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Encyclopedia > Cavalry
War

-1... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

Military History

War Portal   v  d  e 

Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. The designation was not usually extended to any military force that used other animals, such as camels or mules. Infantry who moved on horseback but dismounted to fight on foot were in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries known as dragoons, a class of mounted troops which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. From earliest times cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, an This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... “Fights” redirects here. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... For other uses, see Dragoon (disambiguation). ...

instrument which multiplied the fighting value of even the smallest forces, allowing them to outflank and avoid, to surprise and overpower, to retreat and escape according to the requirements of the moment.[1]

A man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot.


In many modern armies, the term cavalry is often used for units that fill the traditional horse-borne light cavalry roles of scouting, screening, skirmishing and raiding. The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is generally filled by units with the "armored" designation. An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Screening, in general, is the investigation of a great number of something (for instance, people) looking for those with a particular problem or feature. ... Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... Shock tactics, shock tactic or Shock attack is the name of an offensive maneuver in battle in which the attacking forces engage into close combat with extreme action and massive force. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ...

Contents

History

Assyrian cavalry

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2535x1609, 2201 KB) Assyrian Cavalry - photograph of British Museum reliefs by Iglonghurst 09:51, 14 October 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2535x1609, 2201 KB) Assyrian Cavalry - photograph of British Museum reliefs by Iglonghurst 09:51, 14 October 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Origins

Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was largely performed by light chariots. The chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians [2]. The chariot was quickly adopted by settled peoples both as a military technology and an object of ceremonial status, especially by the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt as well as Assyrian and Babylonian royalty. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The New Kingdom period of Egyptian history is the period between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


The power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, but was offset by the difficulty of raising large forces and by the inability of horses (then mostly small) to carry heavy armor. Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Eurasian nomads. ... Pastoralists are people whose main source of livelihood is livestock with which they move seasonally in search of fresh pasture and water. ... http://www. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ...


The photograph above right shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865-860 BC. At this time, the men had no spurs, saddles, saddlecloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was much more difficult than mere riding. The cavalry acted in pairs; the reins of the mounted archer were controlled by his neighbour’s hand. Even at this early time, cavalry used swords, shields, and bows. The sculpture implies two types of cavalry, but this might be a simplification by the artist. Later images of Assyrian cavalry show saddlecloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse. A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ...

French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations

As early as 490 BC a breed of large horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour (Herodotus 7,40 & 9,20). But large horses were still very exceptional at this time. Excepting a few ineffective trials of scythed chariots, the use of chariots in battle was obsolete in civilized nations by the time of the Persian defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great, but chariots remained in use for ceremonial purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph, for chariot racing. The southern British met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BCE, but a century later, in the Roman conquest of Britain chariots were obsolete even in Britannia. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 307 pixelsFull resolution (2524 × 968 pixel, file size: 505 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cavalerie de la Garde Républicaine (France), célébrations du 8 mai 2005 Republican Guard, cavalry (France), May 8, 2005 celebrations Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 307 pixelsFull resolution (2524 × 968 pixel, file size: 505 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cavalerie de la Garde Républicaine (France), célébrations du 8 mai 2005 Republican Guard, cavalry (France), May 8, 2005 celebrations Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux... Two republican guards in ceremony uniform in front of a side entrance of the Élysée Palace The French Republican Guard (French: Garde républicaine) is the ceremonial unit of the Gendarmerie Nationale of France. ... The charge of the Persian scythed chariots at the battle of Gaugamela, by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Roman Republic and Trinovantes Britons Commanders Julius Caesar, Commius, Trebonius, Mandubracius Cassivellaunus, Cingetorix, Segovax, Carvilius, Taximagulus Strength 55 - Around 10,000 legionary troops (Legio VII, Legio X), unknown numbers of cavalry forces and transports. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ...


Ancient Greece and Macedon

Warrior's departure; an Athenian amphora dated 550-540 BC.
Main article: hippeis

Cavalry have played a relatively minor role in Ancient Greece, with conflicts decided by massed armored infantry. However, Thessaly was widely known for producing competent cavalrymen, and later experiences in wars both with and against the Persians taught the Greeks the value of cavalry in skirmishing and pursuit. The Athenian author and soldier Xenophon in particular advocated the creation of a small but well-trained cavalry force; to that end, he wrote several manuals on horsemanship and cavalry operations. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... Hippeis was the Greek term for cavalry. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


The Macedonian kingdom in the north, on the other hand, developed a strong cavalry force that culminated in the hetairoi (Companion cavalry) of Philip II and Alexander the Great. In addition to these heavy cavalry, the Macedonian combined arms army also employed lighter horsemen called prodromoi for scouting and screening, as well as the Macedonian pike phalanx and various kinds of light infantry. There were also the Ippiko (or "Horserider"), Greek "heavy" cavalry, armed with kontos (or cavalry lance), and sword. They wore leather armour or chainmail and hat. They were medium cavalry, rather as heavy cavalry. They were good scouts, skirmishers, and chasers. The Companions (Greek Εταίροι) were Alexander the Greats elite cavalry, the main offensive arm of his army, and also his elite guard. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... The Prodromoi (singular Prodromos) were the Greek skirmisher light cavalry. ... The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire and other armies. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...


The effectiveness of this combined-arms system was most dramatically demonstrated in Alexander's conquest of Persia, Bactria, and northwestern India. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...


Roman Republic and Early Empire

The cavalry in the early Roman Republic remained the preserve of the wealthy landed class known as the Equites --men who could afford the expense of maintaining a horse in addition to arms and armor heavier than those of the common legions. As the class grew to be more of a social elite instead of a functional property-based military grouping, the Romans began to employ Italian socii for filling the ranks of their cavalry. At about the same time the Romans began to recruit foreign auxiliary cavalry from among Gauls, Iberians, and Numidians, the last being highly valued as mounted skirmishers and scouts. Julius Caesar himself was known for his admiration in his escort of Germanic mixed cavalry, giving rise to Cohorte Equitates. Early Emperors maintained an ala of Bataviand cavalry as their bodyguards until the unit was dismissed by Galba. Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Legion can refer to: Roman legion, a division of troops within the Roman army Legion (demon), a demon found in the Christian Bible in Mark 5:9 and Luke 8:30 The American Legion, A veterans organization in the United States A creature from Castlevania Category: ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... The Numidians were tribes who lived in Algeria east of Constantine and in part of Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... The Batavians by Rembrandt van Rijn The Batavians (also known by Batavii, or Batavi) were a Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area that is currently the Netherlands, an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ...


For the most part, Roman cavalry during the Republic functioned as an adjunct to the legionary infantry and formed only one-fifth of the showing force. This does not mean that its utility could be underestimated, though, as its strategic role in scouting, skirmishing, and outpost duties was crucial to the Romans' capability to conduct operations over long distances in hostile or unfamiliar territory. In some occasions it also proved its ability to strike a decisive tactical blow against a weakened or unprepared enemy. Although it was not until the Late Imperial Period that Roman cavalry would play a major role in armed conflict. This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ...


After the Battle of Carrhae, the Romans learnt the importance of large cavalry formations from the Parthians and began to substantially increase both the numbers and the training standards of the cavalry in their employ, just as nearly a thousand years earlier the first Iranians to reach the Iranian Plateau introduced the Assyrians to a similar reform. Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...

Reenactor showing Roman military equestrian.

Image File history File links Roman_cavalry_lg. ... Image File history File links Roman_cavalry_lg. ...

Late Roman Empire and the Migration Period

In the army of the late Roman Empire, cavalry played an increasingly important role. The Spatha, the classical sword throughout most of the 1st millennium which had originated among the Germanic peoples, was adopted as the standard model for the Empire's cavalry forces. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The spatha was a type of straight sword with a long point, measuring between 0. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ...


The most widespread employment of heavy cavalry at this time was found in the forces of the Parthians and their Iranian Sassanid successors. Both, but especially the latter, were famed for the cataphract (fully-armored cavalry armed with lances) even though the majority of their forces consisted of lighter horse archers. The West first encountered this eastern heavy cavalry during the Hellenistic period with further intensive contacts during the eight centuries of the Roman-Persian wars. At first the Parthians' mobility greatly confounded the Romans, whose armoured close-order infantry proved unable to match the speed of the Parthians. However, later the Romans would successfully adapt such heavy armor and cavalry tactics by creating their own units of cataphracts and clibanarii [1]. Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ...


