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Encyclopedia > Caucasus Campaign
Caucasus Front
Part of Middle Eastern theatre (World War I)

The limit of the Russian advance into Anatolia
Date October 24, 1914 - October 30, 1918
Location Eastern Anatolia
Result Treaty of Brest-Litovsk,Treaty of Batum
Territorial
changes
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Combatants
Ottoman Empire Russian Empire
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Central Caspian Dictatorship
Democratic Republic of Georgia
Commanders
Enver Pasha
Vehip Pasha
Kerim Pasha
Mustafa Kemal
Kazım Karabekir
Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein
Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov
Nikolai Yudenich
Andranik Ozanian
Drastamat Kanayan
Garegin Njdeh
Movses Silikyan
Lionel Dunsterville
Strength
3rd Army

2nd Army
• Army of Islam
Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Russian-Caucas-Front-1916. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(1990-2004). ... Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ä°smail Enver (Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Kaçı Vehip Pasha (1877 - 1940), Ottoman general that was assigned to II. Army, instead of Mahmud Kamil Pasha on February 1916. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Musa Kazım Karabekir (1882, Ä°stanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) Kazim Karabekir Pasha was a Turkish general and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (April 24, 1870 - October 16, 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who assisted in the direction of the Ottoman Army during World War I. Kress von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Vorontsov, also Woronzow, (Russian: Воронцо́в) is a celebrated Russian family, which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... General Drastamat Kanayan (Armenian: , known as General Dro, Ô´Ö€Õ¸, May 31, 1884 – March 8, 1956), was an Armenian politician, revolutionary, general and commander of the Armenian Legion of the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Garegin Njdeh Garegin Njdeh (Armenian: , real name Garegin Ter-Harutiunian, 1 January 1886 - late 1955) was an Armenian statesman, military, and political thinker, native of Nakhichevan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Movses Silikyan Movses Silikyan (Armenian: , Russian: , Movses Silikov) (1862 - 1937) was a famed Armenian general and national hero, Major General in the Russian army and subsequently in the Armenian army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... ... The Ottoman Third Army protected the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Second Army protected the south eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... Army of Islam was a Field Army of the Ottoman Empire established between March 1918 - August 1918, the creation of a this military force was ordered by the Enver Pasha, War Minister. ...

Russian Caucasus Army

Detachment Armenian volunteer units
Dunsterforce
Armenian conscripts of Central Caspian Dictatorship
Armenian conscripts of Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Russian Caucasus Army of the World War One was the army established from Russian Cossacks (three sotnias from Kars (non-Cossack district)) under the nominal command of the Governor General of the Caucusus Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov. ... A detachment is a military unit. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (1865-1946) lead the so-called Dunsterforce across present-day Iran in an attempt to prevent an invasion of India by a combined Germano-Turkish force. ... Armenian irregular units (Armenian militia, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Chetes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, are Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily (thus, the naming kamavor (Õ¯Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö€), meaning volunteer) leave their families to fight for Armenians. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... Armenian irregular units (Armenian militia, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Chetes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, are Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily (thus, the naming kamavor (Õ¯Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö€), meaning volunteer) leave their families to fight for Armenians. ... Capital Not specified Political structure Unrecognized state Historical era World War I  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1918  - Armistice of Mudros General Andranik on the point of capturing Karabagh The Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Republic of Karabakh-Zanghezur) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with...

The Caucasus Front (Russian: Кавказский фронт) or Caucasus Campaign is a term to describe the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire during WWI. In Russian historical literature, it is typically considered a separate theater of the Great War, whereas Western sources tend to view it as one of the campaigns of the Middle Eastern theatre. Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Hasan Izzet Pasha General Bergmann Strength 3rd Army I Caucasian Army Corps Casualties 40% The Bergmann Offensive (Russian: ) was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 60,000 Third Army 90,000 (plus aprox. ... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Kerim Pasha The Battle of Manzikert (Russian: ) or Malazgirt was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire The Battle of Kara Killisse was a battle on the Caucasus front, in July, 1915 after the Battle of Manzikert. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Kerim Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army 290,000 infantry 35,000 cavalry 150 trucks 20 planes Third Army 78,000 Casualties 10,000 killed 4,000 sick  ? killed 12,000 prisoners The Erzerum Campaign, also known as the Battle of Erzerum was... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Vehip Pasha Yudenich Strength Third Army Russian Caucasus Army The Trebizond Campaign, also known as the Battle of Trebizond was a series of brilliant Russian naval and land operations that resulted in the capture of Trebizond. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Tovmas Nazarbekian, Andranik Toros Ozanian Ali Çetinkaya, Mustafa Kemal Strength Russian Caucasus Army Third Army Battle of Bitlis was a battle between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. The first conflict was in July 1915... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Vehip Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Third Army Casualties  ? 17,000 killed 17,000 captured The Battle of Erzincan (Russian: ) was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian National Council Commanders Drastamat Kanayan The Battle of Bash Abaran (Armenian: ) was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Bash Abaran, in 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian National Council Commanders General Nazarbekov The Battle of Karakilisa (Armenian: ) was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Vanadzor, in 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Austria-Hungary Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Armando Diaz Luigi Cadorna Lord Cavan Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Otto von Below The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies, in northern Italy... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 260,309 The Battle of Gallipoli was a very bad and costly war, yet... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by the spreading Turkish aggression in the second half of the 17th century. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to stop the continuing aggression of the Tsarist Russia. ... Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (Крымские походы in Russian), military campaigns of the Russian army against the Crimean Khanate. ... Azov campaigns of 1695-1696 (Азовские походы in Russian), two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000... The Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... Russo–Turkish War of 1735–1739, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by intensified contradictions over the results of the War of the Polish Succession of 1733–1735 and endless raids by the Crimean Tatars. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian Empire. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the previous Russo–Turkish War, 1768–1774. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806–1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW...


