. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... U87 is a human glioblastoma cell line. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Dividing HeLa cells as seen by electron microscopy for other meanings, see also the disambiguation page Hela A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells) cell line derived from a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia proliferates continuously in suspension culture in nutrient medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, L-glutamine, HEPES and antibiotic chemicals. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... A549 cells are human alveolar basal epithelial cells. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Human Embryonic Kidney cells, also known as HEK cells, HEK 293 or just 293 cells, are an epithelial cell line originally derived, as their name indicates, from embryonic human kidney. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... SH-SY5Y cells can form mounds of undifferentiated cells, which then spread differentiated cells into the surrounding area. ... Multiple myeloma (also known simply as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells, the cells of the immune system that produce antibodies. ... Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia and T cell signaling. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... BCP-1 cells are a clonal lymphoma cell line. ... PEL or pel may refer to: pel, an abbreviation for pixel Permissible Exposure Limit, a legal limit defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States PEL, an abbreviation for Peak of Eternal Light, a location within the Solar System that is almost constantly bathed in sunlight. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Vero cells are used in cell cultures. ... Type species Simia aethiops Linnaeus, 1766 Species Chlorocebus sabaeus Chlorocebus aethiops Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Chlorocebus tantalus Chlorocebus pygerythrus Chlorocebus cynosuros The vervet monkeys or green monkeys are medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock is a music video game and the upcoming third full installment in the Guitar Hero series (the fourth title overall). ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... PC12 is a cancer cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... Feral mouse A mouse (plural mice) is a rodent that belongs to one of numerous species of small mammals. ... 3T3 cells come from a cell line established in 1962 by two scientists then at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine, George Todaro and Howard Green. ... Mesenchymal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSC), are stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, neuronal cells, and, as decribed lately, into beta-pancreatic islets cells. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts 3T3 cells come from a cell line established in 1962 by two scientists then at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine, George Todaro and Howard Green. ... Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Binomial name Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1895 Aedes albopictus (Family Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito or forest day mosquito, is characterized by its black and white striped legs and small, black and white body. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Sf21 (officially called IPLB-Sf21AE) is a continuous cell line developed from ovaries of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a moth species that is an agricultural pest on corn and other grass species. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... The name zebrafish applies to several different kinds of fish with striped bodies considered to resemble a zebra: Brachydanio rerio, also called Danio rerio or the Zebra Danio, is a commonly used model organism in studies of biological development. ... Zebrafish AB9 cells, a primary fibroblast cell line developed from fin tissue of the AB strain. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1867 The Chinese Hamster is a species of hamster, scientific names Cricetulus griseus, which originates in the deserts of northern China and Mongolia. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO cells) are a cell line derived from Chinese Hamster ovary cells. ...

List of cell lines

cellline meaning Organism origin tissue morphology link
HEK-293 human embryonic kidney human kidney (embryonic) epithelium ATCC
HeLa Henrietta Lacks human Cervical cancer epithelium DSMZ
CHO Chinese hamster ovary hamster Ovary epithelium ICLC
Sf-9 Spodoptera frugiperda Insect - Spodoptera frugiperda (Moth) Ovary DSMZ
NIH-3T3 NIH, 3-day transfer, inoculum 3 x 105 cells mouse embryo fibroblast ATCC
MTD-1A mouse epithelium
bEnd.5 brain endothelial mouse brain endothelium
bEnd.3 brain endothelial mouse brain / cerebral Cortex endothelium ATCC
MCF-10A Michigan Cancer Foundation human mammary gland epithelium ATCC
T84 human colorectal Carcinoma / lungmetastasis epithelium ATCC
HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells human Umbilical cord vein endothelium ICLC
HMEC human mammary epithelial cell human epithelium
Peer human T cell leukemia DSMZ
MDCK II Madin Darby canine kidney dog kidney epithelium ATCC
CMT canine mammary tumor dog mammary gland epithelium
MyEnd myocardial endothelial mouse endothelium
COS-7 Cercopithecus aethiops, origin-defective SV-40 Ape - Cercopithecus aethiops (Chlorocebus) kidney fibroblast ATCC
HL-60 human leukemia human Myeloblast bloodcells DSMZ
A-549 human lungcarcinoma epithelium DSMZ
Jurkat human T-Cell-Leukemia bloodcells DSMZ

Human Embryonic Kidney cells, also known as HEK cells, HEK 293 or just 293 cells, are an epithelial cell line originally derived, as their name indicates, from embryonic human kidney. ... Dividing HeLa cells as seen by electron microscopy for other meanings, see also the disambiguation page Hela A HeLa cell (also Hela or hela cell) is an immortal cell line used in medical research. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Cho can refer to: Cho (Korean name), a Korean family name Cho (Myst), a character in the video game Myst An ancient Japanese measurement approximately equal to 300 metres: see Japanese units of measurement -cho is a Japanese suffix, indicating a town. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts 3T3 cells come from a cell line established in 1962 by two scientists then at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine, George Todaro and Howard Green. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... Look up peer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Type species Simia aethiops Linnaeus, 1766 Species Chlorocebus sabaeus Chlorocebus aethiops Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Chlorocebus tantalus Chlorocebus pygerythrus Chlorocebus cynosuros The vervet monkeys or green monkeys are medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. ... Myeloblasts or blasts are new, immature blood cells developed in the bone marrow that are the precursors of myelocytes. ... A549 cells are human alveolar basal epithelial cells. ... Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia and T cell signaling. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...

See also

This is a list of cell cultures which have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. ... Organ culture is a development from tissue culture methods of research, the organ culture is able to accurately model functions of an organ in various states and conditions by the use of the actual in vitro organ itself. ... Plant tissue culture, also called micropropagation, is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant. ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... In Biomaterials Testing, a cell culture assay is any method which is used to assess the cytotoxicity of a material. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ "Cell Culture". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  2. ^ "Some landmarks in the development of tissue and cell culture.". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  3. ^ "Animals and alternatives in testing.". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  4. ^ Schiff, Judith Ann. "An unsung hero of medical research.". Retrieved on 2006-04-19. Yale Alumni Magazine, February 2002.
  5. ^ ceb
  6. ^ (MacLeoud et al. 1999)
  7. ^ (Masters 2002). See List of contaminated cell lines.
  8. ^ cold as vector news
  9. ^ cold as vector research abstract
  10. ^ adjuvant
  • MacLeod, R. A. F. et al. (1999): Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumour cell lines. International Journal of Cancer 83:555–563.
  • Masters, John R. (2002): HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly. Nature Reviews Cancer 2:315-319.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... The Yale Alumni Magazine is an alumni magazine about Yale University. ... This is a list of cell cultures which have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. ... A cover of Nature Reviews Cancer Nature Reviews Cancer [ISSN 1474-175X] is a highly respected cancer biology journal with an Impact Factor of 36. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cell culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1118 words)
Related to cell culture are tissue culture and organ culture, which refer to methods for growing pieces of tissue or entire organs removed from an organism in an artificial environment.
Cell lines that originate with humans are somewhat controversial in bioethics, as they may easily outlive their parent organism and lead to the discovery of lucrative medical treatments.
Due to the H5N1 pandemic threat, research into using cell culture for flu vaccines is being funded by the United States government in areas as diverse as using the common cold as a vector of adjuvants.
Cell (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3516 words)
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and is sometimes called the "building block of life." Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell.
The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of lipids (fat-like molecules) and proteins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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