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Encyclopedia > Cebuano language
Cebuano
Sinugboanon
Spoken in: Philippines 
Region: Central Visayas and most of Mindanao
Total speakers: first language: 20 million (ethnologue)

second language: 11 million (est.)  Map of the Philippines showing Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao Visayas is one of the three island groupings in the Philippines along with Luzon and Mindanao. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ...

Ranking: 47
Language family: Austronesian
 Malayo-Polynesian
  Borneo-Philippines
   Meso Philippine
    Central Philippine
     Bisayan
      Cebuan
       Cebuano 
Writing system: Latin (Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin 
Official status
Official language in: none
Regulated by: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino
(Commission on the Filipino Language)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: ceb
ISO 639-3: ceb

Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). It is a subgroup or member of Bisaya, Visayan and Binisayâ. The name came from the Philippine island of Cebu, the site of the first and biggest Spanish settlement whose vicinity speaks the said language. Cebuano is given the ISO 639-2 three letter code ceb, but has no ISO 639-1 two letter code. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Borneo-Philippines languages (or Outer Hesperonesian or Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of the Philippines, much of Borneo, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and Madagascar, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine language family. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Filipino alphabet (officially Makabagong alpabetong Filipino; English: Modern Filipino alphabet) is made up of 28 letters, which includes the entire 21-letter set of the Abakada (including ng) and 8 letters from the Spanish alphabet (namely C, F, J, Ñ, Q, V, X and Z). ... Baybayin (sometimes called Alibata) is a pre-Hispanic Tagalog writing system that originated from the Javanese script Kavi. ... The Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino Language) is the official regulating body of the Filipino language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Cebu is an island of the Philippines. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ...


Cebuano is a member of the Visayan language family. The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine language family. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Cebuano is spoken natively by the inhabitants of Cebu, Bohol, eastern part of Negros island, western parts of Leyte and Biliran islands, southern third of Masbate island and throughout the most of Mindanao. It is also spoken in a few towns and islands in Samar. Until 1975, Cebuano surpassed Tagalog in terms of number of native speakers. Some dialects of Cebuano give different names to the language. Residents of Bohol may refer to Cebuano as Binol-anon while Cebuano-speakers in Leyte may call their dialect Kana. Cebu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bohol Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Tagbilaran City Founded: March 25, 1565 Population: 2000 census—1,137,268 (18th largest) Density—276 per km² (25th highest) Area: 4,117. ... Map of the Philippines showing the location of Negros. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Leyte Region: Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capital: Tacloban City Founded: 1543 and March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,592,336 (14th largest) Density—279 per km² (24th highest) Area: 5,712. ... Biliran is one of the smallest provinces in the Philippines and it is located in the Eastern Visayas region. ... Masbate is an island province of the Philippines located in the Bicol Region. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Samar, formerly Western Samar, is a province of the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Boholano is a dialect that is spoken on the island of Bohol. ...


It is also spoken by Warays in Samar and Leyte, Porohanon in Poro, Ilonggos in Negros Oriental, Eskaya in Bohol, and by native (like Atas, Bagobos, and Butuanons) and migrant Filipino ethnic groups (like Ilocanos and Ilonggos), and foreign ethnic groups (like Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) in Mindanao as second language. Cebuano is a language with erratic Verb Subject Object sentence order, in which the first term in the sentence is the term given emphasis. Nouns and adjectives are joined by the nga connector with their order arbitrary as long as the nga connector in between them. Porohanon are the people of Poro Island, Cebu in the Philippines. ... The Poro, or Purrah or Purroh, is a secret society of Sierra Leone. ... The Hiligaynon people, or HIligaynons, are the indigenous inhabitants of the large coastal plain if East Panay island. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Negros Oriental Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Dumaguete City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,126,061 (20th largest) Density—208 per km² (41st highest) Area: 5,402. ... The Eskaya or Eskaya tribe is an indigenous people community in Bohol, Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bohol Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Tagbilaran City Founded: March 25, 1565 Population: 2000 census—1,137,268 (18th largest) Density—276 per km² (25th highest) Area: 4,117. ... The Butuanon people are the least populated Visayan tribe. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ...