The front extended from Caucasus to Eastern Anatolia and Iran, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mus and Van in the west and Tabriz in the east. The land warfare was accompanied by the attacks of the Russian navy in the Black Sea Region of Ottoman Empire. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Eastern Anatolia Region Eastern Anatolia Region (Turkish: DoÄŸu Anadolu Bölgesi) encompasses the eastern provinces of Turkey, and it is one of the 7 non-administrative sub-divisions used for census purposes. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ... Mus can refer to: a genus, to which the mouse belongs a city in Turkey, capital of Mus Province Mus, a commune of the Gard département in France Mus, a spanish card game Also see: MUS This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province Provinces of Turkey... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


Russian advance on the Caucasus front was halted in 1917 by the Russian Revolution, and the Russian forces at the front line were replaced by the forces of the newly-established Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA), comprising of the Armenian volunteer units and the Armenian irregular units. Along with Germany, the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Russia, formally recognizing the Ottoman control of Ardahan, Kars, and Batum. The subsequent brief war between the Ottoman Empire and the DRA resulted in the latter's defeat and the signing of the Treaty of Batum. However, the effects of this arrangement were voided few months later, when the Ottoman Empire accepted its own defeat in World War I by signing the Armistice of Mudros. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Armenian irregular units (Armenian militia, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Chetes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, are Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily (thus, the naming kamavor (Õ¯Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö€), meaning volunteer) leave their families to fight for Armenians. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Ardahan ( Ardı han in old Turkish, Ô±Ö€Õ¤Õ¡Õ°Õ¡Õ¶ in Armenian) is the capital of Ardahan Province in north-eastern Turkey. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port...

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Participants

Ottoman Empire

The main objective of the Ottoman Empire was the recovery of its territories in Eastern Anatolia lost during the prior Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. Ottomans had two armies in the regions, 3rd Army and 2nd Army. The total Ottoman military force was very large (estimates range from 100,000 to 190,000 men) but poorly equipped especially for the winter conditions. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... The Ottoman Third Army protected the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Second Army protected the south eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Russian Empire

The Russian objective was voiced in March 1915, when the Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov impressed upon the British ambassador George Buchanan and French Ambassador Maurice Paléologue that a lasting postwar settlement demanded a full Russian possession of the city of Constantinople, the straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, southern Thrace up to the Enos-Midia line as well as parts of the Black Sea coast of Anatolia between the Bosphorus, the Sakarya River and an undetermined point near the Bay of Izmit. Russian Tsarist regime planned to replace the Muslim population of Northern Anatolia and Istanbul with more reliable Cossack settlers [1] These documents were also made public in the Russian newspaper Izvestia by February 1917, in order to gain the support of Armenian public for the Russian revolution [2]. Sergei Dmitrievich Sazonov (1860 – 1927) was Russian foreign minister (1910 – 1916). ... Sir George William Buchanan, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, PC was born in Copenhagen in 1854. ... Maurice Paléologue (January 13, 1859—November 18, 1944) was a French diplomat, historian, and essayist. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province Provinces of Turkey... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... Ä°zmit (also known as Kocaeli; previously known as Ismid or Isnikmid) is a city in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia...


The Russian army was initially strong with some 100,000 men under the nominal command of the Governor General of the Caucasus Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov. The real commander was his chief of staff, General Nikolai Yudenich, one of Russia's most successful WWI generals. Due to the defeats at the Battle of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes, the Russians redeployed almost half their forces to the Prussian front, leaving behind just 60,000 troops to face the Ottoman army. Vorontsov, also Woronzow, is a celebrated Russian family, which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852. ... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants German Empire Russian Empire Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Paul von Rennenkampf Strength German Eighth Army Russian First Army Casualties Less Than 40,000 125,000 The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It...