The decline of the Roman infrastructure made it more difficult to field large infantry forces, and during the fourth and fifth centuries cavalry began to take a more dominant role on the European battlefield, also in part made possible by the appearance of new, larger breeds of horses. The replacement of the Roman saddle by variants on the Scythian model, with pommel and cantle, was also a significant factor as was the adoption of stirrups and the concomitant increase in stability of the rider's seat. Armored Cataphracts began to be deployed in eastern Europe and the near East, following the precedents established by Persian forces, as the main striking force of the armies in contrast to the earlier roles of cavalry as scouts, raiders, and outflankers. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Persia redirects here. ...


The late Roman cavalry tradition and the mounted nobility of the Germanic invaders both contributed to the development of mediaeval knightly cavalry.


Arabs

Arab camel cavalry

Early organized Arab cavalry under the Rashidun caliphate was a light cavalry armed with lance and sword, its main role was to attack the enemy flanks and rear. Armor was relatively light.The Muslims' light cavalry during the later years of Islamic conquest of Levant became the most powerful section of army. The best use of this lightly armed fast moving cavalry was revealed at the Battle of Yarmouk (636 A.D) in which Khalid ibn Walid, knowing the importance and ability of his cavalry, used them to turn the tables at every critical instance of the battle with their ability to engage and disengage and turn back and attack again from the flank or rear. A strong cavalry regiment was formed by Khalid ibn Walid which included the veterans of the campaign of Iraq and Syria. Early Muslim historians have given it the name Mutaharrik tulai'a( متحرك طليعة ), or the Mobile guard. This was used as an advance guard and a strong striking force to route the opposing armies with its greater mobility that give it an upper hand when maneuvering against any Byzantine army. With this mobile striking force, the conquest of Syria was made easy.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ... The Mobile guard ( متحرك طليعة ), was a light cavalry of Rashidun army during the Muslim conquest of Syria, that remianed under the command of Khalid ibn Walid. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...

A Mamluk cavalryman

The Battle of Talas in 751 CE was a conflict between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Dynasty over the control of Central Asia. Chinese infantry were routed by Arab cavalry near the bank of the River Talas. Image File history File links Mamluke. ... Image File history File links Mamluke. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Later Mamluks were trained as cavalry soldiers. Mamluks were to follow the dictates of furusiyya, a code of conduct that included values like courage and generosity but also doctrine of cavalry tactics, horsemanship, archery and treatment of wounds. Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic...


Asia

Main article: Horse archer

A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ...

Central Asia

The Indian literature contains numerous references to the cavalry forces of the Central Asian horse nomads like the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas. Numerous Puranic texts refer to an ancient invasion of India (16th c. BC) [4] by the cavalry forces of five nations, called five hordes (pañca.ganan) or Kśatriya hordes (Kśatriya ganah), which had captured the throne of Ayudhya by dethroning its Vedic king Bahu [5] Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... It has been suggested that Parasika Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... The Paradas are a people mentionned in ancient Indian writings from the beginning of our era, such as the Manu Smriti. ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern...

Ottoman Horse Archer.

The Mahabharata, Ramayana, numerous Puranas and some foreign sources numerously attest that "Kamboja cavalry-troopers were frequently requisitioned in ancient wars". All these sources also agree that the horses of the Sindhu and Kamboja regions were the finest breed. JAOS attests: "Most famous horses are said to come either from Sindhu or Kamboja; of the latter (i.e the Kamboja), the Indian epic Mahabharata speaks among the finest horsemen" [6]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Horsemen ...


Mahabharata (950 c BC) [7] speaks of the esteemed cavalry of the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas and Tusharas, all of whom had participated in the Kurukshetra war under the supreme commandership of Kamboja ruler Sudakshin Kamboj [8]. Mahabharata and Vishnudharmotari Purana especially styles the Kambojas, Yavansa, Gandharas etc as "Ashva.yuddha.kushalah" (expert cavalrymen) [9]. In the Mahabharata war, the Kamboja cavalry along with that of the Sakas, Yavanas is reported to have been enlisted by the Kuru king Duryodhana of Hastinapura [10]. The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Fought for 18 days, the Battle of Kurukshetra was one of the great battles fought in ancient India. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Sudakshina Kamboja is the third king of the Kambojas referred to in the Mahabharata. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... , Hastinapur (Hindi: ) (Hastinapura in Sanskrit) is a town and a nagar panchayat in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Herodotus (484 c BC- 425 c BC) ) attests that the Gandarian mercenaries (i.e. Gandharans/Kambojans of Gandari Strapy of Achaemenids) from the twentieth strapy of the Achaemenids were recruited in the army of emperor Xerxes I (486-465 BC), which he led against the Hellas.[11]. Similarly, the men of the Mountain Land from north of Kabol-River equivalent to medieval Kohistan (Pakistan), figure in the army of Darius III against Alexander at Arbela with a cavalry and fifteen elephants.[12]. This obviously refers to Kamboja cavalry south of Hindukush. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kohistan is a Persian word meaning mountainous region or highland (Koh = mountain; -istan = suffix -land). ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Arbil, (or Erbil or Irbil, known as Hewler in Kurdish), is one of Iraqs larger cities, located at 36. ...


The Kambojas were famous for their horses, as well as cavalry-men (asva-yuddha-Kushalah) [13]. On account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture, they were also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. the "horsemen" [14] and their land was known as "Home of Horses" [15]. They are the Assakenoi and Aspasioi of the Classical writings, and the Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. The Assakenoi had faced Alexander with 30000 infantry, 20000 cavalry and 30 war elephants[16]. Scholars have identified the Assakenoi and Aspasioi clans of Kunar and Swat valleys as a section of the Kambojas [17]. These hardy tribes had offered stubborn resistance to Alexander (326 c BC) during latter’s campaign of the Kabul, Kunar and Swat valleys and had even extracted the praise of the Alexander’s historians. These highlanders, designated as "parvatiya Ayudhajivinah" in Panini's Astadhyayi [18], were rebellious, fiercely independent and freedom-loving cavalrymen who never easily yielded to any overlord [19]. The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans (Paninian Ashvakayans) are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan , including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India (Punjab). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... This article is about Special Weapons And Tactics. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


The Sanskrit drama Mudra-rakashas by Visakha Dutta and the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan refer to Chandragupta's (320 C BC- 298 c BC) alliance with Himalayan king Parvataka. The Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a formidable composite army made up of the cavalry forces of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas as attested by Mudra-Rakashas (Mudra-Rakshasa 2) [20]. These hordes had helped Chandragupta Maurya defeat the ruler of Magadha and placed Vhandragupta on the throne, thus laying the foundations of Mauryan Dynasty in Northern India. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BC The Magadha state circa 600 BC, before it expanded Magadha (मगध) formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit, great countries) or regions in ancient India. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ...


The cavalry of Hunas and the Kambojas is also attested in the Raghu Vamsa play of Sanskrit Poet Kalidasa [21]. Raghu of Kalidasa is believed to be Chandragupta II (Vikaramaditya) (375-413/15 AD), of the well-known Gupta Dynasty. Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... // Introduction Raghuvamsa, in Hindu mythology is believed to be a lineage/race of warrior kings tracing its ancestry to Surya. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ...

Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.

As late as mediaeval era, the Kamboja cavalry had also formed part of the Gurjara-Pratihara armed forces in 8th/10th centuries AD. They had come to Bengal with the Pratiharas when the latter conquered part of the province.[22][23][24][25][26] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wild Fields (Russian: Дикое Поле, Ukrainian: Дике Поле) is a term used in the documents of the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to the sparsely inhabited steppes between the Don River on the east, the Upper Principalities on the north, and the left tributaries of the Dnieper and Desna on the west. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Pratiharas (Hindi परतिहार pratihāra, also known as Parihars) ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. ...


Ancient Kambojas were constituted into military Sanghas and Srenis (Corporations) to manage their political and military affairs, as Arthashastra of Kautiliya as well as the Mahabharata amply attest for us. They are attested to be living as Ayuddha-jivi or Shastr-opajivis (Nation-in-arms), which also means that the Kamboja cavalry offered its military services to other nations as well. There are numerous references to Kambojas having been requisitioned as cavalry troopers in ancient wars by outside nations. The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Trooper can refer to: Canadian rock band Trooper the rank of Trooper in Canadian and British army groups. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


Xiongnu or Hun, Tujue, Avars, Kipchaks, Mongols, Cossacks and the various Turkic peoples are also examples of the horse-mounted peoples that managed to gain substantial successes in military conflicts with settled agrarian and urban societies, due to their strategic and tactical mobility. As European states began to assume the character of bureaucratic nation-states supporting professional standing armies, recruitment of these mounted warriors was undertaken in order to fill the strategic roles of scouts and raiders. The best known instance of the continued employment of mounted tribal auxiliaries were the Cossack cavalry regiments of Tsarist Russia. In eastern Europe, Russia, and out onto the steppes, cavalry remained important much longer and dominated the scene of warfare until the early 1600s and even beyond, as the strategic mobility of cavalry was crucial for the semi-nomadic pastoralist lives that many steppe cultures led. [27] A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks, known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 tú jué), under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... Pastoralists are people whose main source of livelihood is livestock with which they move seasonally in search of fresh pasture and water. ...


