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Encyclopedia > Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 60% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%. He was an ardent believer in colonialism and was the coloniser of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him. Rhodesia (later Northern and Southern Rhodesia) eventually became Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively. He was born in Bishop's Stortford in Hertfordshire. Image File history File links CecilRhodes. ... Image File history File links CecilRhodes. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... DCL may be: Darc-contest-logbook Data Center Linux Data Control Language Detroit College of Law (now Michigan State University College of Law) Dialog Control Language DIGITAL Command Language DCL Coroporation Distributed Control Lab Doctor of Canon Law Doctor of Civil Law Double-checked locking Disney Cruise Line Direct container... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Lekeith Terrell Edmundson, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonization). ... Rhodesia refers primarily to two land-locked territories in southern Africa named, by British colonizers, after Cecil Rhodes, separated by a natural border provided by the Zambezi River. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Windhill Corn Exchange Bishops Stortford is a market town in east Hertfordshire, England, just touching the border with Essex. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ...


Rhodes profited greatly by exploiting Southern Africa's natural resources, proceeds of which founded the Rhodes Scholarship upon his death. Rhodes is famous for having declared: "all of these stars... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets".[2] Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ...

Contents

Childhood in England

Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)
Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)

Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. He was the son of Rev. Francis William Rhodes, a Church of England vicar, and his wife Louisa Peacock Rhodes. He had many siblings, including Francis William Rhodes, an army officer. As a teenager, he dropped out of grammar school because of ill health and was sent to Natal in South Africa because his family thought the hot climate there would improve his health. There he was to help his brother Herbert on his cotton farm.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1323 × 1766 pixel, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cecil John Rhodes 1853-1902 South African mining magnate and politician. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1323 × 1766 pixel, file size: 610 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cecil John Rhodes 1853-1902 South African mining magnate and politician. ... Windhill Corn Exchange Bishops Stortford is a market town in east Hertfordshire, England, just touching the border with Essex. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Francis W. Rhodes, better known as Frank, is perhaps the best known member of the Rhodes family after his brother Cecil. ...


South Africa

After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P.C. Sutherland, in Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture and joined his brother Herbert on his cotton farm in the Umkomaas valley in Natal. In the colony, he established the Rhodes Fruit Farms in the Stellenbosch district [2]. In October 1871, Rhodes left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley. He supervised the working of his brother's claim and speculated on his behalf. Among his associates in the early days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the De Beers Mining Company and Niger Oil Company. After he first came to Africa, Rhodes supported himself with money lent by his Aunt Sophia .[4] City motto: City of Choice Province KwaZulu-Natal Mayor Zanele Hlatshwayo Area   649km² Population  - Total (1991)   228,549 Population  - Total (2001)   521,805 Established 1838 Time zone SAST (UTC+2) Calling code 033 Pietermaritzburg is the capital and second largest city of the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. ... Umkomaas, a small coastal town on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was formed when a harbour was built in 1861, to export sugar, on the mouth of the navigable Mkhomazi River. ... Stellenbosch from Botmaskop mountain looking towards Cape Town Stellenbosch (IPA: ) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along the banks of the Eerste River. ... Kimberley is a town in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... John Xavier Merriman (1841-1926) was the last prime minister of the Cape Colony before the formation of South Africa in 1910. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Lekeith Terrell Edmundson, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ...


Education

A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.
A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.

Rhodes attended the Bishop's Stortford Grammar school. In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his partner, Rudd, and sailed for England to complete his studies. He was admitted to Oriel College, Oxford, but stayed for only one term in 1873, leaving for South Africa and returning for his second term in 1876. He was greatly influenced by John Ruskin's inaugural lecture at Oxford, which reinforced his own attachment to the cause of British imperialism. Among his Oxford associates were Rochefort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe. His university career engendered in him an admiration for the Oxford "system," which was eventually to mature into his scholarship scheme: "Wherever you turn your eye — except in science — an Oxford man is at the top of the tree". Image File history File linksMetadata Rhodes'_portrait_bust. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rhodes'_portrait_bust. ... Portrait bust of Cecil Rhodes, former student at Oriel College, on the 1st floor of 6 King Edward Street. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Windhill Corn Exchange Bishops Stortford is a market town in east Hertfordshire, England, just touching the border with Essex. ... College name Oriel College Named after Blessed Virgin Mary Established 1324 Sister College Clare College, Cambridge Trinity College, Dublin Provost Sir Derek Morris JCR President Frank Hardee Undergraduates 304 Graduates 158 Homepage Boatclub Oriel College (in full: The House of Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford commonly called Oriel College... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... College name All Souls College Collegium Omnium Animarum Named after Feast of All Souls Established 1438 Sister College Trinity Hall, Cambridge Warden Dr. John Davis JCR President None Undergraduates None MCR President None Graduates 8 (approx. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe (January 30, 1785 - September 5, Indian and colonial administrator, was born at Calcutta. ...


