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Encyclopedia > Caucasian race
Huxley's map of racial categories from On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870). Caucasians, marked in red, are identified as occupants of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, through to Northern India.
Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) divides "Caucasiod types" into: Nordic, Dinaric, Mediterranean, Alpine, East Baltic, Turks, Bedouins, Afghan.
Georgian girl (1881 photograph).
The famed exemplary Georgian skull Blumenbach discovered in 1795 to hypothesize origination of Europeans from the Caucasus.

The Caucasian race, sometimes called the Master race,[1][2] is defined by the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English as "relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, Western Asia, and parts of India and North Africa" or "white-skinned; of European origin" or "relating to the region of the Caucasus in SE Europe".[3] The concept originated in attempts chiefly by 19th c. European thinkers to develop a method of racial classification. This typological method was discredited and the concept is not relied on in scientific work related to humans.[4][5] For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 985 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scanned 300 dpi high-contrast JPEG by User:LA2 in September 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 985 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scanned 300 dpi high-contrast JPEG by User:LA2 in September 2005. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) shows a Tyrolian woman as an example of the Dinaric type. ... Languages French Occitan Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Catalan Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys... Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... In physical anthropology, the East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid (White; Caucasian) race into which it was divided by anthropologists in the early 20th century. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English is a one-volume dictionary published by Oxford University Press. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For the ethnic group, see White people. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


People in Europe, especially in Russia and nearby, generally use the term "Caucasian" exclusively to identify people who are from the Caucasus region or who speak the Caucasian languages. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Origins of the term

The term "Caucasian" originated as one of the racial categories developed in the 19th century by people studying craniology. It was derived from the region of the Caucasus mountains[6]. The 18th century German philosopher Christoph Meiners first named the concept of the Caucasian race[7], but the term was more widely popularized in the 19th c. under the name "Varietas Caucasia" by the German scientist and naturalist, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) who "borrowed the name Caucasian" from Meiners.[8] Blumenbach based the classification of the Caucasian race primarily on skull features, which Blumenbach claimed were optimized by the Caucasian peoples,[9] particularly a single skull from the Caucasia which resembled German skulls.[10] It was from this similarity that he conjectured Europeans having arisen in the Caucasia.[10] Blumenbach wrote about the "primeval"[7] Caucasian race which he believed was "the oldest race of man"[7] and the "first variety of humankind"[7]. This article needs cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was a German philosopher, and early anthropologist. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ...

Caucasian variety - I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, and especially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian; and because all physiological reasons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones (birth place) of mankind[11]

In 1915, French diplomat and man of letters Arthur de Gobineau popularized ideas about race: "I must say, once and for all, that I understand by white men the members of those races which are also called Caucasian[12]... [these] white races... had their first settlement in the Caucasus."[12]


The Caucasus was historically an area of fascination for Europeans. Myths of the Caucasus featured Prometheus and Jason and the Argonauts.[13] Greek mythology considered women from the Caucasus to have magical powers.[7], such as Medea of Jason and the Argonauts fame. In Greek mythology, this area was thought of as a kind of hell since Zeus imprisoned many Titans who opposed him (e.g. Prometheus) there. In this sense, these Titans were banished outside the civilized world to an area inhabited by Colchians. The Greeks considered them barbaric.[14] In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Ancient Greek: , forethought)[1] is a Titan known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals for their use. ... Jason and the Argonauts may refer to: the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts Jason and the Argonauts (film), a 1963 film with animation by Ray Harryhausen Jason and the Argonauts (TV movie), a TV movie made in 2000 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Ancient Greek: , forethought)[1] is a Titan known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals for their use. ... Colchians were the residents of Colchis, the westernmost part of the Republic of Georgia, bordering the Euxinus Pontus (Black Sea). ...