Armenia

The attempts to attract Armenians to the process of Russian colonization in the region were already tried before [3]. In fact, after the Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in 1820s, Count Paskevich, who headed the Russian campaign, "had generously distributed land to some 124,000 Armenians who had immigrated from Persia and Turkey" [4]. In 1890s, during the events known as Hamidian massacres, another wave of Armenians arrived from Ottoman Empire and settled in Transcaucasia [4]. Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


In 1917 the regular Russian regiments were deserting the frontline. In this situation, December 1917, the army corps (Armenian volunteer units) realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner. The frontline had three main divisions: Movses Silikyan, Adrianic and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisian guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[5]) accompanying these main units. The line from Van to Erzincan was organized through these units. It was mentioned that Adrianic had 150,000[5] men with a 300 mile frontline (a high mountain area, with specific passes). In 1918, the Dashnaks of Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) with the dissolution of Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian became the first Commander-in-chief of DRA. With the Tovmas Nazarbekian becoming the Commander-in-chief of the whole Armenian state, Andranik Toros Ozanian took command of war zone within Ottoman Empire. Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... General Drastamat Kanayan (Armenian: , known as General Dro, Դրո, May 31, 1884 – March 8, 1956), was an Armenian politician, revolutionary, general and commander of the Armenian Legion of the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany. ... Movses Silikyan Movses Silikyan (Armenian: , Russian: , Movses Silikov) (1862 - 1937) was a famed Armenian general and national hero, Major General in the Russian army and subsequently in the Armenian army. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Զորավար Անդրանիկ) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Erzincan (also Erzingan or Erzinjan, Երզնկա (Erznka) in Armenian) is the capital of Erzincan Province in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Զորավար Անդրանիկ) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... For the political party under Armenia; see Armenian national movement (party) Armenian national movement, Armenian national liberation movement or before establishment of First Armenian Republic commonly known as Armenian revolutionary movement was the Armenian effort to re-establish an Armenian state in the historic Armenian homelands of eastern Asia Minor. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians was established at October 1917. ... Armenian National Council is a general term that might refer to Armenian National Council of Karabagh, Armenian National Council of Baku or Armenian National Council of Tiflis which all of them are united under Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians. ... Flag Russian Transcaucasia immediately prior to the formation of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. ... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Զորավար Անդրանիկ) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ...


British Empire

Lionel Dunsterville was appointed at 1917 to lead an Allied force of under 1,000 Australian, British, Canadian and New Zealand elite troops, accompanied by armoured cars. This unit worked with 3,000 Russian revolutionary troops to prevent Enver Pasha's goal to establish independent Trans-Caucasia and also support Centro Caspian Dictatorship. General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (1865-1946) lead the so-called Dunsterforce across present-day Iran in an attempt to prevent an invasion of India by a combined Germano-Turkish force. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya flag Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya ( Central Caspian Dictatorship ) was a British-controlled anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on August 1, 1918. ...


1914 - Warfare

The Ottoman generalship and organization were negligible when compared to the Allies [6]. However, a Caucasus front would have a distracting effect on Russia. By diverting Russian forces from the Polish and Galician fronts German advances there could bring final victory, even if the Ottomans lost. Germany supplied the missing resources and the Ottoman 3rd Army was used as a manpower source to achieve the distraction[6]. In 1914, war minister Enver Pasha wanted to encircle the Russian armies between Sarikamis and Ardahan. Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sarıkamış (Armenian: Սարիղամիշ Sarighamish) is a town and a district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Ardahan ( Ardı han in old Turkish, Արդահան in Armenian) is the capital of Ardahan Province in north-eastern Turkey. ...


Battle of Sarikamis, December

Russian trenches in the forests of Sarikamish
Russian trenches in the forests of Sarikamish

The Russians crossed the Russo-Turkish frontier first and captured Bayazid and Köprüköy[6]. At the same time Enver's 3rd Army received the order to advance towards Kars. In the face of the 3rd Army's advance Governor Vorontsov planned to pull the Russian Caucasus Army back to Kars. Yudenich ignored Vorontsov's wishes to withdraw. He stayed to defend Sarikamis. 3rd Army was in Ardahan on January 1. The German military mission disagree on launching an attack on this territory at thus time [6], since the German Army could give better support during spring and summer. Enver assumed the personal command of the 3rd Army and ordered it into battle against the Russian troops. The Battle of Sarikamis (December 29, 1914 - January 4, 1915) was a stunning defeat for the Ottoman 3rd Army. Only 10% of the 3rd army managed to retreat back to its starting position. Enver gave up command of the 3rd army. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (1353 × 966 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (1353 × 966 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Bastami Complex in Bastam, Semnan Province of Iran, contains the shrine of Mohammad ibn Jafar Sadiq, the tomb of Bayazid, his monastery, the Iwan of Öljeitü, the tomb of Mahmud Ghazan, the Congregation Mosque, the tower of Kashaneh, and the Shahrukhiya seminary, bath, and Zurkhaneh, dating from before the... Köprüköy is a district of Erzurum Province of Turkey. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Third Army protected the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Russian Caucasus Army of the World War One was the army established from Russian Cossacks (three sotnias from Kars (non-Cossack district)) under the nominal command of the Governor General of the Caucusus Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Sarıkamış (Armenian: Սարիղամիշ Sarighamish) is a town and a district of Kars Province in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Ottoman Third Army protected the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Advance to Tabriz, December