While attending Oxford, Rhodes became a Freemason. Although his initial view of it was not approving, he continued to be a Freemason until his death in 1902. He was appalled by the fact that the Masons had so much influence and yet they did not use it to try to make changes in society and he disliked Masonry because it was apolitical. But he later decided to start his own secret society with the goal of bringing the entire world under British rule. He said that the Jesuits inspired it.[3]. The Masonic Square and Compasses. ...


Diamonds

The Rhodesian General Service Medal, awarded to Rhodesian armed forces during the Rhodesian Bush War / Second Chimurenga. The medal bears Rhodes' portrait.
The Rhodesian General Service Medal, awarded to Rhodesian armed forces during the Rhodesian Bush War / Second Chimurenga. The medal bears Rhodes' portrait.

Whilst at Oxford, Rhodes continued to prosper in Kimberley. Before his departure for Oxford, he and C.D. Rudd had moved from the Kimberley mine to invest in the more costly claims of what was known as old De Beers (Vooruitzicht) which owed its name to Johannes Nicolaas de Beer and his brother, Diederik Arnoldus de Beer, the original owners of the Vooruitzicht farm. Image File history File links Rhodesia-GSmedal. ... Image File history File links Rhodesia-GSmedal. ... This article is about the break-away colony of (Southern) Rhodesia , today Zimbabwe. ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at...


In 1874 and 1875, the diamond fields were in the grip of depression, but Rhodes and Rudd were among those who stayed to consolidate their interests. They believed that diamonds would be numerous in the hard blue ground that had been exposed after the softer, yellow layer near the surface had been worked out. During this time, the technical problem of clearing out the water that was flooding the mines became serious and he and Rudd obtained the contract for pumping the water out of the three main mines. It was during this period that Jim B. Taylor, still a young boy and helping to work his father's claim, first met Rhodes. Jim B. Taylor (1860–1944), was a South African Randlord born December 1860 in Cape Town. ...


In April 1880, Rhodes and Rudd launched the De Beers Mining Company after the amalgamation of a number of individual claims. With £200,000[5] of capital, the Company, of which Rhodes was secretary, owned the largest interest in the mine. The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg- and London-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ...


Politics in South Africa

In 1880, Rhodes prepared to enter public life at the Cape. With the incorporation of Griqualand West into the Cape Colony in 1877, the area obtained six seats in the Cape House of Assembly. Rhodes chose the constituency of Barkly West, a rural constituency in which Boer voters predominated. Barkly West remained faithful to Rhodes even after the Jameson Raid, and he continued as its member until his death. The Griqua are a subgroup of South Africas Coloured population, descended from an admixture of European settlers and the Khoisan peoples they encountered on their initial arrival at the Cape. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Barkly West is a town situated in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ...


The chief preoccupation of the Cape Parliament when Rhodes became a member was the future of Basutoland, where the ministry of Sir Gordon Sprigg was trying to restore order after a rebellion, the Gun War, in 1880. The ministry had precipitated the revolt by applying its disarmament policy to the Basuto. In 1890, Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony and implemented laws that would benefit mine and industry owners. He introduced the Glen Grey Act to push black people from their lands and make way for industrial development. The mountainous and largely arid land that came to be Basutoland was populated by San (bushmen, Qhuaique) until the end of the 16th century. ... The Gun War was an 1880-1881 conflict in the British territory of Basutoland (present-day Lesotho) in Southern Africa, fought between Cape Colony forces and rebellious Basotho chiefs over tribal rights. ...