Populations included

18th century anthropologist Christoph Meiners, who first defined the Caucasian race, posited a "binary racial scheme" of two races with the Caucasian whose racial purity was exemplified by the "venerated... ancient Germans", although he considered some Europeans as impure "dirty whites"; and "Mongolians", who consisted of everyone else.[7] Meiners did not include the Jews as Caucasians and ascribed them a "permanently degenerate nature".[15] Anthropologist Johann Blumenbach, Meiners' contemporary, stated, "to this first variety [Caucasians] belong the inhabitants of Europe (except the Lapps and the remaining descendents of the Finns) and those of Eastern Asia, as far as the river Obi, the Caspian Sea, and the Ganges; and lastly, those of North Africa" [7]. French doctor and pharmacist Jean Joseph-Virey[16] also known as "Julien-Joseph Virey"[17] or "Jean-Julien Virey"[18] followed Meiners' racial system. Hannah Franzieka identified 19th c. writers who believed in the "Caucasian hypothesis" and noted that "Jean-Julien Virey and Louis Antoine Desmoulines were well-known supports of the idea that Europeans came from Mount Caucasus."[18] In his political history of racial identity, Bruce Baum wrote,"Jean-Joseph Virey (1774-1847), a follower of Chistoph Meiners, claimed that "the human races... may divided... into those who are fair and white and those who are ugly and dark or black."[19] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... lauren rocks my world The river splits into more than one arm, especially after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. Originating in China, the Irtysh is actually longer than the Ob from their sources to the point of their confluence. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ...


People of South Asia

In 1915, diplomat and man of letters Arthur de Gobineau"[20] wrote, "I must say, once and for all, that I understand by white men the members of those races which are also called Caucasian[12]... [t]he Indian civilization... It arose from a branch of white people, the Aryans."[12] With regard to the original domain of the Aryans, Gobineau stated, "[T]he most ancient Sanskrit peoples were founding their empire, and by means of religion and the sword were covering Northern India."[12] In reflection about ancient India, Gobineau wrote, "The Brahmans (sic) of primitive India...the glorious shades of noble races that have disappeared-- give us a higher and more brilliant idea of humanity... than the peoples, hybrid a hundred times over, of the present day [India]." "[T]he picture I'm presenting which in certain features is that of the Hindus... facts appear to stand out... [t]he second fact is that a picked race of men, a sovereign people, with the usual strong propensities of such a people to cross its blood with another's, finds itself henceforth in close contact with a race whose inferiority is shown, not only by defeat, but also the lack of attributes which may be seen in its conquerers."[12] From the very day that the conquest is accomplished and the fusion begins, there appears a noticeable change in the blood quality of the masters.[12] If there were no other modifying influence at work, then-- at the end of a number of years... we should be confronted with a new race, less powerful certainly than the better of its two ancestors... After a short time, we might truly say that a distinction of castes takes place of the original distinction of races."[12] With regards to 19th c. India, Gobineau wrote, "Those who are most akin to us come nearest to beauty; such are the degenerate Aryan stocks of India and Persia, and the Semitic peoples who are at least infected by contact with the black race. As these races recede from the white type, their features and limbs become incorrect in form; they acquire defects in proportion which, in the races that are completely foreign to us [whites], end up producing an extreme ugliness." [12] Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Early 20th century anthropologist Carleton Coon wrote in the 1930s that within the Caucasoid race there is a "third division [Mediterraneans which]... included... southern India" but remarked this group had "facial features of a Veddoid character which in some instances suggest Australoid affinities."[21] He further elaborated that in India there are "Veddoids... individuals who are to all extents and purposes Australoid." Regarding the exact racial composition of India, Coon admitted, "[T]he racial history of southern Asia has not yet been thoroughly worked out, and it is too early to postulate what these relationships may be...[I] shall leave the problems of Indian physical anthropology in the competent hands of Guha and of Bowles."[21] The Wanniyala-Aetto, or forest beings, perhaps more commonly known as Veddas or Veddahs (transliteration of වැද්දා in Sinhalese, IPA væððɑː) are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. ...


