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Encyclopedia > Cavalier

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Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier
Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier

Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War (16421651). (In response, the Royalists called the Parliamentarians Roundheads.) Typically, the term "Cavalier" referred to the high-born supporters of King Charles, who were fond of fashionable, extravagant clothing. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered an archetypical cavalier. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Look up cavalier in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Anthonis Van Dyck Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria (German: Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog von Bayern), commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 December 1619 – 19 November 1682), soldier, inventor and amateur artist in mezzotint, was a younger...

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Early usage

The usage of the term originates from the French word "chevalier", meaning knight, and was originally derived from "caballarius", meaning horseman in Vulgar Latin. Chevalier is the regular French word for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ...


Cavalier in English was applied early in a contemptuous sense to an overbearing swashbuckler or swaggering gallant. In Shakespeare (2 Henry IV. v. iii. 62) Shallow says "I'll drink to Master Bardolph, and to all the cavaleros about London" (this spelling rather suggests the Spanish version of the word, "Caballero").


English civil war

Sir Anthony van Dyck ca.1638, Lord John Stuart and his brother Lord Bernard. Both died fighting for the King
Sir Anthony van Dyck ca.1638, Lord John Stuart and his brother Lord Bernard. Both died fighting for the King

"Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the English Civil War. Here again it first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied by the opponents of the king. Charles in the Answer to the Petition June 13, 1642 speaks of cavaliers as a "word by what mistake soever it seemes much in disfavour." It was soon adopted (as a title of honour) by the king's party, who in return applied Roundhead to their opponents, and at the Restoration the court party preserved the name, which survived till the rise of the term Tory. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 364 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 659 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Both brothers were killed in their early twenties in the English Civil War: Lord John Stewart or Stuart (1621–1644) and Lord Bernard... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 364 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (400 × 659 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Both brothers were killed in their early twenties in the English Civil War: Lord John Stewart or Stuart (1621–1644) and Lord Bernard... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ...


Cavalier style of dress included long flowing hair in ringlets, a liking for elaborate embellished clothes, and plumed hats. This was in complete contrast to the "Roundhead" supporters of Parliament, with their preference for short hair and plain dress, although neither side conformed to the stereotypical images entirely. In fact the best patrons in the nobility of the archetypal recorder of the Cavalier image, Charles I's court painter Sir Anthony van Dyck, all took the Parliamentary side in the Civil War. These derogatory terms (for at the time they were so intended) also showed what the typical Parliamentarian thought of the Royalist side — capricious men who cared more for vanity than the nation at large. A man with long hair. ... A cavalier hat is a wide-brimmed hat trimmed with an ostrich plume. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ...


The chaplain to King Charles I, Edward Simmons described a cavalier as "a Child of Honour, a Gentleman well borne and bred, that loves his king for conscience sake, of a clearer countenance, and bolder look than other men, because of a more loyal Heart.” There were many men in the Royalist armies who fit this description since most of the Royalist field officers were typically in their early thirties, married with rural estates which had to be managed. Although they did not share the same outlook on how to worship God as the English Independents of the New Model Army, God was often central to their lives. This type of Cavalier was personified by Lord Jacob Astley whose prayer at the start of the Battle of Edgehill has become famous "O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me". At the end of the First Civil War Astley gave his word that he would not take up arms again against Parliament and having given his word he felt duty bound to refuse to help the Royalist cause in the Second Civil War. In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading (1579–1652), was a royalist commander in the English Civil War. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wars of Religion. ... The Second Civil War may refer to: Congo Civil War may refer to Second Congo War (1998–2002) Second English Civil War (1642–1646) Second Liberian Civil War started in 1999 Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005) A movie (1997), a political satire starring Beau Bridges and directed by Joe...

Cromwell's soldiers breaking into the house of a Cavalier
Cromwell's soldiers breaking into the house of a Cavalier

However, the word was coined by the Roundheads as a pejorative propaganda image of a licentious, hard drinking and frivolous man, who rarely, if ever, thought of God. It is this image which has survived and many Royalists, for example Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, fitted this description to a tee. Of another cavalier, Lord Goring a general in the Royalist army, the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, said that he "would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite; and in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt of wickedness as any man in the age he lived in or before. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece; in which he so much excelled, that men were not ordinarily ashamed, or out of countenance, with being deceived but twice by him." Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1126 × 741 pixel, file size: 872 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cromwells soldiers breaking into the house of a Royalist, by J.Williamson for the book More Pictures of British History by E.L.Hoskyn, A... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1126 × 741 pixel, file size: 872 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cromwells soldiers breaking into the house of a Royalist, by J.Williamson for the book More Pictures of British History by E.L.Hoskyn, A... Lieutenant-General Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester (26 October 1612 – 19 February 1658) was an English Cavalier who fought for the Royalist cause during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... George Goring, Lord Goring (14 July 1608 - 1657) was an English Royalist soldier. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ...


Cavaliers in the arts

Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles. The famous triple portrait of Charles I by Anthony van Dyck.
Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles. The famous triple portrait of Charles I by Anthony van Dyck.
See also 1600-1650 in fashion and Cavalier poets

An example of the Cavalier style can be seen in the painting "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles" by Anthony van Dyck. Anthony van Dyck, Charles Is court painter, created the famous Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, commonly known as the Triple Portrait. ... Anthony van Dyck, Charles Is court painter, created the famous Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, commonly known as the Triple Portrait. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Franz Hals Laughing Cavalier (in the Wallace Collection) wears a slashed doublet, wide lace collar and cuffs, and a broadbrimmed hat, 1624 Fashion in the period 1600-1650 in Western European clothing is characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favor of broad lace or linen collars. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. based on the article CAVALIER
  • The Diary of Samuel Pepys: Annotations: Cavaliers

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Barratt, John; Cavaliers The Royalist Army at War 1642–1646, Pub Sutton, 2000, ISBN 0-7509-3525-1
  • Marryat, Frederick; The Children of the New Forest; (Novel)
  • Stoyle, Mark; Choosing Sides in the English Civil War BBC website
  • John Cruso Military Instructions for the Cavallrie: or Rules and directions for the service of horse first published 1632[1]

Captain Frederick Marryat (July 10, 1792 – August 9, 1848) was an English novelist, a contemporary and acquaintance of Charles Dickens, noted today as an early pioneer of the sea story. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Military science in western Europe in the sixteenth century page 45

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