Rhodes' policies were instrumental in the development of British imperial policies in South Africa. He did not, however, have direct political power over the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. He often disagreed with the Transvaal government's policies, and felt he could use his money and his power to overthrow the Boer government and install a British colonial government supporting mine-owners' interests in its place. In 1895, Rhodes supported an attack on the Transvaal, the infamous Jameson Raid. The raid was a catastrophic failure which forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of Cape Colony, sent his oldest brother, Col. Frank Rhodes, to jail in Transvaal on high treason and nearly resulted in his hanging, and lead to the outbreak of both the Second Matabele War and the Second Boer War. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, not to be confused with the Republic of South Africa, occupied the area later known as the province of Transvaal, first from 1857 to 1877, and again, after a successful Afrikaner rebellion against British rule... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... Francis W. Rhodes, better known as Frank, is perhaps the best known member of the Rhodes family after his brother Cecil. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


Expanding the Empire

Rhodes and the Imperial Factor

Caricature by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.
Caricature by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.

Rhodes used his wealth and that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining mineral concessions from the most powerful chiefs. Rhodes' competitive advantage over other mineral prospecting companies was his combination of wealth and the 'imperial factor', his use of the British Government: he made friendships with its local representatives, the British Commissioners, and through them organised British protectorates over the mineral concession areas via separate but related treaties, conferring both legality (however thin) and security for mining operations. He could then win over more investors. Imperial expansion and capital investment went hand in hand.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ... 1891 Self Portrait Edward Linley Sambourne January 4, 1844 - August 3, 1910 was a cartoonist for Punch. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Optical Telegraf of Claude Chappe on the Litermont near Nalbach, Germany Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele (τηλε) = far and graphein (γραφειν) = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally by changing something that could be observed from a distance (optical telegraphy). ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - City 2,499 km²  (964. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Alfred Beit (1853-16 July 1906) was a South African diamond magnate. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Mineral rights, mining rights, oil rights or drilling rights, are the rights to remove minerals, oil, or sometimes water, that may be contained in and under some land. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ...


The imperial factor was a double-edged sword: Rhodes did not want it to mean that the bureaucrats of the Colonial Office in London would interfere in the Empire in Africa. He wanted British settlers and local politicians and governors, like himself, to run it. This put him on a collision course with many in Britain, as well as with British missionaries who favoured what they saw as the more ethical direct rule from London. But Rhodes won because he would pay to administer the territories north of South Africa against future mining profits, the Colonial Office didn't have the funds to do it, and his presence would prevent the Portuguese, the Germans or the Boers from moving in to south-central Africa. A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ...


Rhodes' companies and agents cemented these advantages by using deceit and deception to obtain many of the mining concessions, as exemplified by the Rudd and Lochner Concessions.[6]


Treaties, concessions and charters

Rhodes had already tried and failed to get a mining concession from Lobengula, king of the Ndebele of Matabeleland. In 1888 he tried again using the imperial factor, and deception. He sent John Moffat, son of the missionary Robert Moffat who was trusted by Lobengula, to persuade the latter to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain, and to look favourably on Rhodes' proposals. His agent Charles Rudd assured Lobengula that no more than ten white men would mine in Matabeleland, but this was left out of the actual document Lobengula signed, the Rudd Concession. Furthermore it stated that the mining companies could do anything necessary to their operations. When Lobengula discovered later what the concession really meant, he tried to renounce it, but the British Government ignored him.[6] Lobengula (d. ... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... Matabeleland is a region in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. ... Reverend John Smith Moffat (1835 — 1918) was a British missionary and imperial agent in southern Africa, the son of missionary Robert Moffat and brother-in-law of missionary explorer David Livingstone. ... Robert Moffat (born December 21, 1795 in Ormiston (Haddingtonshire); died August 9, 1883 in Leigh near Tunbridge Wells) was a Scottish Congregationalist missionary to Africa. ...