A small Ottoman force from Van advanced into Persia. This force, meeting little opposition, briefly occupied Tabriz. Both the Russians and the British sent forces into northern Persia to expel the Ottoman units. Ottoman forces at Tabriz withdrew back along this frontier after the Sarikamis defeat. Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


1915 - Back and forth

In February, General Yudenich was praised for the victory and promoted to command over all Russian troops in the Caucasus. The Allies asked Russia to relieve the pressure on Western front. Russia asked the Allies to relieve in the Caucasus by a naval attack. (See also War in the Black Sea.) Operations on Dardanelles (Battle of Gallipoli) in the direction of the Ottoman capital helped the Russian forces in this front during 1915[6]. British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 260,309 The Battle of Gallipoli was a very bad and costly war, yet...


Van Resistance, April

Armenian troops holding a defense line against Turkish forces in the walled city of Van in May 1915

On April 20, the armed conflict of the Van Resistance began as an Armenian women who wanted to enter the city, and two Armenian men that came to help which were later shot dead by Ottoman Army. The Armenian defenders protecting 30,000 residents and 15,000 refugees in an area of roughly one square kilometer of the Armenian Quarter and suburb of Aigestan with 1,500 able bodied riflemen who were supplied with 300 rifles and 1,000 pistols and antique weapons. The conflicted lasted until the General Yudenich came to rescue them. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 464 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 783 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 464 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 783 pixel, file size: 1. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ...


General Yudenich began an offensive into Turkish territory, heading towards Lake Van in Ottoman Armenia to relieve the beleaguered Armenian residents of the Van Resistance a brigade of Trans-Baikal Cossacks under General Trukhin and some Armenian volunteers towards Van. [7] Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... Ottoman Armenia or Turkish Armenia was the Armenian part of the Ottoman Empire. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom...


On the 16th there was a bombardment of 46 shells to signal the retreat of Turkish units. The following day, Armenians had control of the entire town. Soon after, the advance guard of the Russian army, consisting of Armenian volunteers, arrived[8]. Russian regular soldiers followed. General Yudenich arrived he received the keys to the city and citadel and confirmed the Armenian provisional government in office, with Aram Manougian as governor. The Fedayee turned over the city of Van to the Russians in May of 1915. General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Aram Manougian Aram Manougian, (born:1879) or less known as Sarkis Hovanessian. He is also known as Aram of Van. He is an Armenian patriot and revolutionary who is credited as a political, military and spiritual leader of Armenian people. ... Armenian irregular units (Armenian militia, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Chetes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, are Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily (thus, the naming kamavor (կամավոր), meaning volunteer) leave their families to fight for Armenians. ...


With Van secure, fighting shifted farther west for the rest of the summer.[7] For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ...


Tehcir Law, May

Further information: Armenian Genocide

During the Russian offensive into Armenia, Talat Pasha, he was the interior minister of the Ottoman Empire, ordered a forced deportation of all Armenians out of the region, and to the south under the Tehcir Law to the Syria and Mosul. Talat Pasha claimed that the Armenians in this region would organize under the leadership of Russians and rebel against his government. Armenian Genocide photo. ... Mehmed Talat Pasha was one of leaders of the Young Turks , Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Ottoman government from 1913 to 1918. ... The Tehcir Law The Tehcir Law was a law of the Ottoman Empire setting the rules and conditions of the tehcir (forced relocations)[1][2]. The law was passed by the parliament on May 27, 1915 and came into force on June 1, 1915, with publication in Takvim-i Vekayi...


The Armenian's of the Van Resistance and others which were under the Russian occupation were spared from these deportations.


Malazgirt-Kara Kilise, July

The Russians captured Malazgirt, a few days later. At the time, General Yudenich, Commander the Russians, believed the Ottoman forces in the area were weak, just three of four divisions. In reality, Pasha Abdul Kerim, the Ottoman commander, had eight divisions with a steady supply of reinforcements. The Russian General in command at the front, Oganovski, was slow to exploit the Russian success. Oganovski did not leave Van until July.