In 1995, geneticist Cavalli-Sforza wrote, "[T]he Caucasoids are mainly fair-skinned peoples, but this group also includes the southern Indians, who live in tropical areas and show signs of a marked darkening in skin pigmentation, although their facial and body traits are Caucasoid rather than African or Australian."[22] In 2007, Richard McCulloch whose "college major was history, with anthropology my second area of study"[23] divided Indian people into the following races. "By 50,000 years ago the population that had remained in southern Iran had evolved into proto-Caucasoids and began to expand -- to the east into Pakistan and northern India".[24] Under the "Australoid Subspecies" McCulloch placed the "Veddoid race (remnant Australoid population in central and southern India)" while under the "Caucasoid or Europid Subspecies", McCulloch placed the "Indic or Nordindid race (Pakistan and northern India)" and the "Dravidic race (India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka [Ceylon]; ancient stabilized Indic-Veddoid [Australoid] blend)"[24] "The Dravidic race of India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, created by the intermixture of the local Caucasoid (Indic or Nordindid) and Australoid (Veddoid) populations... [is a] very ancient racial clines which have stabilized into distinct races of intermediate type."[24] Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Richard McCulloch (born 1949) is an author and advocate for racial preservationism. ...


Physical characteristics

18th century anthropologist Christoph Meiners, who first defined the term, characterized the "Caucasian" as having the characteristics of "lightness", "beauty" and being "handsome" with the "ancient Germans" having the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin" because they were the most racially pure Caucasians.[7] 18th century anthropologist Johann Blumenbach, the second person to define the term, considered Caucasians to be the top of "racial hierarchy" he organized where, "the white color holds the first place, such as it is that most Europeans. The redness of cheeks in this variety is almost peculiar to it: at all events it is but seldom seen in the rest." and described Caucasians as, "Color white, Cheeks rosy; hair brown or chestnut-colored; head subglobular; face oval, straight, its parts moderately defined, forehead smooth, nose narrow, slightly hooked, mouth small. The primary teeth placed perpendicularly to each jaw: the lips (especially the lower one) moderately open, the chin full and rounded."[7]


In 2003, the term "Caucasoid race" is a term used in physical anthropology to refer to people of a certain range of anthropometric measurements [25]. The 2007 Encyclopedia Britannica characterizes the Caucasoid race as having light skin color, biochemical similarities and a variability in hair and eye colors.[26] University of College Cork chair of anatomy and physiology, M. A. MacConaill,[27] describes Caucasoids as being "native to Europe... [and having] light skin and eyes, narrow noses, and thin lips. Their hair is usually straight or wavy".[28] Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ...