Armed with the Rudd Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the British Government for his British South Africa Company (BSAC) to rule, police and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes of Central Africa. He obtained further concessions and treaties north of the Zambezi, such as those in Barotseland (the Lochner Concession with King Lewanika in 1890, which was deceitful in a similar way to the Rudd Concession), and in the Lake Mweru area (Alfred Sharpe's 1890 Kazembe concession). Rhodes also sent Sharpe to get a concession over mineral-rich Katanga, but met his match in ruthlessness: when Sharpe was rebuffed by its ruler Msiri, King Leopold II of Belgium obtained a concession over Msiri's dead body for his Congo Free State.[7] It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... Course and Watershed of the Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in the interior of Africa, and flows generally eastwards towards the Indian Ocean. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Barotseland is a region in western Zambia which is the homeland of the Lozi people. ... The surname Lewanika can refer to: Akashambatwa Mbikusita-Lewanika, a Zambian statesman Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika, an ambassador of the Republic of Zambia in the United States This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Lake Mweru is a lake located on the border between Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 150 km west of the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. ... Sir Alfred Sharpe (1853—1935) was a professional hunter who became a British colonial administrator and Commissioner (a de facto Governor) of the British Central Africa Protectorate from 1896 until 1910 (it changed its name to Nyasaland in 1907). ... Mwata Kazembe XVII Paul Kanyembo Lutaba in 1961 For more than 250 years Kazembe has been an influential kingdom or chieftainship of the Chibemba-speaking Lunda people of south-central Africa[1] (also known as the ‘Luunda’, ‘Eastern Lunda’, and ‘Lunda-Kazembe’). Its position on trade routes in a well... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... MSiri (c. ... Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) was King of the Belgians. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire...


Rhodes also wanted Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana) under the BSAC charter but three Tswana kings including Khama III travelled to Britain and won over British public opinion for it to remain governed by London. Rhodes commented: "it is humiliating to be utterly beaten by these niggers".[6] An 1887 map showing the Crown Colony of Bechuanaland (shaded pink) and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (pink border) The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established on March 31, 1885 by the United Kingdom in southern Africa. ... Tswana (Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people. ... Khama III (1837?-1923), also known as Khama the Good, was the kgosi (meaning chief or king) of the Bamangwato people of Bechuanaland (now Botswana), who made his country a protectorate of the United Kingdom to ensure its survival against Boer and Ndebele encroachments. ...


The British Colonial Office also decided to administer British Central Africa (Nyasaland, today's Malawi) owing to the presence there of Scottish missionaries trying to end the slave trade. Rhodes paid much of the cost so that the British Central Africa Commissioner, Sir Harry Johnston (and his successor, Alfred Sharpe) would assist with security in the BSAC's north-eastern territories. Johnston shared Rhodes' expansionist views, but he and his successors were not as pro-settler as Rhodes and disagreed on dealings with Africans. The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Flag of British Central Africa The British Central Africa Protectorate existed in the area of present-day Malawi between 1891 and 1907. ... Motto Unity and Freedom Anthem (Chichewa) Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi Capital Lilongwe Largest city Blantyre Official languages English (official) Chichewa (national) Government Multi-party democracy  -  President Bingu wa Mutharika Independence from the UK   -  Independence declared July 6, 1964   -  Republic July 6, 1966  Area  -  Total 118,484 km... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the footballer, see Harry Johnston (footballer). ...


Rhodesia

The BSAC had its own paramilitary police force, which was used to control Matabeleland and Mashonaland, in present-day Zimbabwe. The company had hoped to start a "new Rand" from the ancient gold mines of the Shona, but the gold had been largely depleted long before, so many of the white settlers who accompanied the British South Africa Company to Mashonaland became farmers. When the Ndebele and the Shona - the two main, but rival tribes - separately rebelled against the coming of the white settlers, the British South Africa Company defeated them in the two Matabele Wars (1893-94; 1896-97). Shortly after learning of the assassination of the Ndebele prophet, Mlimo, at the hands of the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, Rhodes showed great courage when he boldly walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele War.[8] Matabeleland is a region in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. ... Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe. ... Witwatersrand is a low mountain range which runs through Gauteng in South Africa. ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ... The Matabele War was an 1893-1894 war fought between the British and certain African tribes. ... Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (1861-1947), an American scout and world travelling adventurer is best known for his service to the British Army in Colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft (i. ... Matobo landscape. ...


By the end of 1894, the territories over which the BSAC had concessions or treaties, collectively called 'Zambesia' after the Zambezi River flowing through the middle, comprised an area of 1,143,000 km² between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika. In May 1895, its name was officially changed to 'Rhodesia', reflecting Rhodes' popularity among settlers who had been using the name informally since 1891. The designation Southern Rhodesia was officially adopted in 1898 for the part south of the Zambezi which later became Zimbabwe, and the designations North-Western and North-Eastern Rhodesia were used from 1895 for the territory which later became Northern Rhodesia, then Zambia.[9][10] Course and Watershed of the Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in the interior of Africa, and flows generally eastwards towards the Indian Ocean. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Zambia is a republic in south central Africa. ... Zambia is a republic in south central Africa. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ...