Predominantly Cebuano-speaking regions in the Philippines.
Predominantly Cebuano-speaking regions in the Philippines.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3120 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3120 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Sounds

Cebuano has seventeen consonants: p, t, k, ʔ (the glottal stop), b, d, g, m, n, ng, s, h, w, l, r, y, and j (also spelled gy or dy). There are four vowels: i, e, a, and u/o. The vowels u and o are allophones, with u always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and o always used when it ends a syllable. But there are some exceptions, like kamatuoran (truth) and hangtúd (until). "E" originally appears only in few word such as "babaye", "dayeg" "parayeg", and "pangadye". When Spanish arrived, more words with e has been added with the introduction of loanwords. Accent is also a distinguisher of words, so that dápit means "to invite", while dapít means "near" or "nearby place". Consonants [d] and [ɾ] were once allophones, but cannot interchange, like kabunturan (uplands) [from buntód, mountain] is correct but not *kabuntudan and tagadihá (from there) [from dihá, there] is correct but not *tagarihá. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Grammar

Pronouns

Pronouns are inflected in person, number, and case.


The four cases are nominative, preposed genitive, postposed genitive, and oblique.

  Absolutive Ergative₁
(Postposed)
Ergative₂
(Preposed)
Oblique
1st person singular ako, ko, (ta only when the object is ka/mo=you) nako, ko ako, akoa kanako, nako
2nd person singular ikaw, ka nimo, mo imo, imoha kanimo, nimo
3rd person singular siya niya iya, iyaha kaniya, niya
1st person plural inclusive kita, ta nato ato, atoa kanato, nato
1st person plural exclusive kami, mi namo amo, amoa kanamo, namo
2nd person plural kamo, mo ninyo inyo, inyoha kaninyo, ninyo
3rd person plural sila nila ila, ilaha kanila, nila

Cebuano, like most other Austronesian languages, makes use of the inclusive and exclusive we. This distinction, not found in most European languages, signifies whether or not the addressee is included in the pronoun "we." Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ...


Examples:


Moadto kami sa sinehan.
"We (someone else and I, but not you) will go to the movies."


Moadto kita sa sinehan.
"We (you and I, and perhaps someone else) will go to the movies."


Demonstrative Pronouns

kiri = (English : this, these) for things that are near or touching distance to the speaker but not necessarily near the listener


kini = (English : this, these) for things that are near or touching distance to both the speaker and the listener


kana = (pronounced kanaq, English : that, those) for things that are not of touching distance to the speaker but is near the listener


kadto = (English : that, those) for things that are not of touching distance to the speaker nor near the listener


10 Types of Sentences

1) equational ( topic = predicate )

 a) "Mao kini ang Kabisaya-an". = This is the Visayas. b) "Siya si Kulafu." = He is Kulafu. c) "Amoa kana nga balay" = That is our house. 

2) non-equational ( topic < predicate )

 a) "Mga Pilipinhon ang mga Bisaya." = Visayans are Filipinos. b) "Pula ang iyang gisul-ob." = The one he wears is red. (He is wearing red.) c) "Gipalitan ka niya og balay." = (He buys a house for you.) 

3) existential sentence of presence

 a) "Dunay Diyos sa langit." = (There is) God in heaven. b) "Didtoy halas sa kahoy." = (There was) a snake in the tree. 

4) existential sentence of possession

 a) "Dunay Diyos ang mga anghel sa langit." = (The angels in heaven have a God.) b) "Didto koy ilimnon sa balay." = (I had wine at home.) 

5) locative sentence

 a) "Dia ang kwarta." = Here is the money. b) "Toa siya sa bukid." = She is in the mountain. 

6) meteorologic sentence

 a) "Tugnaw diri sa Baguio." = (It is) cold here in Baguio. b) "Hilom ganina sa plaza." = (It was) calm in the plaza. 

7) exclamatory remark

 a) "Kadaghan man nimo og sakyanan?" = (Wow! You have a lot of cars.) b) "Gwapaha nimo oy!" = (You are pretty!) c) "Kasaba ba ninyo!" = (You are so noisy!) 

8) imperatives

 a) "Isugba nang isda." = (Grill that fish.) b) "Umari ka." = Come here. 

9) question

 a) "Kinsa ka?" = Who are you? b) "Unsa ang imong ngalan?" = What is your name? 

10) confirmation

 a) "Kini ba ang Kabisay-an?" = Is this the Visayas? b) "Pula ba ang iyang gisul-ob?" = (Does he wear red?) c) "Duna bay Diyos?" = (Does God exist?) d) "Isugba ba kining isda?" = Shall this fish be grilled? 