Tibetans also had a tradition of cavalry warfare, in several military engagements early on with the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), including Emperor Taizong's campaign against Tufan in 638. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


East Asia

A bas-relief of a soldier and horse with saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Chinese Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), c. 650

Further east, the military history of China, specifically northern China, held a long tradition of intense military exchange between Chinese infantry forces of the settled dynastic empires and the mounted "barbarians" of the north. The naval history of China was centered more to the south, where mountains, rivers, and large lakes necessitated the employment of a large and well-kept navy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 682 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 623 pixel, file size: 619 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 682 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 623 pixel, file size: 619 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Emperor Taizong of Tang China (Chinese: , January 23, 599–July 10, 649), born Lĭ ShìMín (Chinese: ), was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China from 626 to 649. ... The military history of China extends from about 1500 BCE to the present day. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 307 BC, King Wuling of Zhao, the ancient Chinese ruler of the former State of Jin territory, ordered his military commanders and troops to adopt the trousers of the nomads as well as practice the nomads' form of mounted archery to hone their new cavalry skills.[28] Soon afterwards the cavalry tactics employed by the State of Zhao forced their enemies in the other Warring States to adopt the same techniques in order to mount any effective attack against their swift movements on the battlefield.[29] This article needs to be wikified. ... Categories: Ancient Chinese states | China-related stubs ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern...


The adoption of massed cavalry in China also broke the tradition of the chariot-riding Chinese aristocracy in battle, which had been in use since the ancient Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC-1050 BC).[30] By this time large Chinese infantry-based armies of 100,000 to 200,000 troops were now buttressed with several hundred mounted cavalry in support or as an effective striking force.[29] The handheld pistol-and-trigger crossbow was invented in China in the 4th century BC;[31] it was written by the Song Dynasty scholars Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du, and Yang Weide in their book Wujing Zongyao (1044 AD) that massed missile fire of crossbowmen was the most effective defense against enemy cavalry charges.[32] For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A painting of a gentry scholar with two courtesans, by Tang Yin, c. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the weapon. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ...

The Qianlong Emperor in ceremonial armor on horseback, painted by Giuseppe Castiglione, dated 1739 or 1758.

On many occasions the Chinese studied nomadic cavalry tactics and applied the lessons in creating their own potent cavalry forces, while in others they simply recruited the tribal horsemen wholesale into their armies; and in yet other cases nomadic empires have proved eager to enlist Chinese infantry and engineering, as in the case of the Mongol Empire and its sinicized part, the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368). The Chinese recognized early on during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD) that they were at a disadvantage if lacking the amount of horses the northern nomadic peoples mustered in their armies. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141 BC-87 BC) went to war with the Yuezhi for this exact reason, since the Yuezhi were hording a massive amount of tall, strong, Central Asian bred horses in the Hellenized-Greek region of Fergana (established a bit earlier by Alexander the Great). Although experiencing some defeats early on in the campaign, Emperor Wu's war from 104 BC to 102 BC succeeded in gathering the prized tribute of horses from Fergana. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 972 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City User... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 432 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 972 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Forbidden City User... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Giuseppe Castiglione (郎世宁 1688-1766) was a Jesuit missionary to China. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Fergana Fergana or Farghana (Uzbek: Fargona [Фарғона], Russian: Фергана, Tajik: Фарғона) is a city (1999 population: 182,800), the capital of Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southern edge of the Fergana Valley in southern Central Asia, cutting across the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Cavalry tactics in China were enhanced by the invention of the saddle-attached stirrup by at least the 4th century, as the oldest reliable depiction of a rider with paired stirrups was found in a Jin Dynasty tomb of the year 322 AD.[33][34][35] The Chinese invention of the horse collar by the 5th century was also a great improvement from the breast harness, allowing the horse to haul greater weight without heavy burden on its skeletal structure.[36][37] Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Two horse collars A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horses neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. ...


The cavalry of Korea was first introduced during the ancient Korean kingdom Gojoseon. Since at least the 3rd century BC, there was influence of northern nomadic peoples and Yemaek peoples on Korean warfare. By roughly the 1st century BC, the ancient kingdom of Buyeo also had mounted warriors.[38] With contacts, military intercession, and sailed ventures to Korea, cavalry of Goguryeo were called Gaemamusa (개마무사, 鎧馬武士) and were similar to tanks in the age of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[citation needed] King Gwanggaeto the Great often led expeditions into Baekje, Gaya confederacy, Buyeo and against Japanese invaders with his calvalry. This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Chinese name Buyeo, Puyo, or Fuyu was an ancient kingdom located in todays North Korea and southern Manchuria, from around the 2nd century BC to 494. ... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ... Baekje (October 18 BCE–August 660 BCE), originally Sipje, was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... Chinese name Buyeo, Puyo, or Fuyu was an ancient kingdom located in todays North Korea and southern Manchuria, from around the 2nd century BC to 494. ...


The ancient Japanese of the Kofun period also adopted cavalry and equine culture by the 5th century AD. Japanese history includes alternating periods of long isolation and radical, often revolutionary influences from the outside world. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ... The Kofun period ) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. ...


South Asia

In the Indian subcontinent, cavalry played a major role from the Gupta Dynasty (320-600) period onwards. Native Indian cavalry forces proved decisive in the defeat of nomadic invaders such as the White Huns, and the Mughal occupation met serious opposition from the excellent Maratha cavalry. India has also the oldest evidence for the introduction of toe-stirrups. The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ...


European Middle Ages

See also: Horses in the Middle Ages
Horse-mounted Normans fighting in the Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century.

Although Roman cavalry had no stirrups, their horned saddle allowed the combination of a firm seat with substantial flexibility. But the introduction of the wraparound saddle during the Middle Ages provided greater efficiency in mounted shock combat and the invention of stirrup enabled a broader array of attacks to be delivered from the back of a horse. As a greater weight of man and armor could be supported in the saddle, the probability of being dismounted in combat was significantly reduced. In particular, a charge with the lance couched under the armpit would no longer turn into pole vaulting; this eventually led to an enormous increase in the impact of the charge. Last but not least, the introduction of spurs allowed better control of the mount during the "knightly charge" in full gallop. In western Europe there emerged what is considered the "ultimate" heavy cavalry, the knight. The knights and other similarly equipped mounted men-at-arms charged in close formation, exchanging flexibility for a massive, irresistible first charge. This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... Image File history File links Normans_Bayeux. ... Image File history File links Normans_Bayeux. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Pole vaulting is an athletics event where competitors use a long, flexible pole as an aid to leap over a bar, similar to the high jump, but at much greater heights. ... Spurs, a plural of spur, may also refer to Spurs, the abbreviated name for Tottenham Hotspur, an association football team from North London, England. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ...

A 13th century depiction of a riding horse. Note resemblance to the modern Paso Fino.
A Hussite war wagon: it enabled peasants to defeat knights

The mounted men-at-arms quickly became an important force in Western European tactics, although it is worth noting that Medieval military doctrine actually employed them as part of a combined-arms force along with various kinds of foot troops. Still, Medieval chroniclers tended to pay undue attention to the knights at the expense of the rank and file, and this has led early students of military history to suppose that this heavy cavalry was the only force that mattered on Medieval European battlefields--a view with hardly any grounding in reality. Massed English longbowmen triumphed over French cavalry at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt, while at Gisors (1188), Bannockburn (1314), and Laupen (1339), foot-soldiers proved their invulnerability to cavalry charges as long as they held their formation. However, the rise of infantry as the principal arm had to wait for the Swiss to develop their pike squares into an offensive arm instead of a defensive one; this new aggressive doctrine brought the Swiss to victory over a range of adversaries, and their enemies found that the only reliable way to defeat them was by the use of an even more comprehensive combined arms doctrine as evidenced in the Battle of Marignano. The introduction of missile weapons that were simpler to use, such as the crossbow and the hand cannons, also helped remove the focus somewhat from cavalry elites to masses of cheap infantry equipped with easy-to-learn weapons. These missile weapons were very successfully used in the Hussite Wars, in combination with Wagenburg tactics. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Paso Fino is a beautiful, naturally-gaited horse with a history dating back many centuries to Spain. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... The Battle of Gisors (1198) was fought in Normandy, Gisors, between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9,000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Illustration of the Battle of Laupen (by Diebold Schilling the Elder, 1480s). ... The Pike Square (German: , meaning crowd of force) was a military tactic developed by the Swiss Confederacy during the 15th century for use by its infantry. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... Combatants France, Republic of Venice Duchy of Milan Commanders Francis I, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, Bartolomeo dAlviano, Louis de la Trémoille Maximilian Sforza, Cardinal Matthaeus Schiner Strength 30,000 Unknown The Battle of Marignano, in the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) that is called the War of... This article is about the weapon. ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... The Hussite Wagenburg For the trailer park Wagenburg, see trailer park. ...