Rhodes decreed in his will that he was to be buried in Matobo Hills, so when he died in the Cape in 1902 his body came up by train and wagon to Bulawayo. His burial was attended by Ndebele chiefs, who asked that the firing party should not discharge their rifles as this would disturb the spirits. Then, for the first and probably the only time, they gave the white man the Matabele royal salute "Bayete". Rhodes is buried along side both Leander Starr Jameson and the 34 white soldiers killed in the Shangani Patrol. The City of Bulawayo is highlighted in this map of Zimbabwe. ... Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim or The Doctor, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... A panel from the Shangani Memorial at Worlds View in Zimbabwe, c1905. ...


Political views

Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes

Rhodes wanted to expand the British Empire because he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In his last will and testament, Rhodes said of the British, "I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race." He wanted to make the British Empire a superpower in which all of the white countries in the empire, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Cape Colony, would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes included Americans in the Rhodes scholarships and said that he wanted to breed an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the USA rejoin the British Empire. Rhodes also respected the Germans and admired the Kaiser, and allowed Germans to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually Great Britain, the USA and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure peace together.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x903, 92 KB) Summary Cecil Rhodes - Project Gutenberg eText 16600. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x903, 92 KB) Summary Cecil Rhodes - Project Gutenberg eText 16600. ...


Though Rhodes is considered by historians to have been an extreme imperialist and racist, in his opinions on domestic politics within the United Kingdom Rhodes was a supporter of the Liberal party.[4] Rhodes' only major impact on domestic politics within the United Kingdom was his support of the Irish nationalist party, led by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891). He contributed a great deal of money to the Irish nationalists,[4] [3] although Rhodes made his support for the Irish nationalists conditional upon an autonomous Ireland still being represented in the British Parliament.[4] Rhodes was such a strong supporter of Parnell that even after the Liberals and the Irish nationalists had disowned Parnell because of his adultery with the wife of another Irish nationalist, Rhodes continued to support him.[3] Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... 1. ... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had...


Rhodes was much more tolerant of the Dutch-speaking whites in the Cape Colony than the other English-speaking whites in the Cape Colony were. He supported teaching Dutch as well as English in public schools in Cape Colony and even loaned money to support this cause. Also while Prime Minister of Cape Colony he helped to remove most of the legal disabilities that English-speaking whites had imposed on Dutch-speaking whites.[4] He was a friend of Jan Hofmeyr, leader of the Afrikaner Bond, and became Prime Minister of Cape Colony largely because of Afrikaner support.[4][3] Rhodes also advocated greater self-government for his country, the Cape Colony, which was one of the reasons that he did not get along with the British government. Jan Hofmeyr Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (March 20, 1894 - December 3, 1948). ...


Princess Radziwill

In the last years of his life, Rhodes was stalked by a Polish princess named Catherine Radziwill (1858–1941), born Rzewuska, married into a noble Polish-Lithuanian dynasty called Radziwiłł. Radziwill falsely claimed to people that she was engaged to Rhodes, or that they were having an affair. She asked him to marry her, but Rhodes refused. She eventually got revenge by falsely accusing him of loan fraud. He had to go to trial and testify against her accusation. He died shortly after the trial in 1902. She wrote a biography of Rhodes called Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker. Her accusations were eventually proven false.[3][11] Stalking (from Middle English stalk: from Old English bestealcian; akin to Old English stelan to steal) is a legal term for repeated harassment or other forms of invasion of a persons privacy in a manner that causes fear to its target. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ (Lithuanian: ; Belarusian: ; Latin: ) is a family of high nobility which has been powerful and important for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


During the Boer War

During the Boer War Rhodes went to Kimberley to help during the siege, but he was more of a liability than an asset. The British military found him intolerable. In particular Lieutenant Colonel Kekewich disliked Rhodes because of Rhodes's inability to cooperate with the military. Rhodes kept demanding that the military adopt his plans and ideas instead of just doing as they said. [3] (source Pakenham, Thomas The Boer War) Kimberley is the name of: Kimberley, South Africa Kimberley, Nottinghamshire, England Kimberley, Norfolk, England Kimberley, British Columbia, Canada Kimberley region of Western Australia Kimberley is also the name of: John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley (1826–1902), British colonial secretary and foreign minister Earl of Kimberley, Wodehouses heirs, continue...