Interrogative Words

Unsa? What?


Asa? Where?(for a place or person)


Diin? , Dis-a? Where?


Hain? , Sa-a? Where?(for an object)


Kinsa? Who?


Ngano? Why?


Kang-kinsa? To whom?


Gi-unsa? How?


Kanus-a? When?


Pila ka buok? , Pila? How many?


Tag-pila? How much?


Vocabulary and borrowed words

Cebuano has long borrowed words from Spanish, such as krus [cruz] (cross), swerte [suerte] (luck), and brilyante [brillante] (brilliant). It has several hundred loan words from English as well, which are altered to conform to the limited phonemic inventory of Cebuano: brislit (bracelet), hayskul (high school), syapin (shopping), dikstrus (dextrose), sipir (zipper), bigsyat (big shot), or prayd tsikin (fried chicken), "espisyal"(special). There are also words from other languages like Arabic like salamat (thanks) and religious words like imam and Islam, and Sanskrit mahárlika [mahardikka] (nobility) and karma.


The use of asa and hain


Asa and hain - both mean where - have distinct uses in formal Cebuano writing.


Asa is used when asking about a place. Asa ka padulong? (Where are you going?) Asa ta molarga? (Where are we travelling to?)


Hain is used when asking about a person or thing. Hain na ang gunting? (Where is the pair of scissors?) Hain na si Arsenia? (Where is Arsenia?)


In modern spoken Cebuano, however, asa is commonly used to replace hain. You can rarely hear hain being used (and it is usually spoken by old native Cebuanos).


Words and phrases

Numbers

Cardinal Ordinal
1 usà úna
2 duhà ika-duhà
3 tulò ika-tulò
4 upàt ika-upàt
5 limà ika-limà
6 unòm ika-unòm
7 pitò ika-pitò
8 walò ika-walò
9 siyàm ika-siyàm
10 napú'ô/napulo ika-napú'ô/ika-napulo
11 napú'ô'g usá/napulo'g/napulo ug usá/onse (Spanish words are used more than 10) ika-napú'ô'g usá/ika-napulo'g usá/ika-napulo ug usá/ika-onse
20 kawhaan/bente
30 katlo-an/trenta
100 usa ka gatos/syento
1000 usa ka libo
100,000 usa ka gatos ka libo
500,000 lima ka gatos ka libo/tunga sa milyon
1000000 usa ka milyon

Note: Shorter terms are the one mostly used.


Common expressions

  • I am Miguel de Guia. Ako si Miguel de Guia.
  • May I ask a question? Mahimo bang mangutana? or Puwede ko mangutana?
  • How are you? Kumusta ka?
  • Good. (I am well.) Maayo.
  • How old are you? Pila'y imong idad?
  • How much? Pila? or Tag-pila?
  • How many? Pila?
  • I don't know. Wala ko kahibalo. or Ambut.
  • Good day! Maayong adlaw!
  • Good Morning! Maayong buntag!
  • Good Noon! Maayong udto!
  • Good Afternoon! Maayong hapon! or Maayong Palis!
  • Good Evening! Maayong gabii!
  • Who are you? "Kinsa ka?" (Informal)
  • When is Kanus-ǎ ang
  • Where do you live? Asa ka nagpuyô?
  • Where are you from? Taga-asa ka?
  • Where are you going? Asa ka padulong?
  • Where are they going? "Asa sila padulong?"
  • Where is Asa ang
  • Where is the bathroom? Asa man ang banyo?
  • Where is the toilet? Asa man ang kasilyas? or Asa man ang CR? (CR = English "Comfort Room")
  • Where is the market? Asa man ang merkado?
  • What Unsa
  • What's this? Unsa ni?
  • What's that? Unsa nâ?
  • What should we do? Unsay among buhaton? or Unsay atong buhaton? or Unsay angay namong buhaton? or Unsay angay natong buhaton
  • What is your name? Unsay ngalan nimo? Unsay imong ngalan?, or colloquially, Kinsa'y ngalan nimo?
  • What number of child are you? Ikapila ka sa imong pamilya? (Firstborn, secondborn, etc.; common expression in Cebuano, not English)
  • I would like to buy that. Gusto ko mopalit anâ.
  • I would like two of those. Gusto ko ug duha anâ.
  • Hello, my name is Miko. Kumusta, Miko akong ngalan., or colloquially, Ako si Miko.
  • Shut up Hilom! or Saba! although "saba" means loud and sometimes people ridicule this word by being louder instead of being silent
  • Help Me! Tabangi ko!
  • Help! Tabang!
  • Please, help me! "Palihug tabangi ko!" or "Palihug tabangi ako!"
  • Wait a minute Kadiyot lang or Huwat sâ
  • What time is it? Unsa nang (namang) orasa?
  • It's five o'clock Alas singko na
  • I love you. Gihigugma ko ikaw. or Nahigugma ko nimo. or Gihigugma tika. or Gimahal ko ikaw
  • Take care. Pag-ayo-ayo! or Pag-amping
  • Take that! (slang) Usapa 'na! (literally "Chew it!")
  • Ouch! Agay!
  • Don't! Ayaw!
  • Yes Oo
  • No Dili