This gradual rise in the dominance of infantry led to the adoption of dismounted tactics. From the earliest times knights and mounted men-at-arms had frequently dismounted to handle enemies they could not overcome on horseback, such as in the Battle of the Dyle (891) and the Battle of Bremule (1119), but after 1350s this trend became more marked with the dismounted men-at-arms fighting as super-heavy infantry with two-handed swords and poleaxes. In any case, warfare in the Middle Ages tended to be dominated by raids and sieges rather than pitched battles, and mounted men-at-arms rarely had any choice other than dismounting when faced with the prospect of assaulting a fortified position. The Battle of Bremule was fought in 1119 between Henry I of England against Louis VI (the Fat) of France. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bardiche or long poleaxe is a type of polearm that was used during times of war in medieval Europe. ...


Renaissance Europe

Knighted cavalry and noblemen, painting by Jan van Eyck (ca. 1390-1441).

Ironically, the rise of infantry in the early 16th century coincided with the "golden age" of heavy cavalry; a French or Spanish army at the beginning of the century could have up to 50 percent of its numbers filled with various kinds of light and heavy cavalry, whereas in medieval and 17th century armies the proportion of cavalry seldom rose beyond twenty-five percent. Knighthood largely lost its military functions and became more closely tied to social and economic prestige in an increasingly capitalistic Western society. With the rise of drilled and trained infantry, the mounted men-at-arms, now sometimes called gendarmes and often part of the standing army themselves, adopted the same role as in the Hellenistic age - that of delivering a decisive blow once the battle was already engaged by either charging the enemy in the flank or attacking their commander-in-chief. Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (pronounced: vān ike)(c. ... A gendarme was a cavalryman of noble birth, primarily serving in the French army from the Late Medieval to the Early Modern periods of European History. ...

Polish Lithuanian hussar

From the 1550s onwards, the use of gunpowder weapons solidified infantry's dominance of the battlefield and began to allow true mass armies to develop. This is closely related to the increase in the size of armies throughout the early modern period; heavily armored cavalrymen were expensive to raise and maintain and it took years to replace a skilled horseman or a trained horse, while arquebusiers and later musketeers could be trained and kept in the field at a much lower expense in addition to being much easier to replace. The Spanish tercio and later formations relegated cavalry to a supporting role. The pistol was specifically developed to try and bring cavalry back into the conflict, together with manoeuvres such as the caracole. The caracole was not particularly successful, however, and the charge (whether with sword, pistol, or lance) was remained as the primary mode of employment for many types of European cavalry, although by this time it was delivered in much deeper formations and with greater discipline than before. The demi-lancers and the heavily armored sword-and-pistol reiters were among the types of cavalry that experienced their heyday in the 16th and 17th centuries. These centuries also witnessed the high-water mark of the Polish winged hussars, a force of heavy cavalry that achieved great success against Swedes, Russians, and Turks alike. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ... Tercio was a term used by the Spanish army to describe a mixed infantry formation of about 3,000 pikemen and musketeers, sometimes referred to by other nations as a Spanish Square. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... The caracole or caracol (from the Spanish caracol - spiral) consists of a manoeuvre on horseback in dressage and, previously, in military tactics. ... Demi-lancer is a term used in 16th century military parlance to designate mounted men on unarmored horses, armed with light lances and wearing three-quarter or half-armors (or even only helmets and cuirasses) as opposed to the heavier lances and full plate armor of earlier knights and gendarmes. ... Reiters (German: Reiter, or horserider) were a type of cavalry, which appeared in the armies of Western Europe in the 16th century, in place of the outmoded lance-armed knights, along with the cuirassiers and dragoons. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Eighteenth Century Europe and Napoleonic Warfare

Gardes Du Corps of the Kingdom of Hannover (Germany) in 1838.

Cavalry retained an important role in this age of regularization and standardization across European armies. First and foremost they remained the primary choice for confronting enemy cavalry. Attacking an unbroken infantry force head-on usually resulted in failure, but the extended linear formations were vulnerable to flank or rear attacks. Cavalry was important at Blenheim (1704), Rossbach (1757), and Friedland (1807), remaining a significant factor throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Massed infantry was deadly to cavalry but also offered an excellent target for artillery. Once the bombardment had disordered the infantry formation, cavalry were able to rout and pursue the scattered footmen. It was not until individual firearms gained accuracy and improved rates of fire that cavalry was diminished in this role as well. Even then light cavalry remained an indispensable tool for scouting, screening the army's movements, and harassing the enemy's supply lines until military aircraft supplanted them in this role in the early stages of World War I. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1641 × 2041 pixel, file size: 690 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph made by myself from a 1838 painting The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1641 × 2041 pixel, file size: 690 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph made by myself from a 1838 painting The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A rout is a disorderly withdrawal made by a military force following defeat , a collapse of discipline, or poor morale. ...


19th century

By the 19th century, European cavalry fell into four main categories:

The Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava by William Simpson (1855).

There were cavalry variations for individual nations as well: France had the chasseurs à cheval; Germany had the Jäger zu Pferd; Bavaria had the Chevaulegers; and Russia had Cossacks. Britain had no cuirassiers (other than the Household Cavalry), but had Dragoon Guards regiments which were classed as heavy cavalry. In the United States Army, the cavalry were almost always dragoons. The Imperial Japanese Army had its cavalry dressed as hussars, but fought as dragoons. French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... For other uses, see Dragoon (disambiguation). ... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of PoznaÅ„ in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of PoznaÅ„ from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ... Polish uhlans from Duchy of Warsaw army Uhlans (in Polish: UÅ‚an also spelled Ulan, German, from Turkish oÄŸlan [1]) were originally Polish light cavalry soldiers armed with lances, sabres, pistols, rifles; later they also served in the Prussian and Austrian armies. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Image File history File links Simpson_charge. ... Image File history File links Simpson_charge. ... The Charge of the Light Brigade was an ill-advised cavalry charge, led by Lord Cardigan, which occurred during the Battle of Balaclava on October 25, 1854 during the Crimean War. ... Belligerents United Kingdom French Empire Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Lord Raglan, François Certain Canrobert Pavel Liprandi Strength Approx. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... Dismounted Blues and Royals (left) and Life Guards (right) preparing to line the route of the Garter procession at Windsor Castle Household Cavalry is used across the Commonwealth to describe the cavalry of the Household Divisions, a country’s most elite or historically senior military groupings or those military groupings... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ...

In the early American Civil War the regular United States Army mounted rifle and dragoon regiments were reorganized and renamed cavalry regiments, of which there were six. Over a hundred other federal and state cavalry regiments were organized, but the infantry played a much larger role in many battles due to its larger numbers and much easier recruitment. However cavalry saw a role as part of screening forces and in foraging and scouting. The later phases of the war saw the Federal army developing a truly effective cavalry force fighting as scouts, raiders, and, with repeating rifles, as mounted infantry. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x825, 114 KB) Summary Union Cavalry capture Confederate guns at Culpepper Image Source URL: http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x825, 114 KB) Summary Union Cavalry capture Confederate guns at Culpepper Image Source URL: http://memory. ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry in the American Civil War was a branch of army service in a process of transition. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Culpeper, Colepeper, or Culpepper are varying forms of the last name of several people: John Culpeper (1366–1414), knight in the court of Henry V Thomas Culpeper (d. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Mounted infantry were soldiers who rode horses instead of marching, but actually fought on foot with muskets or rifles. ...


Post Civil War, as the volunteer armies disbanded, the regular army cavalry regiments increased in number from six to ten, among them the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment of Little Big Horn fame, and the African-American U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment and U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment. These regiments, which rarely took the field as complete organizations, served throughout the Indian Wars through the close of the frontier in the 1890s. 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army that took place on June 25, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The 9th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army, 1st Cavalry Division, which in turn is a component of the Third Corps. ... The 10th Cavalry Regiment was a unit in the United States Army. ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ...


