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Encyclopedia > Cavern

Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The word cave, in addition to its usual meaning of a subterranean chamber (see Cave), has these meanings: Places Three places in the United States are called Cave, located in Stevens County, Kansas, in Lincoln County, Missouri, and Pendleton County, West Virginia. ...


This article is about natural caves; for artificial caves used as dwellings, such as those in north China, see yaodong. This article is about artificial caves used as dwellings, especially those in north China called yaodongs, as opposed to natural caves. ...

A cave is a natural underground void large enough for an adult human to enter. Some scientists stipulate that it must be large enough that some portion of it will not receive daylight; however, in popular usage, the term includes smaller spaces like cliff cavities, rock shelters and sea caves. Speleology is the scientific exploration and study of all aspects of caves. The act of exploring a cave for recreation is called 'caving', 'potholing', or occasionally (only in the USA) 'spelunking'. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1332 KB)Description: Cave of the Mounds Source: self-made Date: created 9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1332 KB)Description: Cave of the Mounds Source: self-made Date: created 9. ... The Cave of the Mounds is a natural limestone cave located in Blue Mounds, Wisconsin, USA. It was discovered by accident on August 4, 1939 when blasting in a limestone quarry revealed a cavern over 20 feet high. ... Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology). ... Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ... Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ...

Contents


Types and formation

Caves are formed by geologic processes. These may involve a combination of chemical processes, tectonic forces and atmospheric influences. The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ...


Primary caves

Some caves are formed at the same time as the surrounding rock. These are called primary caves.

The outside world viewed from a cave
The outside world viewed from a cave
  • Lava tubes are formed through volcanic activity. They are the most common primary caves. Lava flows downhill and the surface cools and solidifies. The lava now flows under this crust, until the eruption ends. If the liquid lava inside the crust flows out, a hollow tube remains.

The most important lava tubes are found on Hawaii (Big Island). Kazumura Cave near Hilo is the longest and deepest lava tube of the world and also the eighth longest cave of the United States. The outside world seen from inside a cave File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The outside world seen from inside a cave File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq. ... The Island of Hawaii (called the Big Island or Hawaii proper) is one of eight main islands that make up the U.S. State of Hawaii. ... Kazumura Cave is, at 160km,(99. ... Hilo is the largest town on the island of Hawai‘i, and the county seat of Hawai‘i County, Hawai‘i. ...

  • Blister caves are also formed through volcanic activity.

Secondary caves

Secondary caves are formed inside the rock after the rock itself has formed by processes which removes material such as solution and erosion. Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of one or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and other particles) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ...

  • Sea caves are very common at all coasts of the world, but as they are restricted to the zone where waves work on the rocks of the coast they are generally rather small.
Glacier cave in Big Four Glacier, Big Four Mountain, Washington, ca. 1920.
Glacier cave in Big Four Glacier, Big Four Mountain, Washington, ca. 1920.
  • Glacier caves occur in ice and under glaciers, formed by melting. They are also influenced by the very slow flow of the ice which tends to close the caves again. (These are sometimes called ice caves, though this term is properly reserved for caves which contain year-round ice formations).
  • Solutional caves may form anywhere with rock which is soluble, and are most prevalent in limestone, but can also form in other material, including chalk, dolomite, marble, loess, ice, granite, salt, lava, sandstone, and gypsum. The most common process of cave formation is karstification, which is the solution of rocks by rain water.
    • Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals such as gypsum dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock. These rocks fracture and collapse in blocks.
  • Talus caves are the openings between rocks that have fallen down into a pile, often at the bases of cliffs.

Cave formation in limestone occurs because limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with CO2 (carbonic acid) and naturally occurring organic acids. The dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst and characterized by sinkholes, sinking streams, and underground drainage. Ice cave in Big Four Glacier, Big Four Mountain, Washington, ca. ... Ice cave in Big Four Glacier, Big Four Mountain, Washington, ca. ... One of Big Fours ice caves, ca. ... Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Aletsch glacier, Switzerland A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Loess in Hungary has travelled by wind from Asia This article is about the geologic material, for the statistical technique see Loess curve. ... Frozen Waterfall in the Rhön mountains A natural, 4 tonne, block of ice on a beach in Iceland Ice can refer to any of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Carbonic acid is a carbon-containing acid with the formula H2CO3. ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida Sinkholes, also known as sinks, dolines (in the Slovene language doline means valleys), and cenotes, are formed by the collapse of cave roofs and are a feature of landscapes that are based on limestone bedrock. ...


Limestone solution is an important process in cave formation and the origin of the great majority of all caves on Earth. The reasons for this abundance are the facts that limestone is so common and the slowness of the solution process. If it were faster, the lifespan of limestone caves would be much shorter and their number much lower.

Speleothems in Hall of the Mountain Kings, Ogof Craig a Ffynnon, South Wales.
Speleothems in Hall of the Mountain Kings, Ogof Craig a Ffynnon, South Wales.

Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation, including the most common and well-known stalactites and stalagmites. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. The world's most spectacularly decorated cave is generally regarded to be Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, USA). Download high resolution version (600x776, 73 KB)The Hall of the Mountain Kings, Ogof Craig a Ffynnon, South Wales. ... Download high resolution version (600x776, 73 KB)The Hall of the Mountain Kings, Ogof Craig a Ffynnon, South Wales. ... A speleothem (from the Greek for cave deposit) is a formal term for what is also known as a cave formation, or amongst cavers, collectively known as pretties. ... Speleothems in Hall of the Mountain Kings Ogof Craig a Ffynnon (Welsh for Rock and Fountain Cave) is a cave of around 13 km in length, making it currently the 6th longest in Wales and 10th in the UK. The cave is renowned as one of the most well-decorated... Approximate extent of South Wales South Wales is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the East and South, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the North and West. ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktos, dripping Σταλακτίτης), or dripstone, is a type of speleothem that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ... The Witchs Finger in the Carlsbad Caverns A stalagmite (from the Greek stalagma, drop) is a type of speleothem that rises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the depositation of calcium carbonate. ... A speleothem (from the Greek for cave deposit) is a formal term for what is also known as a cave formation, or amongst cavers, collectively known as pretties. ... Lechuguilla Cave is, as of 2004, the worlds fifth longest cave (114 mi, or 182 km), and the deepest in the United States (489 m, or about 1604. ... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ...


Lechuguilla and nearby Carlsbad Caverns are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave. They were formed by acid rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes, rather than by acidic water percolating from the surface. Carlsbad Caverns National Park is a United States National Park located in the southeastern corner of New Mexico in Eddy County. ...


Distribution

Caves are sparse in South America, Africa, and Antarctica, but are found widely in Europe, Asia, North America and the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ...


The distribution of cave systems so far discovered is widely skewed toward countries where caving is popular (such as the United States, France, Italy, the UK etc.). It is likely that many more systems remain to be discovered, especially in China, which, despite containing around half the world's exposed limestone - more than 1,000,000 km2 - has hardly been explored underground. Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ...

Fracture blocks in Seneca Caverns, Ohio, USA
Fracture blocks in Seneca Caverns, Ohio, USA

Image File history File links Seneca Caverns, a fracture cave in Bellevue, Ohio. ... Image File history File links Seneca Caverns, a fracture cave in Bellevue, Ohio. ...

Inhabitants

Cave inhabiting animals can be categorized as troglobites (cave limited-species), troglophiles (species which can live their entire lives in caves, but also occur in other environments), trogloxenes (species which utilize caves, but must leave the caves to complete their life cycle) and accidentals. Some authors use separate terminology for aquatic forms (i.e., stygobites, stygophiles, stygoxenes). In archaeology, a troglodyte is any member of a primitive tribe of cave-dwelling people (from the Greek troglodytai, from trogle, a hole and dyein, to enter). More recently troglodyte is used to describe a technophobic person; i. ...


Of these animals, the troglobites are among the most extraordinary of organisms. Troglobitic species often show a suite of characters, termed troglomorphies, associated with their adaptation to subterranean life. Among these characters are a loss of pigment (often resulting in a pale or white coloration), loss of eyes (or at least of optical functionality), elongation of appendages, and an enhancement of other senses (such as ability to sense vibrations in water). Aquatic troglobites (or stygobites), such as the endangered Alabama cave shrimp, live in bodies of water found in the caves and are fed by detritus washed into the caves, and by the feces of bats and other cave inhabitants. Other aquatic troglobites include cave fish and the Olm. Binomial name Palaemonias alabamae (Smalley, 1961) The Alabama cave shrimp (Palaemonias alabamae) is species of albinistic, obligate cave shrimp. ... Binomial name Proteus anguinus Laurenti, 1768 The Proteus or Olm (Proteus anguinus) is an endemic amphibian animal, found in karst areas of the Dinaric Alps. ...


Bats, like the Gray bat and Mexican Free-tailed Bat, are trogloxenes, and are commonly found in caves, but forage outside of the caves. Some species of cave crickets are classified as trogloxenes, as they roost in caves by day and forage above ground at night. Suborders Megachiroptera Microchiroptera See text for families. ... Binomial name Myotis grisescens (A. H. Howell, 1909) Approximate range of the gray bat The Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) is a small bat that lives in caves throughout the southern United States. ... The Mexican Free-tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) is a medium sized bat. ... Cave crickets are orthopteroid insects of the family Rhaphidophoridae which are found in association with caves. ...


Because of the fragile nature of the cave ecosytem, and the fact that cave regions tend to be isolated from one another, caves harbor a number of endangered species, such as, for example the Tooth cave spider, Liphistiidae Liphistius trapdoor spider and the Gray bat. The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Binomial name Neoleptoneta myopica (Gertsch, 1974) The Tooth cave spider (Neoleptoneta myopica) is a 1/16 inch (1. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Binomial name Myotis grisescens (A. H. Howell, 1909) Approximate range of the gray bat The Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) is a small bat that lives in caves throughout the southern United States. ...