Rhodes's will and the Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes House.
Rhodes House.

Although Rhodes remained a leading figure in the politics of southern Africa, especially during the Second Boer War, he was dogged by ill health throughout his relatively short life. Rhodes died in 1902, and was considered at the time one of the wealthiest men in the world. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x745, 23 KB) Rhodes House, Oxford. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x745, 23 KB) Rhodes House, Oxford. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


In his first will (before he had any real money), Rhodes wanted to create a secret society that would bring the whole world under British rule.[3] The exact words are as follows: A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities and membership from outsiders. ...

To and for the establishment, promotion and development of a Secret Society, the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour and enterprise, and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa, the Holy Land, the Valley of the Euphrates, the Islands of Cyprus and Candia, the whole of South America, the Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the Malay Archipelago, the seaboard of China and Japan, the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and, finally, the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible, and promote the best interests of humanity.
Zimbabwe Bird banister in Rhodes House.

In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the Rhodes Scholarships. The scholarship program enables students from territories under British rule, formerly under British rule, or from Germany, to study at the University of Oxford. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: Fərat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration Krētē, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin Crēta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... →this is tuff i mean kyle carters tuff Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (401x650, 17 KB) Zimbabwe bird bannister, Brian Gratwicke File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (401x650, 17 KB) Zimbabwe bird bannister, Brian Gratwicke File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rhodes House in Oxford Rhodes Scholarships were created by Cecil John Rhodes. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ...


Rhodes' will also left a large area of land on the slopes of Table Mountain to the South African nation. Part of this estate became the upper campus of the University of Cape Town, part became the Kirstenbosch gardens, while much was spared from development and is now an important conservation area. Rhodes Memorial stands on Rhodes' favourite spot on the slopes of Devil's Peak, with a view looking north and east towards the Cape to Cairo route. Rhodes' house in Cape Town, Groote Schuur, has recently been inhabited by the ex deputy president Jacob Zuma. The cottage in Muizenberg where he died is a national monument. Rhodes was laid to rest at World's View, a hilltop located approximately 35 kilometers south of Bulawayo, in what was then Rhodesia. Today, his grave site is part of Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. This article is about Table Mountain in South Africa. ... The University of Cape Town, abbreviated as UCT, is a public university located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devils Peak, in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. ... View roughly to the north from Kirstenbosch. ... Rhodes Memorial just after a summers dawn. ... Devils Peak and Table Mountain from roughly the north. ... View of the rear of Groote Schuur, c1905. ... Jacob Zuma Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa and current deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC). ... Changing huts for bathers on the beach at Muizenberg. ... The City of Bulawayo is highlighted in this map of Zimbabwe. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Matobo landscape. ...


In 2004, he was voted 56th in the SABC3's Great South Africans. Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...


Influence

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was an American science fiction writer,[2][3][4] creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ...

Popular culture

  • Mark Twain's summation of Rhodes ("I admire him, I frankly confess it; and when his time comes I shall buy a piece of the rope for a keepsake"), from Chapter LXIX of Following the Equator, still often appears in collections of famous insults.[13]
  • The will of Cecil Rhodes is the central theme in the science fiction book Great Work of Time by John Crowley, an alternate history in which the Secret Society stipulated in the will was indeed established. Its members eventually achieve the secret of time travel and use it to restrain World War I and prevent World War II, and to perpetuate the world ascendancy of the British Empire up to the end of the Twentieth Century. The book contains a vivid description of Cecil Rhodes himself, seen through the eyes of a traveller from the future British Empire.
  • In 1996, BBC-TV made an eight-part television drama about Rhodes called Rhodes: The Life and Legend of Cecil Rhodes. It was produced by David Drury and written by Antony Thomas. It premiered on PBS in 1998. It tells the story of Rhodes's life through a series of flashbacks in conversations between him and Princess Catherine Radziwill and also between her and people who know him. It also shows the story of how she stalked and eventually ruined him. In the movie, Cecil Rhodes is played by Martin Shaw, the younger Cecil Rhodes is played by his son Joe Shaw, and Princess Radziwill is played by Frances Barber. In the movie Rhodes is portrayed as ruthless and greedy. The movie also strongly suggests that he was homosexual.[14]