19th-century Imperial Expansion

Cavalry found new success in Imperial operations (irregular warfare), where modern weapons were lacking and the slow moving infantry-artillery train or fixed fortifications were often ineffective against native insurgents (unless the natives offered a fight on an equal footing, as at Tel-el-Kebir, Omdurman, etc). Cavalry "flying columns" proved effective, or at least cost-effective, in many campaigns—although an astute native commander (like Samori in western Africa, Shamil in the Caucasus, or any of the better Boer commanders) could turn the tables and use the greater mobility of their cavalry to offset their relative lack of firepower compared to European forces. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Egypt Mahdist Sudan Commanders Horatio Kitchener Abdullah al-Taashi Strength 8,200 British, 17,600 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers 52,000 warriors Casualties 48 dead 434 wounded 9,700 killed 13,000 wounded 5,000 captured At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded... A Flying column, in military organization pre-dating World War I, is an independent corps of troops usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. ... Samori Ture (also Samory Touré or Samori ibn Lafiya Ture, c. ... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was a Daghestani Avar political and religious leader of the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...


The British Indian Army maintained about forty regiments of cavalry, officered by British and manned by Indian sowars (cavalrymen). The legendary exploits of this branch lives on in literature and early films. Among the more famous regiments in the lineages of modern Indian and Pakistani Armies are: A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ...

The charge of the 21st Lancers at Omdurman
  • Governor General's Bodyguard (now President's Bodyguard)
  • Skinner's Horse (now India's 1st Horse (Skinner's))
  • Gardner's Lancers (now India's 2nd Lancers (Gardner's))
  • Hodson's Horse (now India's 3rd Horse (Hodson's)) of the Bengal Lancers fame
  • 6th Bengal Cavalry (later amalgamated with 7th Hariana Lancers to form 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry) now 18th Cavalry of the Indian Army
  • Probyn's Horse (now Pakistani)
  • Royal Deccan Horse (now India's The Deccan Horse)
  • Poona Horse (now India's The Poona Horse)
  • Queen's Own Guides Cavalry (now partitioned between Pakistan and India).

Several of these formations are still active, though they now are armoured formations, for example Guides Cavalry in Pakistan. [2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Egypt Mahdist Sudan Commanders Horatio Kitchener Abdullah al-Taashi Strength 8,200 British, 17,600 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers 52,000 warriors Casualties 48 dead 434 wounded 9,700 killed 13,000 wounded 5,000 captured At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded... The Presidents Bodyguard is a regiment of the Indian Army. ... The regiment began as Bengal irregular cavalry raised in Meerut and Cawnpore by Captain Liptrott. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... The Poona Horse is a Indian army Regiment. ...


The French Army maintained substantial cavalry forces in Algeria and Morocco from 1830 until the Second World War. Much of the Mediterranean coastal terrain was suitable for mounted action and there was a long established culture of horsemanship amongst the Arab and Berber inhabitants. The French forces included Spahis, Chasseurs d' Afrique, Foreign Legion cavalry and mounted Goumiers. Holzschnitt nach Melchior Lorch, 1646. ... The Chasseurs dAfrique (literally Hunters of Africa although African Light Horse would be an alternative translation) were a light cavalry corps in the French Armée dAfrique (Army of Africa). ... Foreign Legion is a title which has been used by a small number of units of foreign volunteers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Goum. ...


Cavalry's demise

Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome.

At the beginning of the 20th century all armies still maintained substantial cavalry forces although there was contention over whether their role should revert to that of mounted infantry (the historic dragoon function). Following their experience of the South African War of 1899 - 1902 (where mounted Boer citizen commandos fighting on foot from cover proved superior to regular cavalry) the British Army withdrew lances for all but ceremonial purposes and placed a new emphasis on training for dismounted action. In 1908 the lancer regiments resumed this impressive but obsolete weapon. Between 1881 and 1910 the Imperial Russian Army converted all its line hussar, lancer and cuirassier regiments to dragoons with an emphasis on mounted infantry training. In 1910 they reverted to their historic roles, designations and uniforms.


In August 1914 all combatant armies still retained substantial numbers of cavalry and the mobile nature of the opening battles on both Eastern and Western Fronts provided a number of instances of traditional cavalry actions, though on a smaller and more scattered scale than those of previous wars. The Imperial German Cavalry, while as colourful and traditional as any in peacetime appearance, had adopted a practice of falling back on infantry support when any substantial opposition was encountered. These cautious tactics aroused derision amongst their more conservative French and Russian opponents but proved appropriate to the new nature of warfare. Once the front lines stabilised, a combination of barbed wire, machine guns and rapid fire rifles proved deadly to horse mounted troops. For the remainder of the War on the Western Front cavalry had virtually no role to play. The British and French armies dismounted many of their cavalry regiments and used them in infantry and other roles: the Life Guards for example as a machine gun corps; and the Australian Light Horse as light infantry during the Gallipoli campaign. The German Army dismounted nearly all their cavalry in the West. Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift...

Austro-Hungarian cavalry, 1898.

Some cavalry were retained as mounted troops behind the lines in anticipation of a breakthrough of the trenches that it seemed would never come. Unfortunately these cavalry forces looked upon the new tanks that began to appear late in the war with derision, thus they did not support tank attacks aggressively. This had unfortunate consequences as the tanks were able to achieve breakthroughs but did not have the reliable range to exploit them. Since the cavalry was not on hand to exploit the breakthroughs, history recorded no significant role for cavalry in mechanized warfare, and post war planning in the allied nations replaced horse cavalry with mechanized cavalry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...


In the wider spaces of the Eastern Front a more fluid form of warfare continued and there was some use for mounted troops, and some wide-ranging actions were fought, again mostly in the early months and years of the war.[39] However, even here the value of cavalry was over-rated and the maintenance of large mounted formations at the front by the Russian Army put a major strain on the railway system, to little strategic advantage.[40].


In the Middle East mounted forces (British, Indian, Turkish, Australian, Arab and New Zealand) retained an important role, though of the mounted infantry variety.


Post World War I

In retrospect it was clear that by 1918 the advent of modern vehicles with effective mobility and armor such as tanks and armored cars had spelled the end of horse troops as the key mobile element of an army. This change was made even more necessary by the development of the machine gun and other weapons which could easily destroy cavalry formations. Military aircraft had taken over the light cavalry roles of scouting, screening, and harassment at roughly the same time. As a result horses became relegated to logistical roles, with few exceptions (see tachanka), and cavalry traditions and insignia were often inherited by the emerging armored formations and air forces. The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy and information. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A combination of military conservatism in almost all armies and post-war financial constraints prevented the lessons of 1914-18 being acted on immediately. There was a general reduction in the number of cavalry regiments in the British, French, Italian and other Western armies but it was still argued with conviction (for example in the 1922 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannia) that mounted troops had a major role to play in future warfare. The 1920s saw an interim period during which cavalry remained as a proud and conspicuous element of all major armies, though much less so than prior to 1914. The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with the æ ligature) is a general encyclopedia published by the privately held Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


The last major cavalry battle was the Battle of Komarów in 1920. Colonial warfare in Morocco, Syria, the Middle East and the North West Frontier of India provided some opportunities for mounted action against enemies lacking advanced weaponry. Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Afghans) and various other groups. ...


Interestingly the post-war German Army (Reichsheer) was permitted a large proportion of cavalry (18 regiments or 16.4% of total manpower) under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles. The US Cavalry abandoned its sabres in 1934 and commenced the conversion of its horsed regiments to mechanised cavalry, starting with the First Regiment of Cavalry in January 1933. The German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given the combined armed forces of the German Empire, also known as the Imperial Army (Reichsheer) or Imperial German Army. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France...


In the British Army, all cavalry regiments were mechanised between 1929 and 1941, redefining their role from horse to armoured vehicles to form the Royal Armoured Corps together with the Royal Tank Regiment. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Armoured Corps (RAC) is currently a collection of ten regular regiments, mostly converted from old horse cavalry regiments, and four Yeomanry regiments of the Territorial Army. ... The Royal Tank Regiment is an armoured regiment of the British Army. ...


The thirty-nine regiments of the Indian Army were reduced to twenty-one as the result of a series of amalgamations immediately following World War I. The new establishment remained unchanged until 1936 when three regiments were redesignated as permanent training units, each with six, still mounted, regiments linked to them. In 1938 the process of mechanism began with the conversion of a full cavalry brigade (two Indian regiments and one British) to armoured car and tank units. By the end of 1940 all of the Indian cavalry had been mechanised, receiving light tanks, armoured cars or 15cwt trucks. The last horsed regiment of the Indian Army (other than the Viceregal Bodyguard and some Indian States Forces regiments) was the 19th King George's Own Lancers which had its last mounted parade at Rawalpindi on 28 October 1939. This unit still exists (though in the Pakistan Army) with an armour TOE. This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...