Caves are visited by many surface-loving animals, including humans. These are usually relatively short-lived incursions, due to the lack of light and sustenance.


Some tropical caves of southeast Asia are rich in cave fauna and some even have cave flora


Records

Since new caves are continually being explored, the various records of cave dimensions need to be updated fairly frequently.


The system with the greatest (by some distance) total length of passage is Mammoth Cave (Kentucky, USA) at 579 km in length. This record is unlikely to be surpassed in the near future as the next most extensive known cave is the Optymistychna system in Ukraine, at 214 km. Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. National Park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the most extensive cave system known in the world. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pechera Optymistychna. ...


As of 2005, the deepest known cave (measured from its highest entrance to its lowest point) is Voronya Cave (Abkhazia, Georgia), with a depth of 2,140 m. This was the first cave to be explored to a depth of more than 2 km. (The first cave to be descended below 1 km was the famous Gouffre Berger in France). The Gouffre Mirolda - Lucien Bouclier cave in France (1733 m) and the Lamprechtsofen Vogelschacht Weg Schacht in Austria (1632 m) are the current second and third deepest caves. This particular record has changed several times in recent years. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Voronya Cave (aka Krubera-Voronia Cave) is the deepest known cave in the world. ... Official languages Abkhaz², Russian¹ Georgian ¹ Used by the de-facto separatist government ² According to the Constitution of Georgia Political status De Facto: Independent De Jure (internationally recognized): Autonomous Republic within Georgia Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President¹ Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister¹ Alexander Ankvab ¹ De-facto separatist government Chairman of the...


The deepest individual pitch (vertical drop) within a cave is 603 m in the Vrtoglavica cave in Slovenia, followed by Patkov Gušt (553 m) in the Velebit mountain, Croatia. For other uses, see Pitch A pitch is a significant underground vertical space in mining terminology. ... The Velebit mountain of Croatia is believed to have several caves with the some of the worlds greatest subterranean vertical drops. ... The middle part of Velebit Velebit is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia. ...


The largest individual cavern ever discovered is the Sarawak Chamber, in the Gunung Mulu National Park (Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia), a sloping, boulder strewn chamber with an area of approximately 600 m by 400 m and a height of 80 m. State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ...


For a list of the world's notable caves, see list of caves. The following is a partial list of caves. ...


Archaeological and social importance

Throughout history, primitive peoples have made use of caves for shelter, burial, or as religious sites. Since items placed in caves are protected from the climate and scavanging animals, this means caves are an archaeological treasure house for learning about these people. Cave paintings are of particular interest. One example is the Great Cave of Niah, which contains evidence of human habitation dating back 40,000 years. [1] Cave or rock paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... The Niah Caves is a prehistorical site in Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. ...


Caves are also important for geological research because they can reveal details of past climactic conditions in speleothems and sediment layers. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. ...


Caves are frequently used today as sites for recreation. Caving, for example, is the popular sport of cave exploration. For the less adventurous, a number of the world's prettier and more accessible caves have been converted into show caves, where artificial lighting, floors, and other aids allow the casual visitor to experience the cave with minimal inconvenience. Caves have also been used for BASE jumping and cave diving. Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ... A show cave is a cave or cave system containing interesting or spectacular features that are easily accessible to the general public. ... BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ... Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ...


Reference

  1. ^ National Geographic. James Shreeve. The Greatest Journey. March 2006.

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... Inside the cave at Cave Stream, New Zealand Caving is the recreational sport of exploring caves. ... Approaching a cave entrance, NPS Photo The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) is an American private, non-profit group dedicated to the exploration, research, and conservation of caves. ... A Grotto (Italian grotta), when it is not an artificial garden feature, is a cave, small or quite large, usually near water and often flooded or liable to flood at high tide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NSS-CDS -- Training -- Cavern Diving Course Description (0 words)
You may already even have one of the two battery-powered lights required for cavern diving, so that all you may need to obtain is an extra light and a small cavern diving reel with suitable guideline.
Typical guideline for cavern diving (dives limited to that portion of a cave illuminated by natural daylight) is made of white nylon approximately 1/8" in diameter, and is your only guaranteed method of finding your way back to the cavern entrance.
Because the cavern ceiling prevents you from making a direct ascent to the surface, as you would in open water, you must reserve extra air for the exit from the cavern.
www.myspace.com/thecavernclub (1278 words)
The Cavern is a private All-Ages music venue in Xenia, Ohio.
The Cavern is located in the basement of our coffeeshop, the Express Yourself Coffeehouse Gallery just a block east of the Greene Co. Courthouse downtown.
The Cavern is also available to rent for shows, meetings, receptions, private parties, and reunions.
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