In July the Russians, under Oganovski, launched an offence into the hills west of Malazgrit. The Russians underestimated the size of the Turkish arm, and were surprised by a large Turkish force at the counterattack. The Russians retreated, leaving Van. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Reassignments, October

Kurdish militia

On September 24, Grand Duke Nicholas, having been removed from the position as Supreme Commander of the Russian army, was put in charge of all Russian forces in the Caucasus. The Grand Duke left the actual conduct of the war in the hands of General Yudenich. This front was quiet from October till the end of the year. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x689, 617 KB) Summary Newspaper Pictorials, http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1157x689, 617 KB) Summary Newspaper Pictorials, http://memory. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main...


1916 - Russian victory

The winter is not normally a time for military activity in this part of the world. The bitter cold and terrible roads contributed greatly to the annihilation of Enver Pasha's 3rd Army in the previous year; but the Russian General Yudenich viewed this as an opportunity to take the Ottomans by surprise. In early January of 1916 his army secretly left its winter quarters and marched towards the major Ottoman fort at Erzurum. The Russians achieved total surprise and destroyed an Ottoman division that was in winter quarters at Battle of Koprukoy (January 16 - January 18). 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Casualties  ?  ? In the Battle of Koprukoy the Russians advance to Erzurum. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Battle of Erzurum, February

Cossack soldiers in Erzurum

While the Russian army and its heavy guns continued to march towards Erzurum, a second Ottoman division was destroyed at the town of Tafta (February 14) by another Russian force that attacked unexpectedly from the north. The Ottoman commander, Kerim Pasha, was either unprepared for a siege or, more likely, lost his nerve because instead of holding the fort, his army retreated on the 15th. The Russians marched into Erzurum unopposed on February 16. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Karim Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Turkish Third Army Casualties ? 25,000 dead or wounded, 9,000 prisoners The Erzurum Campaign was a modest Russian victory over the Turks along the Caucasus Front during World War I. the Erzurum campaign is often known... Insert non-formatted text here{| style=float:right; |- | paul is so hot sophie loves him |- | |} is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General Yudenich's Caucasus army moved in two directions from Erzurum, part went north and captured the ancient port city of Trabzon in April. Other branch moved to Mush-Bitlis direction. Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ...


Battles of Mush-Bitlis, February

Mustafa Kemal at Bitlis
Mustafa Kemal at Bitlis

While Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich was in the north and pushing the Ottoman 3rd Army, the Ottoman 2nd Army was in the south facing the insurgency and the second branch of Russian army under General Tovmas Nazarbekian and the detachment Armenian volunteer units controlled by Andranik Toros Ozanian. These units pushed the 2nd Army deep into Anatolia and captured Mush and Battle of Bitlis, driving the demoralized Ottoman army before it. The Bitlis was the last defense point for the Ottoman Army to prevent the Russians from moving into central Anatolia and Mesopotamia. After the capture, the Ottoman Army asked Mustafa Kemal to organize the defense in the region. When Mustafa Kemal was assigned to his post, the enemy forces were in constant advance. The only bright spot for the Ottomans was General Mustafa Kemal's reconquest of Mush and Bitlis in August of 1916. However the Russians drove Kemal's troops out of these towns at the end of the fall. Fighting around the east side of Lake Van continued throughout the summer but was inconclusive. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The Ottoman Third Army protected the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Second Army protected the south eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. ... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... A detachment is a military unit. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Tovmas Nazarbekian, Andranik Toros Ozanian Ali Çetinkaya, Mustafa Kemal Strength Russian Caucasus Army Third Army Battle of Bitlis was a battle between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. The first conflict was in July 1915... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Battle of Trabzon, April

General Yudenich's Caucasus army captured the ancient port city of Trabzon in April. The Ottoman army, under a new leader, Vehip Pasha, was ordered to re-take Trabzon. A military force was gathered and sent marching along the coast in June of 1916 but the Russians held up its advance - by this point the Russian navy dominated the Black Sea. General Yudenich then countered the Ottoman attack with an offensive of his own towards Erzican (see the Battle of Erzincan). On July 2 Erzican was captured; the Ottoman offensive against Trabzon was halted as they tried to stabilize their front lines. Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Kaçı Vehip Pasha (1877 - 1940), Ottoman general that was assigned to II. Army, instead of Mahmud Kamil Pasha on February 1916. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Vehip Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Third Army Casualties  ? 17,000 killed 17,000 captured The Battle of Erzincan (Russian: ) was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1917 - All is quiet

The Russians made plans for a renewed attack on the Turkish positions in 1917 but the chaos caused by the Russian Revolution put a stop to all Russian military operations. The new government removed the Grand Duke from his command and reassigned General Yudenich to a meaningless position in Central Asia (he then retired from the army). The Turks, under great pressure from the British in Palestine and Mesopotamia, withdrew the majority of their forces and sent them south. During the rest of 1917, the Russian army slowly disintegrated until there was no effective military force. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


1918 - Ottoman victory

In the early months of 1918, the Russian army in the Caucasus was nothing more than a few thousand volunteers and some two hundred officers. A year earlier there had been 500,000 soldiers, now they were gone and Russia's vast southern territories were effectively unguarded.