During the 1930s the French Army experimented with integrating mounted and mechanised cavalry units into larger formations. Dragoon regiments were converted to motorised infantry (trucks and motor cycles), and cuirassiers to armoured units; while light cavalry (Chasseurs a' Cheval, Hussars and Spahis)remained as mounted sabre squadrons. The theory was that mixed forces comprising these diverse units could utilise the strengths of each according to circumstances. In practice mounted troops proved unable to keep up with fast moving mechanised units over any distance.


World War II

While most armies still maintained cavalry units at the outbreak of World War II in 1939, significant mounted action was largely restricted to the Polish and Soviet campaigns.


A popular myth is that Polish cavalry armed with lances charged German tanks during the September 1939 campaign. This arose from misreporting of a single clash on 1 September near Krojanty, when two squadrons of the Polish 18th Lancers armed with sabres scattered German infantry before being caught in the open by German armoured cars[41]. See also Polish cavalry. A more correct term should be "mounted infantry" instead of "cavalry", as horses were primarily used as a means of transportation, for which they were very suitable in view of the very poor road conditions in pre-war Poland. Another myth describes Polish cavalry as being armed with both sabres and lances; lances were used for peacetime ceremonial purposes only and the primary weapon of the Polish cavalryman in 1939 was a rifle. Individual equipment did include a sabre, probably because of well-established tradition, but in the case of a melee combat this secondary weapon would probably be more effective than a rifle and bayonet. Moreover, the Polish cavalry brigade order of battle of 1939 included, apart from the mounted soldiers themselves, light and heavy machine guns (wheeled), anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon, artillery, light and scout tanks, etc. Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznań in uniforms of 15th Poznań Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... The following is a standard order of battle of the Polish cavalry brigade in 1939. ...

Polish cavalry galloping through a bombed town during the Polish Defensive War of 1939.


By the final stages of the war only the Soviet Union was still fielding mounted units in substantial numbers, some in combined mechanised and horse units. The advantage of this approach was that in exploitation mounted infantry could easily keep pace with advancing tanks. This approach was also taken because of the high quality of Russian Cossacks as horse cavalry. For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Romanian, Hungarian and Italian cavalry had been dispersed or disbanded following the retreat of the Axis forces from Russia. Germany still maintained some mounted (mixed with bicycles) SS and Cossack units until the last days of the War. 18th Indian Cavalry Regiment (later 18 Cavalry of Indian Army), fought in a dismounted role, in Tobruk as part of 9th Australian Division. The US 26th Cavalry Regiment (PS); a small mounted regiment of Philippine Scouts, fought the Japanese during the retreat down the Bataan peninsula, until it was effectively destroyed by January 1942. All British cavalry had been mechanised since 1942 and the last horsed US Cavalry (the Second Cavalry Division) were dismounted in March 1944. A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... My God, I wish we had [the] 9th Australian Division with us this morning. ... The 26th Cavalry Regiment (Philippine Scouts) (26th CAV (PS)) was part of USAFFEs Philippine Department, during World War II. Following the 1941 Japanese invasion, the 26th participated in the Allied withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula. ... This page is about the military unit. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 2d Cavalry Division. ...


The final cavalry charge by British Empire forces occurred on 21 March 1942 when a 60 strong patrol of the Burma Frontier Force encountered Japanese infantry near Toungoo airfield in central Burma. The Sikh sowars of the Frontier Force cavalry, led by Captain Arthur Sandeman, charged in the old style with sabres and most were killed. Taungoo (Toungoo) is a city in the Bago Division of Myanmar, located 220 km from Yangon, towards the northern end of the division, with mountain ranges to both east and west. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... We dont have an article called Sowar Start this article Search for Sowar in. ...



The last substantive and successful classical cavalry charge of the war was probably that made by a cavalry unit of the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia (Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Russia, or CSIR) on the Eastern Front. A charge by the 3rd Dragoons Savoia Cavalry Regiment of the Prince Amedeo Duke of Aosta Fast (Celere) Division was not only made, but it was successfully made. [42] Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


Post World War II to present day

Polish 66 Airforce Squadron of 25th Aeromobile Cavalry Brigade.

The Soviet Army retained horsed cavalry divisions until 1955, and even at the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there was a separate horsed cavalry squadron in Kyrgyzstan.[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2575x1371, 631 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 Voytek S Photo taken during Airshow Radom 2005, Poland Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: PZL W-3 Sokół Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2575x1371, 631 KB) Summary Copyright © 2005 Voytek S Photo taken during Airshow Radom 2005, Poland Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: PZL W-3 Sokół Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Several armored divisions of the modern United States Army retain the designation of "cavalry". The United States also had "air cavalry" units equipped with helicopters, though that designation has fell out of use, with the term Air Assault coined for that mission and modern "cavalry" being retained for ground-based mobility. For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S.) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


While most modern "cavalry" units have some historic connection with formerly mounted troops this is not always the case. The modern Irish Defence Force (IDF) includes a "Cavalry Corps" equipped with Panhard armoured cars and Scorpion tracked combat reconnaissance vehicles. The Irish Defense Force has never included horse cavalry since its establishment in 1922 (other than a small mounted escort drawn from the Artillery Corps when required for ceremonial occasions). However, the mystique of the cavalry is such that the name has been introduced for what was always a mechanised force. A Panhard-Levassor was the first automobile to be introduced in Japan, in 1898 Panhard & Levassor X18 1912 Panhard & Levassor 1914 Panhard & Levassor X31 1921 A 1920s Panhard Dyna Panhard X 86 4-Door Sedan 1952 Panhard repair manual cover showing PL 17 A VBL of the French Army Panhard... The FV101 Scorpion is a British light tank, part of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) or, CVR(T) family. ...

United States Army Special Forces on horseback with the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan, which frequently used horses as military transport.

Some engagements in late twentieth and early twenty first century guerrilla wars involved mounted troops, particularly against partisan or guerrilla fighters in areas with poor transport infrastructure. Such units were not used as cavalry but rather as mounted infantry. Examples occurred in Afghanistan, Portuguese Africa and Rhodesia. The French Army used existing mounted squadrons of Spahis to a limited extent for patrol work during the Algerian War (1954-62) and the Swiss Army maintained a mounted dragoon regiment for combat purposes until 1973. There were reports of Chinese mounted troops in action during frontier clashes with Vietnam in the mid 1970s. The Portuguese Army used horse mounted cavalry with some success in the wars of independence in Angola and Mozambique in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1964 - 79 Rhodesian Bush War the Rhodesian Army created an elite mounted infantry unit called Grey's Scouts to fight unconventional actions against the rebel forces of Robert Mugabe and Joseph Nkomo. The horse mounted infantry of the Scouts were very effective and feared by their their opponents in the rebel African forces. In the 1978 to present Afghan Civil War there have been several instances of horse mounted combat. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (987x758, 118 KB) Summary U.S. special forces troops ride horseback as they work with members of the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom on Nov. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (987x758, 118 KB) Summary U.S. special forces troops ride horseback as they work with members of the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom on Nov. ... Blue Light redirects here. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Holzschnitt nach Melchior Lorch, 1646. ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... The Rhodesian Army was part of the armed forces of Rhodesia. ... The Greys Scouts were a band of horse mounted men who worked for the armed forces in Rhodesia, a country now known as Zimbabwe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


South and Central American armies maintained mounted cavalry later than those of Europe, Asia or North America. The Mexican Army included a number of horse mounted cavalry regiments as late as the mid 1990s and the Chilean Army had five such regiments in 1983 as mounted mountain troops (see Jane's "Armed Forces of Latin America" by Adrian J. English).


A number of armored regiments in the British Army retain the historic designations of Hussars, Dragoons, Dragoon Guards or Lancers. Only the Household Cavalry squadrons maintained for ceremonial duties in London are mounted.


Cavalry or mounted gendarmerie units continue to be maintained for purely or primarily ceremonial purposes by the United States, British, French, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, Chilean, Portuguese, Moroccan, Nigerian, Venezuelan, Brazilian, Peruvian, Paraguayan, Polish, Argentine, Senegalese, Jordanian, Pakistani, Indian, Nepalese, Spanish and Bulgarian armed forces. The Army of the Russian Federation has recently reintroduced a ceremonial mounted squadron wearing historic uniforms.

the Horse Cavalry Detachment of the U.S. Army's 1st Cavalry Division recreates a cavalry charge from the late 19th century.

