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Encyclopedia > Celal Bayar
Celal Bayar
Celal Bayar

Mahmut Celal Bayar (May 16, 1883 - August 22, 1986) was a Turkish politician, statesman and the third President of Turkey. Celal Bayar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ...


He was born in 1883 at Umurbey, a village of Gemlik, Bursa as the son of a religious leader and teacher who immigrated from Bulgaria. After the school, he worked as a clerk first in the court in Gemlik and then in Ziraat Bankası and later in the Deutsche Orientbank in Bursa. 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ...


In 1908, he joined the volunteer’s troop of "İttihad Terakki Cemiyeti" (Committee of Union and Progress), a political organization of Young Turks and became an important member. He served as the secretary-general of the newly founded İzmir branch of this party. He contributed to the foundation of a girl’s college and a railway school. 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Young Turks were a Turkish nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) — in Turkish the Ittihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti — whose leaders led a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II (who was officially deposed and exiled in 1909). ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its original Greek name Smyrna, Modern Greek Σμύρνη Zmírni), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey is located on the...


In 1919, Bayar was elected to the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul as deputy of Saruhan (today Manisa). Because he did not agree with the new form of constitution determined by the sultan, he went in 1920 to Ankara to join Mustafa Kemal by the Turkish Independence Movement. He became an active member of the "Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti" (Association for Defense of Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia), another political organization formed after the World War I. He became deputy of Bursa in the newly established Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The same year, he served as deputy Minister of Economy and on February 27, 1921 he was appointed as Minister of Economy. He led the negotiation commission during the Çerkez Ethem uprising. In 1922, Bayar took part in the Turkish delegation during the Lausanne Peace Conference as an advisor to İsmet İnönü. After the elections in 1923, he served as deputy of İzmir in the parliament. On August 26, 1924, he founded Türkiye İş Bankası in Ankara and was its Managing Director until 1932. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (Ottoman Turkish for the Eternal State) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°stanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul; contraction of the citys previous Greek name Constantinople) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Manisa is the capital of the Turkish province of Manisa. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings muslim monarch ruling under the terms of shariah The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολή anatolÄ“ or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish associated with Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion... Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty that delimited the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey. ... Ä°smet Ä°nönü 1884-1973 Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Managing director is the traditional term for the top executive of a business in the United Kingdom and some other English speaking countries, but not in the United States. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...

Enlarge
Prime minister Celal Bayar (center) with M. Kemal Atatürk (right) in Afyon on November 20, 1937.

On October 25, 1937 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk appointed him as prime minister of the 9th government after İsmet İnönü left the government. He continued to serve as prime minister when Atatürk died and İnönü became president in 1938. Differences of opinion with Inönü led him to lay down his office on January 25, 1939. Image File history File links Atatürk and Bayar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Atatürk and Bayar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Until 1945, he was a member of Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (the Republican People's Party), a social-democratic, republican, Turkish nationalist party. Then on January 7, 1946, he founded Demokrat Parti (the Democratic Party), a conservative, moderate Islamic party, along with Adnan Menderes, Fuat Köprülü and Refik Koraltan. The DP won, with 408 of 487 seats, a majority at the general elections on May 14, 1950. The parliament elected Bayar, the chairman of the DP, as president of Turkey. He was subsequently reelected in 1954 and 1957, serving 10 years long as president. In that period, Adnan Menderes was his prime minister. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republican Peoples Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi or CHP) is a left-wing, social democratic and secular Turkish nationalist political party in Turkey. ... // Latin root meaning The term social is derived from the Latin word socius, which as a noun means an associate, ally, companion, business partner or comrade and in the adjectival form socialis refers to a bond between people (such as marriage) or to their collective or connected existence. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Republicanism is the view that a republic is the best form of government. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Democratic Party (Demokrat Parti) of Turkey was the first legal opposition party, opposing the dominant Republican Peoples Party which had established the Turkish Republic. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... In politics and religion, a moderate is an individual who holds an intermediate position between those generally classified as being liberal and those seen as being right-wing, conservative, or fundamentalist. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Adnan Menderes (1899–1961) was a Turkish politician and Prime minister (1950–1960). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Honorary doctorate awarding ceremony at FU Berlin. From left to right: Rector Gerhard Schenck, Ex-Rector Ernst Eduard Hirsch, Celal Bayar, Willy Brandt und Wilhelm Eich (Dean of the School of Economy and Social Sciences)
Honorary doctorate awarding ceremony at FU Berlin. From left to right: Rector Gerhard Schenck, Ex-Rector Ernst Eduard Hirsch, Celal Bayar, Willy Brandt und Wilhelm Eich (Dean of the School of Economy and Social Sciences)

On May 27, 1960 the armed forces under the command of Cemal Gürsel staged a coup d’etat and sent Celal Bayar along with Adnan Menderes and some other government and party members to a military court on the tiny island Yassiada in the Sea of Marmara on June 10 of the same year. He and 15 other party members were tried for violating the constitution and sentenced to death by the High Court of Justice on September 15, 1961. The ruling military committee approved the death sentence for Menderes, Zorlu and Polatkan, but the fine for Bayar and other 12 party members was commuted to life imprisonment. Bayar was sent to jail in Kayseri, but he was released on November 7, 1964 due to ill health and pardoned in 1966. He died on August 22, 1986 in Istanbul at the age of 103. He was father of three children. Bayar at FU Berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bayar at FU Berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... Cemal Gürsel, a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the Asian part of Turkey from its European part. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Kayseri 1897 Kayseri is an industrialized city in Turkey that is famous for Mount Erciyes. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Celal Bayar was the longest lived politician of the world until Dutch politician Marinus van der Goes van Naters died at the age of 104 in 2005. Jonkheer Marinus van der Goes van Naters (born December 21, 1900) is a Dutch politician. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


In 1958, The Freie Universität Berlin (Free University Berlin) awarded him honorary doctorate. A university (founded 1992) in Manisa is named after him. 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free University of Berlin The Free University of Berlin (FU Berlin, German: Freie Universität Berlin) is the largest university in Berlin, Germany. ... An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... This is a list of universities in Turkey. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manisa is the capital of the Turkish province of Manisa. ...


Books

  • Kayseri Cezaevi Günlüğü (Kayseri Prison Diary), Yapı Kredi yayınları/Tarih dizisi.
  • Ben De Yazdım - Milli Mücadeleye Gidiş (I Wrote Also - Going to the War of National Independence) 8 volumes., Sabah kitapları/Türkiyeden dizisi, 1965-1972.


Preceded by:
İsmet İnönü
President of Turkey
1950–1960
Succeeded by:
Cemal Gürsel
Preceded by:
İsmet İnönü
Prime Minister of Turkey
1937–1939
Succeeded by:
Refik Saydam


İsmet İnönü 1884-1973 Mustafa İsmet İnönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Cemal Gürsel, a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... İsmet İnönü 1884-1973 Mustafa İsmet İnönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Celal Bayar Summary (938 words)
The parliament elected Bayar, the chairman of the DP, as president of Turkey.
Bayar was sent to jail in Kayseri, but he was released on November 7, 1964 due to ill health and pardoned in 1966.
Celal Bayar had been the longest living politician in the world until Dutch politician Marinus van der Goes van Naters died at the age of 104 in 2005.
Celal Bayar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (708 words)
The parliament elected Bayar, the chairman of the DP, as president of Turkey.
Bayar was sent to jail in Kayseri, but he was released on November 7, 1964 due to ill health and pardoned in 1966.
Celal Bayar had been the longest living politician in the world until Dutch politician Marinus van der Goes van Naters died at the age of 104 in 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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