Celecoxib is a medicinal drug best known as a Pfizer product with the brand name Celebrex.
Celecoxib is used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms, and to reduce numbers of colon and rectum growths polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID, and should not be taken by anyone allergic to NSAIDs.
Celecoxib is a highly selectived COX-2 inhibitor since it primarliy acts on one specific form of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, whereas other NSAIDs inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2. Celecoxib is 10-20 times more selective for COX-2 than for COX-1. This specificity allows Celecoxib and other COX-2 inhibitors to reduce inflammation (and pain) while minimizing undesired side effects (such as stomach ulcers) that can occur with non-selective NSAIDs.
Celecobix is a sulfonamide and consequently may cause rashes. It does not alter platelet aggregation and causes fewer endocopic ulcers that other NSAIDs.
On December 17, 2004, Pfizer announced that in a National Cancer Institute study, those taking between 400 and 800 milligrams of celecoxib per day had respectively 2.5 and 3.4 times increased risk of a heart attack or stroke than those taking placebo. However, in another trial, there was no increased risk. Furthermore, these dosages of celecoxib are higher than the FDA-approved dose range of 100-400mg.
Celecobix is metabolized via the CYP2C9 pathway.
Celecoxib was developed by G. D. Searle & Company and marketed under the brand name Celebrex jointly by Searle and Pfizer. Searle was acquired by Pharmacia, who was then acquired by Pfizer, in part so that Pfizer could take full control of Celebrex.
Celecoxib is available by prescription in capsule form.
- Celebrex website (http://www.celebrex.com/) run by Pfizer
- FDA Alert for Practitioners on Celebrex (celecoxib) (http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/celebrex/celebrex_hcp.htm), published 17 December 2004