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March

The Grand vizier Talat Pasha signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 3, 1918 with the Russian SFSR which stipulated that Bolshevik Russia cede Batum, Kars, and Ardahan to Ottoman Empire (all lands Russia had captured from the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)). The treaty also stipulated that Transcaucasia was declared independant. This short-lived Federation broke up into three republics in May 1918: Democratic Republic of Georgia, Democratic Republic of Armenia, and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. On April 5 Akakii Chkhenli, the head of the Transcaucasian delegation, accepted the Treaty as a basis for negotiation and wired the governing bodies urging them to accept this position[9]. The mood prevailing in Tiflis was very different, expressing greater determination. This united the Armeni-Georgian block to acknowledge the existence of a a state of war between themselves and theOttoman Empire[9]. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Mehmed Talat Pasha was one of leaders of the Young Turks , Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Ottoman government from 1913 to 1918. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... A view of Batumi, circa, 1911, towards the mountains Batumi (also Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city (population: approximately 137,000) on the Black Sea coast and capital of Ajaria, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Ardahan ( Ardı han in old Turkish, Ô±Ö€Õ¤Õ¡Õ°Õ¡Õ¶ in Armenian) is the capital of Ardahan Province in north-eastern Turkey. ... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ...


Battle of Sardarapat, May

In April 1918, after a year of inactivity, the Ottoman 3th Army finally went on the offensive. The only resistance they faced came from the semi-organized militia of the Armenian Republic. Fighting few soldiers, the Ottoman army captured Trabzon, Erzurum, Kars, Van, and Batumi. In early May, 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared Democratic Republic of Armenia. The conflict led to the Battle of Sardarapat, the Battle of Kara Killisse (1918), and the Battle of Bash Abaran. Although the Armenians managed to inflict a defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won the later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The First Republic of Armenia existed from 1917 until 1922. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders  ? Drastamat Kanayan Strength Third Army  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Bash Abaran was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Bash Abaran, in 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the...


Treaty of Batum, June

During 1918 General Andranik made it possible for the Armenian population of Van to escape from the Ottoman Army to Eastern Armenia. He and his troops fought between Mountainous Karabagh and Zangezur where the Republic of Mountainous Armenia declared
During 1918 General Andranik made it possible for the Armenian population of Van to escape from the Ottoman Army to Eastern Armenia. He and his troops fought between Mountainous Karabagh and Zangezur where the Republic of Mountainous Armenia declared

In October, a detachment of 5000 soldiers from the Third Army found Andriank at the Shishi< The Republic of Armenia was forced to sign the Treaty of Batum in June, 1918. However throughout the summer of 1918, Armenians in the mountainous Karabag region, under the leadership of Andranik Toros Ozanian, established the Republic of Mountainous Armenia and resisted the Ottoman 3th army[10]. In August, they set up an independent government in Shushi, the administrative center of the region. Ottoman troops responded to General Andraniks defiance and pursued him between Mountainous Karabagh and Zangezur. In October, a detachment of 5000 soldiers from the Third Army found Andriank at the Shishi[10]. The conflict was fierce, but indecisive. The Armenian militia under Adriancik's command decimated an Ottoman unit trying to advance to the Varanda River. The armed conflicts between these units continued until the Armistice of Mudros. After the Armistice, the Ottoman Empire began to withdraw its forces and Armenian forces under Andranik seized Nagro-Karabagh[11]. Armstice of Mudros brought General Adriank the chance to create a base for further expension eastward and form a strategic corridor extending into Nakhichevan[11]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Capital Not specified Political structure Unrecognized state Historical era World War I  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1918  - Armistice of Mudros General Andranik on the point of capturing Karabagh The Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Republic of Karabakh-Zanghezur) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Capital Not specified Political structure Unrecognized state Historical era World War I  - Established 1918  - Disestablished 1918  - Armistice of Mudros General Andranik on the point of capturing Karabagh The Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Republic of Karabakh-Zanghezur) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Fizuli (Füzuli) is a rayon of Azerbaijan (in Karabakh). ...


Battle of Baku, August

Armenian defenders during the Battle of Baku.
Armenian defenders during the Battle of Baku.

Enver Pasha had bigger goals than just reconquest of land lost 40 years ago by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. With the sudden success of his forces (against no real opposition) he revived his dream of Turkish domination over Central Asia and ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. This army, numbering between 14,000 and 25,000 strong, was composed entirely of Muslims, and most spoke Turkish. In July, he ordered the Army of Islam into Centrocaspian Dictatorship, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. Germany regarded all of southern Russia as theirs by right of conquest. The German army had inflicted defeats on the Russians while the Ottomans had been repeatedly defeated. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18...