The Clamor for recognition of Cebuano

The use of Tagalog as a basis for Pilipino drew criticism from other Philippine linguistic groups. To some extent, there was active resistance shown against its usage. For instance, the Philippine national anthem is sometimes sung in Cebuano and not in Pilipino in the island province of Cebu. This resistance did not threaten the country's national sovereignty. On the part of the Cebuanos, this may be a mere clamor for linguistic recognition. Their clamor for recognition might be based on the following arguments: Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Filipino (or Pilipino) is the national language and one of the official languages of the Philippines along with English. ...


1. Historically, Cebu is the first and oldest City in the Philippines. Long before Manila fell into the hands of the Spanish Conquerors in the 16th century, Cebu was already an established trading and military post for the Spaniards. Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


2. Linguistically, Cebuano is recently, the country's second most widely used language. During the independence, it was the first largest linguistic group. Cebuano, though originally spoken only in the island of Cebu, is now being spoken in many parts of Mindanao, the eastern part of Negros island, and Bohol. Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Negros Oriental Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Dumaguete City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,126,061 (20th largest) Density—208 per km² (41st highest) Area: 5,402. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bohol Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Tagbilaran City Founded: March 25, 1565 Population: 2000 census—1,137,268 (18th largest) Density—276 per km² (25th highest) Area: 4,117. ...


3. Strategically, due to its geographical location, Cebu is the alternate gateway to Manila adding significance to its language. Cebuano is the native language of more regions than Tagalog, being the language with the most native speakers in Region VII (Central Visayas), Region IX (Western Mindanao), Region X (Northern Mindanao), Region XI (Davao Region), Caraga Region, and Region XII (Southern Mindanao), and lingua franca speakers in latter 5 regions. There are also significant number of speakers in Region VI (Western Visayas, mostly in San Carlos City and neighboring areas) and Region VIII (Eastern Visayas, mostly in western Leyte and Southern Leyte). By comparison, Tagalog is the language of the majority in the NCR, Region IV-A, Region IV-B, and Region III (Central Luzon, where Kapampangan and Ilocano also dominate some areas). Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Leyte Region: Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capital: Tacloban City Founded: 1543 and March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,592,336 (14th largest) Density—279 per km² (24th highest) Area: 5,712. ... Southern Leyte is a province of the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ilocano, also Iloko and Ilokano, refers to the language and culture associated with the Ilocano people, the third largest ethnic group in the Philippines. ...


See also

The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine language family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Boholano is a dialect that is spoken on the island of Bohol. ... Vicente Yap Sotto,( Author of the The Sotto Law (RA 53)The Press Freedom Law,) (1877-1950) was a former Senator of the Philippines, and considered as one of the greatest Cebuanos of the 20th century. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Cebuano language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cebuano language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (871 words)
Cebuano is spoken natively by the inhabitants of Cebu, Bohol, Negros Oriental and the people in western Leyte province and throughout Mindanao.
For instance, after an attempt by the central government to enforce the use of Tagalog as the language of instruction in all public schools in the eighties, the governor of Cebu initiated the singing of the Philippine national anthem in Cebuano rather that in Pilipino (Tagalog) in the island province of Cebu.
Cebuano is the native language of more regions than Tagalog, being the language with the most native speakers in Region VII (Central Visayas), Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula), Region X (Northern Mindanao), Region XI (Davao Region), Caraga Region, and Region XII (SOCCSKSARGEN).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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