Following the Equator is basically a tour of the British Empire undertaken by Mark Twain as a response to regain his financial status and extricate himself from debt incurred from his failed investment in the revolutionary typesetting machine. ... Great Work of Time is a novella by John Crowley. ... John Crowley (born December 1, 1942 in Presque Isle, Maine) is an American author of fantasy, science fiction and mainstream fiction. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Martin Shaw (born January 21, 1945 in Birmingham, England) is an English actor. ... Frances Barber (born on 13 May 1958 in Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, England) is a British actress. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...

See also

The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... The British South Africa Police (BSAP) was a regimented police force which operated in Britains Southern African territories such as Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia. ... Rhodesia refers primarily to two land-locked territories in southern Africa named, by British colonizers, after Cecil Rhodes, separated by a natural border provided by the Zambezi River. ... Sir Leander Starr Jameson, 1st Baronet, KCMG (February 9, 1853 – November 26, 1917), also known as Doctor Jim or The Doctor, was a British colonial statesman who was best known for his involvement in the Jameson Raid. ... In 1889 seeking to weaken the Ndebele king Lobengulas control over the territory, Cecil Rhodes promoted white settlement in Ndebele and Shona lands and dispatched a group of colonists known as the “Pioneer Column” to the region in 1890, under military guard. ... Rhodes University is a university in South Africa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Francis W. Rhodes, better known as Frank, is perhaps the best known member of the Rhodes family after his brother Cecil. ... The term new world order has been used to refer to a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ Death Of Mr. Rhodes, The Times, 27 March 1902; pg. 7
  2. ^ S. Gertrude Millin, Rhodes, London, 1933, p.138
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Thomas, Anthony (November 1997). Rhodes: The Race for Africa. London Bridge. ISBN 0-563-38742-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Flint, John (November 1974). Cecil Rhodes. Little Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-28630-3. 
  5. ^ £200,000 (1880) = ~£12.9m (2004) =~ $22.5m ([1])
  6. ^ a b c d Neil Parsons: "A New History of Southern Africa, Second Edition." Macmillan, London (1993), pp 179-181.
  7. ^ See article on Msiri for details and references
  8. ^ Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company, 539. ISBN 0393047709. 
  9. ^ The Northern Rhodesia Journal online at NZRAM.org: "First Records-No 6. The Name Rhodesia", Vol II, No. 4 (1954) pp101-102.
  10. ^ The Northern Rhodesia Journal online at NZRAM.org: J A Gray: "A Country in Search of a Name", Vol III, No. 1 (1956) pp75-78.
  11. ^ Roberts, Brian (1969). Cecil Rhodes and the princess. Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-01603-7. 
  12. ^ Atack, Jon, A Piece of Blue Sky, 1990, Page 166, 178, 396.
  13. ^ Complete Works of Mark Twain. Following the Equator (Part 2). Chapter XIII. Cecil Rhodes' Shark and his First Fortune; Chapter LXIX. The Most Imposing Man in British Provinces;
  14. ^ Peter Godwin (1998-01-11). Rhodes to Hell. Slate. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sarah Gertrude Millin, born Sarah Gertrude Liebson (1889 - 1968) was Lithuania-born South African writer. ... MSiri (c. ... Jonathan Caven-Atack, generally known as Jon Atack, is a British artist and writer. ... Cover of the book A Piece of Blue Sky is a book written in 1990 by Jon Atack, investigating L. Ron Hubbard and his enterprises such as Dianetics and the Church of Scientology. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Following the Equator is basically a tour of the British Empire undertaken by Mark Twain as a response to regain his financial status and extricate himself from debt incurred from his failed investment in the revolutionary typesetting machine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Cecil Rhodes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1459 words)
Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853–March 26, 1902) (some sources give 3 April for his death) was an English businessman and the effective founder of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him.
Rhodes' policies were instrumental in the development of British imperial policies in South Africa.
Rhodes died in 1902, and was considered at the time one of the wealthiest men in the world.
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