Worried by the prospect of an invasion by the victorious Ottoman army, the Democratic Republic of Georgia asked for German military support. The Germans, wanting to prevent the Ottoman Empire from taking even more territory, sent a military force to Georgia, almost certainly under the command of General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein. Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (April 24, 1870 - October 16, 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who assisted in the direction of the Ottoman Army during World War I. Kress von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to...


Enver's Army of Islam avoided Georgia and marched to the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. They got as far as Baku on the Caspian Sea. They threw the British out in September of 1918 with the Battle of Baku. In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ...


Armistice of Mudros, October

The Armistice of Mudros was signed on October 30 and the Caucasus Campaign ended. By the end of the war, the Ottoman Empire, although it lost Persian Campaign, Sinai and Palestine Campaign and Mesopotamian Campaign, had re-captured all the territory which they lost to the Russians in Eastern Anatolia. The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia or Anatolian Peninsula is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, (Eastern) Thrace; tr:Trakya. ...


Aftermath

Place of Dunsterforce forces after Armstice

The Ottoman Empire lost the war to the Allies, but the borders in the Caucasus were not settled. Two years after the armistice, a peace treaty was signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on August 10, 1920. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 895 pixel, file size: 776 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 895 pixel, file size: 776 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... General Lionel Charles Dunsterville (1865-1946) lead the so-called Dunsterforce across present-day Iran in an attempt to prevent an invasion of India by a combined Germano-Turkish force. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Territorial disputes of New States, 1918-1919

See also: Georgian-Armenian War 1918, Armenian-Azerbaijani War, and Turkish-Armenian War

The Georgian-Armenian War 1918 soon followed. Armenia and Azerbaijan engaged in the Armenian-Azerbaijani war (1918 - 1920). The Turkish War of Independence by the Turkish national movement headed by Mustafa Kemal which managed to retain much of this territory by Treaty of Alexandropol with Armenia. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia Republic of Mountainous Armenia   Nagorno-Karabakh rebels British Empire   Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Ottoman Empire   Azerbaijan SSR   Russian SFSR Commanders Andranik Ozanian Lionel Dunsterville Samedbey Mehmandarov Strength Dunsterforce Armenian-Azerbaijani war, which started after the Russian Revolution, is a series of brutal and hard to classify... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Nagorno-Karabakh rebels   Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Ottoman Empire   Azerbaijan SSR   Russian SFSR Commanders Andranik Ozanian Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declaration of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, then 1920... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries   Soviet Union[1][2][3] United Kingdom Greece France Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 &#8211; November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Treaty of Alexandropol was a peace treaty between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and TBMM ending the Turkish-Armenian War, before decleration of the Republic of Turkey on December 2, 1920. ...


Sovietization of Caucasus, 1920

The Soviet 11th Red Army enters Yerevan in 1920.
The 11th Red Army occupies Tbilisi. 25 February 1921

In early April 1920 the Republic of Azerbaijan was in severely troubled situation. In the west, the Armenians still occupied large parts of Azeri territory; in the east, the local Azeri communists were rebelling against the government; and to the north the Russian Red Army was steadily moving southward having defeated Denikin's White Russian forces. On April 27, 1920 the government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic received a notice that the Soviet army was about to cross the northern border and invade ADR. Faced with such difficult situation the government officially surrendered to the Soviets, but many generals and local Azeri militias kept resisting the advance of the Soviet forces and it took a while for the Soviets to stabilize the newly proclaimed Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, headed by the leading Azeri Bolshevik Nariman Narimanov. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1768x1302, 2103 KB) From Soviet Armenian Encylopedia; article: Yerevan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1768x1302, 2103 KB) From Soviet Armenian Encylopedia; article: Yerevan. ... The 11th Soviet Red Army was a contingent of the then newly created Russian Red Army improvised by the Bolsheviks. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_in_Tiflis;_Feb_25_1921. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_in_Tiflis;_Feb_25_1921. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ...


On December 4 1920, the Red Army entered Yerevan, the government of Democartic Republic of Armenian effectively surrendered. On December 5, the Armenian Revolutionary Committee (Revkom; made up of mostly Armenians from Azerbaijan) also entered the city. Finally, on the following day, on December 6, Felix Dzerzhinsky's dreaded secret police, Cheka entered Yerevan, thus effectively ending all existence of the Democratic Republic of Armenia. [12] The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was then proclaimed, under the leadership of Aleksandr Miasnikyan. December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (&#1060;&#1077;&#1083;&#1080;&#1082;&#1089; &#1069;&#1076;&#1084;&#1091;&#1085;&#1076;&#1086;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1078;&#1080;&#1085;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081;; September 11, 1877 - July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... language None. ...