In the United States, the Horse Cavalry Detachment of the U.S. Army's 1st Cavalry Division is made up of active duty soldiers, still functions as an active unit, trained to approximate the weapons, tools, equipment and techniques used by the United States Cavalry in the 1880s.[44] [45] In addition, the Parsons' Mounted Cavalry is a Reserve Officer Training Corps unit which forms part of the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M University. Image File history File linksMetadata Charge3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charge3. ... The 1st Cavalry Division (First Team) is a rapidly deployable heavy armored division of the United States Army with base of operations in Fort Hood, Texas. ... Battle of WoÅ‚odarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ... The 1st Cavalry Division (First Team) is a rapidly deployable heavy armored division of the United States Army with base of operations in Fort Hood, Texas. ... Szkoła Rycerska Szkoła Rycerska Full name: Akademia Szlachecka Korpusu Kadetów (English :Knight School) was the first state school in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth established in 1765 in Warsaw, by King Stanislaw August Poniatowski. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ...


The French Army still has regiments with the historic designations of Cuirassiers, Hussars, Chasseurs, Dragoons and Spahis. Only the cavalry of the Republican Guard and a ceremonial fanfare (trumpeters) for the cavalry/armoured branch as a whole are now mounted. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... Cuirass (French cuirasse, Latin coriaceus, made of leather, from corium, the original breastplate being of leather), the plate armour, whether formed of a single piece of metal or other rigid material or composed of two or more pieces, which covers the front of the wearers person. ... Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... A Chasseur (a French term for hunter) is a soldier, especially one of certain French light infantry or cavalry troops, trained for rapid action. ... A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... Spahis (also spelled as Sipahis, Sepahis or Spakh, in Turkish sipahi) were an elite mounted force within the Six Divisions of Cavalry of the Ottoman Empire. ... Two republican guards in ceremony uniform in front of a side entrance of the Élysée Palace The French Republican Guard (French: Garde républicaine) is the ceremonial unit of the Gendarmerie Nationale of France. ...


In the Canadian Army, a number of regular and reserve units have cavalry roots, including The Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal), the Governor General's Horse Guards, Lord Strathcona's Horse, the Royal Canadian Dragoons, and the South Alberta Light Horse. Of these, only the Governor General's Horse Guards maintains an official ceremonial horse mounted cavalry squadron.[46] Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal) (RCH) is a reserve armoured regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces. ... The Governor Generals Horse Guards is an armoured militia (i. ... Cap badge of Lord Strathconas Horse (Royal Canadians) Lord Strathconas Horse (Royal Canadians) is a armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces. ... The Royal Canadian Dragoons (RCD) is an armoured dragoon regiment of the Canadian Army. ... The South Alberta Light Horse (SALH) is one of the oldest and most colourful of the western Canadian army reserve units, tracing its earliest beginnings to the period of the Riel Rebellion of 1885. ...


Both the Australian and New Zealand Armies follow the British practice of maintaining traditional titles (Light Horse or Mounted Rifles) for modern mechanised units. However, neither country retains a horse mounted unit. Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift...


Today, the Indian Army's 61st Cavalry is reported to be the only remaining non-ceremonial horse-mounted cavalry in the world.[47]. It was raised in 1951 from the amalgamated state cavalry squadrons of Gwailior, Jodhpur, and Mysore. The 61st Cavalry together with the President's Body Guard parade in full dress uniform in New Delhi each year in what is probably the largest assembly of traditional cavalry still to be seen in the world. Both the Indian and Pakistan Armies maintain a number of armoured regiments with the titles of Lancers or Horse, dating back to the nineteenth century. This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of Poznań in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of Poznań from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


As of 2007 the Chinese People's Liberation Army employs two battalions of horse cavalry in Xinjing Military District for border patrol work (see China-Defense.com website). Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...


Light and armoured cavalry

See also: Heavy cavalry and light cavalry
Alexander the Great using armoured cavalry, fighting Persian King Darius III

Historically, cavalry was divided into light and armoured cavalry and Horse archers. The differences were mainly the size of the mount, and how much armor was worn by the mount and rider, and the active role they played in war. Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Image File history File links BattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1. ... Image File history File links BattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... Look up Mount in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rider can refer to: Look up rider in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early light cavalry (like the auxiliaries of the Roman army) were typically used to scout and skirmish and to cut down retreating infantry and for defeating enemy missile troops. Armoured cavalry like the Byzantine Cataphract were used as shock troops — they would charge the main body of the enemy and in many cases, their actions decided the outcome of the battle, hance the later term "battle cavalry".[48] Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... See also the town of Battle, East Sussex, England Generally, a battle is an instance of combat between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ...


During the Gunpowder Age, armored cavalry began to approach obsolescence. However, many units retained cuirasses and helmets for their protective value against sword and bayonet strikes and the morale boost these provide to the wearers. By this time the main difference between light and battle cavalry was their training; the former was regarded as a tool for harassment and reconnaissance, while the latter was considered best for close-order charges. Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... This article is devoted to the type of armour known as a cuirass. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ...


Since the development of armored warfare the distinction between light and heavy armor has persisted basically along the same lines. Armored cars and light tanks have adopted the reconnaissance role while medium and heavy tanks are regarded as the decisive shock troops. Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Stormtrooper. ...


Social status

From the beginning of civilization to the 20th century, ownership of heavy cavalry horses has been a mark of wealth amongst settled peoples. A cavalry horse involves considerable expense in breeding, training, feeding, and equipment, and has very little productive use except as a mode of transport.


For this reason, and because of their often decisive military role, the cavalry has typically been associated with high social status. This was most clearly seen in the feudal system, where a lord was expected to enter combat armored and on horseback and bring with him an entourage of peasants on foot. If landlords and peasants came into conflict, the peasants would be ill-equipped to defeat armored knights. Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


In later national armies, service as an officer in the cavalry was generally a badge of high social status. For instance prior to 1914 most officers of British cavalry regiments came from a socially privileged background and the considerable expenses associated with their role generally required private means, even after it became possible for officers of the line infantry regiments to live on their pay. Options open to poorer cavalry officers in the various European armies included service with less fashionable (though often highly professional) frontier or colonial units. These included the British Indian cavalry, the Russian Cossacks or the French Chasseurs d' Afrique. This article needs cleanup. ... The Chasseurs dAfrique (literally Hunters of Africa although African Light Horse would be an alternative translation) were a light cavalry corps in the French Armée dAfrique (Army of Africa). ...


During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries most monarchies maintained a mounted cavalry element in their royal or imperial guards. These ranged from small units providing ceremonial escorts and palace guards through to large formations intended for active service. The mounted escort of the Spanish Royal Household provided an example of the former and the twelve cavalry regiments of the Prussian Imperial Guard an example of the latter. In either case the officers of such units were likely to be drawn from the aristocracies of their respective societies.


On film

Some small sense of the noise and power of a cavalry charge can be gained from the 1970 film Waterloo, which featured some 2000 cavalrymen,[citation needed] some of them cossacks, in action. It includes beautiful displays of the horsemanship required to manage animal and weapon in a large company at the gallop (unlike the real battle of Waterloo, where deep mud significantly slowed the horses)[49]. A smaller filmic cavalry charge can be seen in The Lord of the Rings (2003); although the finished scene has substantial computer-generated imagery, raw footage and reactions of the riders are shown in the Extended Version DVD Appendices. Waterloo was a Soviet-Italian film of 1970, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and produced by Dino De Laurentiis. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Computer-generated imagery[1] (also known as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics or, more specifically, 3D computer graphics to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ...


Some cavalry forces

A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1712, 521 KB) A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1712, 521 KB) A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London, England. ... A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) are a cavalry regiment of the British Army, part of the Household Cavalry. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... Dragoner-Regiment Nr. ... A Trooper of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) are a cavalry regiment of the British Army, part of the Household Cavalry. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... The Chasseurs dAfrique (Hunters of Africa) were a light cavalry corps in the French Armée dAfrique (Army of Africa). ... The Companions (Greek Εταίροι) were Alexander the Greats elite cavalry, the main offensive arm of his army, and also his elite guard. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ... For other uses, see Dragoon (disambiguation). ... Hakkapeliitta (also known as Hackapelit, Hackapelite, Haccapelit or Haccapelite), was the name given in Germany to the Finnish horsemen of King Gustav II Adolph of Sweden during the Thirty Years War. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Two republican guards in ceremony uniform in front of a side entrance of the Élysée Palace The French Republican Guard (French: Garde républicaine) is the ceremonial unit of the Gendarmerie Nationale of France. ... The Governor Generals Horse Guards is an armoured militia (i. ... Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of PoznaÅ„ in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of PoznaÅ„ from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ... The Life Guards is the senior regiment of the British Army. ... Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of PoznaÅ„ in uniforms of 15th PoznaÅ„ Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish: ) can trace its origins back to the days of Medieval mounted knights. ... Savari was the designation given to the regular Libyan cavalry regiments of the Italian colonial army in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... The South Alberta Light Horse (SALH) is one of the oldest and most colourful of the western Canadian army reserve units, tracing its earliest beginnings to the period of the Riel Rebellion of 1885. ... Spahis (also spelled as Sipahis, Sepahis or Spakh, in Turkish sipahi) were an elite mounted force within the Six Divisions of Cavalry of the Ottoman Empire. ... Polish uhlans from Duchy of Warsaw army Uhlans (in Polish: UÅ‚an also spelled Ulan, German, from Turkish oÄŸlan [1]) were originally Polish light cavalry soldiers armed with lances, sabres, pistols, rifles; later they also served in the Prussian and Austrian armies. ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ...

