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Encyclopedia > Cedilla
Ç ç
Ȩ ȩ
Ģ ģ
Ķ ķ
Ļ ļ
Ņ ņ
Ŗ ŗ
Ş ş
Ţ ţ
Diacritical marks

accent
Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ´ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ` )
double grave accent (  ̏ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ^ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian language complex and sometimes of the Slovenian language. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvara (  ̣ )
chandrabindu (   ँ   ঁ   ઁ   ଁ ఁ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc (  ̛ )
macron ( ¯ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... This article is about Chandrabindu, the character in several Brahmi derived scripts. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail, the diminutive of ogon; the Lithuanian equivalent is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Creek, Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų), Tutchone and... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ~ )
titlo (  ҃ )
For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. The tail originated as the bottom half of a miniature cursive "z". The word "cedilla" is the diminutive of the old Spanish name for this letter, ceda, where it was first used. Modern Spanish, however, no longer uses this diacritic. An obsolete spelling of cedilla is cerilla.[1] Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

Contents

Use of the cedilla with the letter C

Main article: ç

The most frequent character with cedilla is "ç" ("c" with cedilla). It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/ in old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter "z". A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Visigothic script was a type of medieval script, so called because it originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. ...


It represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a "c" would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/ (before "a", "o", "u", or at the end of a word), in Basque, Catalan, English, French, Occitan, and Portuguese language. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /tʃ/ (as in English "church") in Albanian, Azerbaijani, Friulian, Kurdish, Tatar, Turkish, and Turkmen language. The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ...


In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /ç/ represents the voiceless palatal fricative. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Use of the cedilla with the letter S

The symbol "ş" represents the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ (as in "show") in several languages: The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

For example, it is used in Turkish words or names like Eskişehir, Şımarık, Hakan Şükür, Hasan Şaş, Rüştü Reçber etc. Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... EskiÅŸehir (eskÄ“shehÄ“r, Latin: Dorylaeum, Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorylaion) is a city in northwest Turkey and the capital of EskiÅŸehir Province. ... Şımarık (Spoilt) was a 1997 song. ... Hakan Şükür, (born on September 1, 1971 in Adapazarı, Sakarya, Turkey , is a Turkish footballer playing the striker position. ... Hasan Gökhan ÅžaÅŸ (born 1 August 1976 in KarataÅŸ, Adana, Turkey) is a Turkish international footballer who is currently a winger with one of Turkeys most famous clubs, Galatasaray. ... Rüştü Reçber (born May 10, 1973 in Antalya) is a Turkish football goalkeeper, who currently plays for the Turkish national team. ...


It is also used in some Romanizations of Arabic, Persian, Pashto and Tiberian Hebrew to represent a pharyngealized "s", although the letter "" is more frequently used for this. See Tsade. Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Tsade (also spelled Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its oldest value is probably IPA , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ... Tsade (also spelled or Tzadi or Sadhe) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ‎ and Arabic alphabet ‎. Its oldest sound value is probably IPA: , although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. ...

HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ...

Prospective use of the cedilla with the letter T

In 1868, Ambroise Firmin-Didot suggested in his book Observations sur l'orthographe, ou ortografie, française (Observations on French Spelling) that French phonetics could be better regularized by adding a cedilla beneath the letter "t" in some words. For example, it is well-known that in the suffix -tion this letter is usually not pronounced as (or close to) /t/ in either French or English. It has to be distinctly learned that in words such as French diplomatie and English action it is pronounced /s/ and /ʃ/, respectively. Firmin-Didot surmised that a new character could be added to French orthography. A similar letter does exist in Romanian (see below).


Other diacritical marks confused with the cedilla

Latvian and Romanian add a diacritical comma (virgula) to various letters; these marks resemble cedillas, and some sources consider them to be cedillas, but they are visually and typographically commas. This is particularly confusing for characters which can adopt both diacritics: for example, the consonant /ʃ/ is written as ş in Turkish but ș in Romanian, and Romanian writers will sometimes use the former instead of the latter because of inadequate font or character-set support. Latvian uses the vergula to indicate palatalization on the letters ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, and historically ŗ; on lowercase g, the mark is rotated 180° and placed over the letter to avoid overlap with the descender. Romanian uses it in just two letters, ș (/ʃ/) and ț (/ʦ/). A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... The descenders are the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline, highlighted in red. ...


The Polish and Lithuanian letters "ą" and "ę" are not made with the cedilla, but with the unrelated ogonek diacritic; superficially, an ogonek resembles a reversed cedilla (opening to the right instead of the left), but the exact shape is quite different. Ogonek (Polish for little tail, the diminutive of ogon; the Lithuanian equivalent is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Creek, Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų), Tutchone and...


Technical Notes

The ISO-8859-1 and extended ASCII character encodings include the letters ç, ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, ŗ, ş, ţ, and their respective capital forms. Dozens more letters with the cedilla accent are available in Unicode.


On Windows computers, letters with cedilla accents can be created by holding down the alt key and typing in a three-number code on the number pad to the right of the keyboard before releasing the alt key; ç is 135.


References

  1. ^
    (1) For cedilla being the diminutive of ceda, see definition of cedilla, Diccionario de la lengua española, 22nd edition, Real Academia Española. (Spanish) Can be seen in context by accessing the site of the Real Academia and searching for cedilla. Accessed 27 July 2006.
    (2) Definition of cedilla in the Oxford English Dictionary, 1970 edition, vol. 2, p. 208 mentions former obscure spelling cerilla, gives it as a diminutive of zēta, mentions only use under the letter "c" in French, Portuguese, and (formerly) Spanish. Earliest cited use is a 1599 Spanish grammar; a 1753 citation shows the entire character "ç" ("c" with cedilla) referred to as "cedilla", a usage it says still has some currency with printers; it also documents another name used by printers, "ceceril".
    (3) Etymology of cerilla in the Oxford English Dictionary, 1989 edition, accessed online in 2006, says it originated in Spain "due to interchange of d and r".

The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ...

See also

  • S-comma
  • T-comma

A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Èš È› (T-comma) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet. ...

External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • Keyboard Help — Learn how to create world language accent marks and other diacriticals on a computer
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using cedilla sign
ÇçḐḑȨȩĢģḨḩĶķĻļŅņŖŗŞşŢţ

ISO 646 is an ISO standard that specifies a 7-bit character code from which several national standards are derived, the best known of which is ASCII. Since the portion of ISO 646 shared by all countries specified only the letters used in the English alphabet, other countries using the... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... Look up B, b in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the emoticon :D, see Emoticon. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up L, l in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up M, m in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Template:WiktionarSDypar2 P is the sixteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Look up Q, q in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Its name in English is tee . ... Look up U, u in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Ş ş (S-cedilla) is a letter used in Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Kurdish and Turkmenian languages. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Palaeography (British) or paleography (American) (from the Greek palaiós, old and graphein, to write) is the study of ancient handwriting, independent of the language (Koine Greek, Classical Latin, Medieval Latin, Old English, etc. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Unicode as of version 5. ... List of Latin letters. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cedilla (219 words)
A cedilla is a tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritic mark.
The name "cedilla" is the diminutive[?] of the old Spanish name for zed, ceda.
An obsolete spelling of "cedilla" is "cerilla" because the letters d and r were interchangeable in 16th-century Spanish.
Cedilla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1072 words)
A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation.
An obsolete spelling of "cedilla" is "cerilla" because d and r were sometimes interchangeable in 16th-century Spanish.
In practice, the cedilla form of the character is commonly seen along with the comma form of the character.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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