The Soviet occupation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia led to significant territorial rearrangements by which Georgia lost almost 1/3 of its territories. Artvin, Ardahan and part of Batumi provinces were ceded to Turkey; Armenia gained control of Lorri, and Azerbaijan obtained Zaqatala district. A portion of the Georgian marches along the Greater Caucasus Mountains was taken by Russia. Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ...


End of Hostilities

The end of hostilities came up with the Treaty of Kars to the Caucasus. Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on...


The Soviet Union signed the Treaty of Kars, which was a treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (which had declared Turkey in 1923) and representatives of Bolshevist Russia, Soviet Armenia, Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet Georgia (all of which formed part of the Soviet Union after the December 1922 Union Treaty) in 1921. [13][14] It was a successor treaty to the earlier Treaty of Moscow of March 1921. It was signed in Kars on October 23, 1921 [13] and ratified in Yerevan on September 11, 1922. [14] The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Azerbaijani: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Baku Official language Azerbaijani, Russian, and Armenian (in the Nagorno-Karabakh AO) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until April 28, 1920 December 30, 1922 August 30, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 9th in the USSR 86,600 km² negligible Population... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty on Creation of the USSR (in Russian) The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR is a document that legalized the creation of a union of several Soviet republics in the form of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Moscow was a friendship treaty between Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) and the Bolshevik government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


References

  • Strachan, Hew (2003). The First World War, pp 109-112. Viking (Published by the Penguin Group) (1914 operations)
  • Falls, Cyril (1960). The Great War pp 158-160. (covers 1915 fighting)
  • Pollard, A. F. (1920). A Short History of the Great War (chapter 10). (covers 1916 fighting)
  • Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace, pp. 351-355. Avon Books. (covers 1918 operations)
  • Harutyunian, The 1918 Turkish aggression in Transcaucasus, Yerevan, 1985. (covers conquest of Armenia, 1918)
  • Russian Campaign in Turkey
World War I Portal

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Footnotes

  1. ^ R. G. Hovannisian. Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967, pg. 59
  2. ^ R. G. Hovannisian. The Republic of Armenia: Volume I: The First Year, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1971
  3. ^ F. Kazemzadeh, Struggle for Transcaucasia: 1917-1921, New York Philosophical Library, 1951, p. 22
  4. ^ a b I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov, Vsepoddaneishaia Zapiska po uravleniu kavkazskim kraem general adiutanta grafa Vorontsova-Dashkova, St. Petersburg, Gosudarstvennaya tipografiia, 1907
  5. ^ a b Boghos Nubar the president of the "Armenian National Assembly" declared to Paris Peace Conference, 1919 through a letter to French Foreign Office - December 3, 1918
  6. ^ a b c d e A.F. Pollard "A Short History Of The Great War" chapter VI the first winter of the war
  7. ^ a b Hinterhoff, Eugene. Persia: The Stepping Stone To India. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I, vol iv, pp.1153-1157. 
  8. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G.,(1967) Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918. University of California Press
  9. ^ a b Richard Hovannisian "The Armenian people from ancient to modern times" Pages 292-293
  10. ^ a b Mark Malkasian, Gha-Ra-Bagh": the emergence of the national democratic movement in Armenia page 22
  11. ^ a b Hafeez Malik "Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects" page 145
  12. ^ Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p. 237. ISBN 0-226-33228-4
  13. ^ a b (Russian) Text of the Treaty of Kars
  14. ^ a b English translation of the Treaty of Kars

Boghos Nubar (1851-1930) son of Nubar Pasha He was a liberal and disenchanted socialists with ten other Armenian national movement leaders drafted the Armenian General Benevolent Union on April 15, 1905. ... Armenian National Assembly was the parliament of the Armenian Millet established by Armenian National Constitution of 1863 under Ottoman Empire. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Military revises death toll of 1914 Caucasus operation - Turkish Daily News Dec 28, 2007 (477 words)
Ottoman losses during the World War I Caucasus campaign in 1914 was not 90,000 but 60,000, as opposed to 30,000 Russian dead, the Office of the Chief of General Staff said in a statement.
The statement, released on the 93rd anniversary of the start of the campaign, revised the often-quoted figure of 90,000 dead, considered one of the worst disasters to befall the Turkish Army.
The Ottoman Empire, allied with Germany, began its Caucasus campaign on Dec. 22, 1914 in the dead of winter, sending close to a 100,000 troops toward the Russian concentration to catch the Russians unprepared.
The Caucasus Campaign: The German-Russian War in the Caucasus, 1942 | BoardGameGeek (359 words)
The Caucasus Campaign: The German-Russian War in the Caucasus, 1942
The ranks of the Soviet army in the Caucasus is filled with Armenians, Georgians, Azerbaijanis, Cossacks and Turkoman who have questionable loyalty.
The Caucasus Campaign is a quick playing, moderately complex game with large hexes and easy-viewing 5/8 counters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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