Some contemporary horse cavalry officers

Didier Courrège in his Cadre Noir uniform. ... Officer Cadet Wales on parade when New Colours were presented to Sandhurst, 21 June 2005. ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ...

See also

For much of history humans have used some form of cavalry for war. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Tent pegging (sometimes spelled tentpegging or tent-pegging) is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Equestrian Federation. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Cheval de frise at the Confederate defenses at the Siege of Petersburg The cheval de frise (plural: chevaux de frise) was a Mediaeval defensive obstacle consisting of a portable frame (sometimes just a simple log) covered with many long iron or wooden spikes or even actual spears. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rohan. ... This is a list of British Army cavalry and infantry regiments that were created by Childers reforms in 1881, a continuation of the Cardwell reforms. ... This is a list of British Army regiments after the Army restructuring caused by the 1957 Defence White Paper: many regiments were amalgamated between 1958-60. ... This is a list of British Army regiments in the aftermath of the defence cuts of the Options for Change defence white paper in 1991. ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... For things named to honor Kazimierz Pułaski, see: Pulaski (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Spur is a Cavalry tradition in the United States Army. ... For the poem about the charge, see The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem). ... Camel cavalry is, most generally, armed forces using camels as a means of transportation. ... The London lobsters or just Lobsters were the name given to the cavalry unit of Sir Arthur Haselrig, a Parliamentarian who fought in the English Civil War. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ p.4, Rodger
  2. ^ p.1, Menon
  3. ^ p.239, Muir
  4. ^ p.182-183, Pargiter
  5. ^ Harivamsa 14.1-19; Vayu Purana 88.127-43; Brahma Purana (8.35-51); Brahamanda Purana (3.63.123-141); Shiva Purana (7.61.23); Vishnu Purana (5.3.15-21), Padama Purana (6.21.16-33) etc.
  6. ^ Journal of American Oriental society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society; The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient India: As ... , 1972, p 201, Edward Washburn Hopkins - Caste; Mahabharata 10.18.13; cf: Ancient Indian Civilization , 1985, p 120, Grigoriĭ Maksimovich Bongard-Levin - History; Cf also: A History of Zoroastrianism, 1991, p 129, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet.
  7. ^ p.182, Pargiter
  8. ^ MBH 1.185.13; Felicitation Volume Presented to Professor Sripad Krishna Belvalkar, 1957, p 260, Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Shripad Krishna Belvalkar .
  9. ^ Ashva.yuddha.kushalah: Mahabharata 7.7.14; See also: Vishnudharmotra Purana, Part II, Chapter 118; Post Gupta Polity (AD 500-700): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha; Wisdom in the Puranas 1969, p 64, prof Sen Sarma etc.
  10. ^ Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 238, Dr B. C. Law - Kshatriyas; The Battle of Kurukshetra, 1987, p 389, Maggi Lidchi-Grassi - Kurukshetra (India).
  11. ^ Herodotus, Book VII 65, 70, 86, 187.
  12. ^ History of Persian Empire, p 232, Dr A. M. Olmstead; Arrian's Anabasis III, 8.3-6; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 216, Dr Raychaudhury.
  13. ^ Ashva.yuddha.kushalah: Mahabharata 7.7.14 Kumbhakonam Edition; See also: Vishnudharmotra Purana, Part II, Chapter 118; Post Gupta Polity (AD 500-700): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha; Wisdom in the Puranas 1969, p 64, prof Sen Sarma; etc.; Kashmir Polity, C. 600-1200 A.D. 1986, p 237, V. N. Drabu - Political Science .
  14. ^ Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hundu Times , 1943, p 145, Dr K. P. Jayaswal.
  15. ^ i.e: Kambojo assa.nam ayata.nam. See: Samangalavilasini, Vol I, p 124; See also: Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p 110, E. Lamotte; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 238, Dr B. C. - Kshatriyas; Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 351, Dr Buddha Prakash - India.
  16. ^ Age of the Nandas and Mauryas, 1967, p 49, Dr K. A. Nilakanta Sastri.
  17. ^ "Par ailleurs le Kamboja est régulièrement mentionné comme la "patrie des chevaux" (Asvanam ayatanam), et cette reputation bien etablie valnut peut-etre aux eleveurs de chevaux du Bajaur et du Swat l'appellation d'Aspasioi (du v.-p. aspa) et d’assakenoi (du skt asva “cheval”)" (See: Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p 110, E. Lamotte; See also: Hindu Polity, A Contitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, (Also Commentary, op. cit., p 576, fn 22), Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee;; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History; East and West, 1950, pp 28, 157-58, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Editor, Prof Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Prof Mario Bussagli, Prof Lionello Lanciotti; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; History of Panjab, Vol I, (Editors): Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Josh, Publication Bureau, Panjabi University, Patiala; History of Poros, 1967, p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash; Ancient Kamboja, People and country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192; Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S Kirpal Singh etc.
  18. ^ Ashtadhyayi 4.3.91; India as Known to Panini, 1953, pp 424, 436-39, 455-457, Dr V. S. Aggarwala.
  19. ^ See: History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash; Raja Poros, 1990, p 9, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala.
  20. ^
    Sanskrit:
    asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parasika-Bahlika parbhutibhih
    Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara
    balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama
    (Mudra-Rakshasa 2).
  21. ^ Kālidāsa, 1960, p 141, Raghunath Damodar Karmarkar .
  22. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, Dec, 1939, p 511 Dr H. C. Ray.
  23. ^ History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, pp 182-83, Dr R. C. Majumdar.
  24. ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 625.
  25. ^ Dynastic History of Magadha, 1977, p 208.
  26. ^ Epigraphia Indiaca, XVIII, p 304ff.
  27. ^ This needs a re-write -- the chronology is all over the place.
  28. ^ Ebrey, 29-30.
  29. ^ a b Ebrey, 30.
  30. ^ Ebrey, 29.
  31. ^ Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 41.
  32. ^ Peers, 130.
  33. ^ Dien, Albert. "THE STIRRUP AND ITS EFFECT ON CHINESE MILITARY HISTORY"
  34. ^ "The stirrup - history of Chinese science." UNESCO Courier, October, 1988
  35. ^ "The invention and influences of stirrup"
  36. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 322.
  37. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 305.
  38. ^ Ebrey, 120.
  39. ^ First World War - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003
  40. ^ Stone, Norman (1975). "The Eastern Front 1914-17". Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-14492-1. 
  41. ^ Zaloga, S. J.. "The Polish Army 1939-45". ISBN 0-85045-417-4. 
  42. ^ Nicholas Farrell (Oct 1998). Sabres for savoy. The Spectator. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
  43. ^ Carey Schofield, Inside the Soviet Army, Headline, 1991, p.133-134
  44. ^ First Team! Horse Cavalry Detachment
  45. ^ Hubbell, Gary. "21st Century Horse Soldiers." Western Horseman, December 2006, pp. 45-50
  46. ^ The Honours, Flags, and Heritage Structure of the Canadian Forces
  47. ^ India Polo Magazine
  48. ^ p.490, Lynn
  49. ^ Waterloo Film review by Major J G H Corrigan. Accessed 2008-02-07.

Cover of the Nov 12, 2005 issue of The Spectator magazine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

Find sources: Cavalrynews, books, scholar

  • Ebrey, Walthall, Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43519-6 (hardback); ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Peers, C.J. (2006). Soldiers of the Dragon: Chinese Armies 1500 BC-AD 1840. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  • Menon, Shanti, Chariot racers of the Steppes, Discover, April, 1995 [3]
  • Rodger, N. A. M., The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660-1649, W W Norton & Co Ltd., 1999 ISBN 039304579X
  • Muir, William, Annals of the Early Caliphate: From Original Sources, Smith, Elder & co., London, 1883
  • Pargiter, Frederick Eden, Dr., Chronology based on: Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1924, Reprint 1997
  • Lynn, John Albert, Giant of the Grand Siècle: The French Army, 1610-1715, Cambridge University Press, 1997

Further reading

External links


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