Usage

With the turn away from racial theory in the late 20th century, the term "Caucasian" as a racial classification fell into disuse in Europe. Consequently, in the United Kingdom, the term "Caucasian" is more likely than in the United States to describe people from the Caucasus, although it may still be used as a racial classification.[29] Sarah A Tishkoff and Kenneth K Kidd state, "Despite disagreement among anthropologists, this classification remains in use by many researchers, as well as lay people."[30] According to Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, the concept of race has all but been completely rejected by modern mainstream anthropology.[31] In 2003, United States National Library of Medicine stopped using the term Caucasian race in favor of the term "European".[32] In the United States, the term "Caucasian" has been mainly a distinction based on looking white, and being descended from a people who are "symbolic Christians" (excluding the people descended from the Muslim regions of the Middle East).[7] This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ... The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines "Caucasoid" as as noun or adjective meaning "Of, pertaining to, or resembling the Caucasian race."
  2. ^ http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50034773?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=Caucasoid&first=1&max_to_show=10
  3. ^ http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/caucasian?view=uk
  4. ^ O'Neil, Dennis. "Biological Anthropology Terms." 2006. May 13, 2007. Palomar College.[1]
  5. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/gill.html Does Race Exist? A proponent's perspective by George W. Gill.
  6. ^ University of Pennsylvania [2]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Painter, Nell Irvin. Yale University. "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" 2003. September 27, 2007. [3]
  8. ^ University of Pennsylvania [4]
  9. ^ Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, translated by Thomas Bendyshe. 1865. November 2, 2006. [5]
  10. ^ a b Gossett, Thomas F. New Edition Race The History of an Idea in America. New York:Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-509778-5 p. 38
  11. ^ Blumenbach , De generis humani varietate nativa (3rd ed. 1795), trans. Bendyshe (1865). Quoted e.g. in Arthur Keith, Blumenbach's Centenary, Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1940).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gobineau, Arthur (1915). The Inequality of Human Races. Putnam. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  13. ^ Caucasus, Historical Notes [6]
  14. ^ (Ovid, Metamorphoses V 830-845)
  15. ^ Eigen, Sara. The German Invention of Race. Suny Press:New York, 2006. ISBN 0-79146-677-9 p.205
  16. ^ Chapman, Herrik. Race in France. Berghahn Books:2004. ISBN 157181857X
  17. ^ Guerdon, Martial. Arts and Societies. "the physiognomy of jean-baptiste delestre (1800-1871) : ideal beauty and autopsy of the social body." 2004. October 22, 2007. [7]
  18. ^ a b Franzieka, Hannah. Berghahn Books: 2004. ISBN 157181857X James Cowles Prichard's Anthropology: Remaking the Science of Man in Early
  19. ^ Baum, Bruce David. The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. New York University: 2006. ISBN 0814798926
  20. ^ DiPiero, Thomas. White Men Aren't Duke University Press, 2002. ISBN 0822329611
  21. ^ a b Coon, Carleton S. The Races of Europe. Greenwood:USA, 1972 ISBN 0837163285 p.2
  22. ^ The Great Human Diasporas by Cavali-Sforza, 1995, pg 119-120
  23. ^ McCulloch, Richard. "Interview." 1998. October 9, 2007. [8]
  24. ^ a b c McCulloch, Richard. The Racial Compact. "The Races of Humanity." 2007. October 9, 2007. [9]
  25. ^ Reinhard, K.J., & Hastings, D. (Annual 2003) Learning from the ancestors: the value of skeletal study.(study of ancestors of Omaha Tribe of Nebraska). In American Journal of Physical Anthropology, p177(1).
  26. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. "Europe the people." 2007. August 23, 2007.[10]
  27. ^ University of College Cork. Department of Anatomy. 2007. September 5, 2007. [11]
  28. ^ M. A. MacConaill. The Last Two Million Years: Reader's Digest History of Man. Readers Digest. 1981. ISBN 0895770180
  29. ^ Katsiavriades, Kryss. Qureshi, Talaat. English Usage in the UK and USA. 1997. October 26, 2006. [12]; see also Pearsell, Judy and Trumble, Bill (Eds) Oxford English Reference Dictionary. 2002.
  30. ^ http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/full/ng1438.html
  31. ^ Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, "Perishing Paradigm: Race—1931-99," American Anthropologist 105, no. 1 (2003): 110-13
  32. ^ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/nd03/nd03_med_data_changes.html

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Literature

  • Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, On the Natural Varieties of Mankind (1775) — the book that introduced the concept
  • Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man — a history of the pseudoscience of race, skull measurements, and IQ inheritability
  • L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, The History and Geography of Human Genes — a major reference of modern population genetics
  • L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Genes, Peoples, and Languages
  • H. F. Augstein, "From the Land of the Bible to the Caucasus and Beyond," in Waltraud Emst and B. Harris, Race, Science and Medicine, 1700-1960 (London: Routledge, 1999): 58-79.
  • Bruce Baum, The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity (New York: New York University Press, 2006)
  • Paul Lawrence Guthrie, The Making of the Whiteman: From the Original Man to the Whiteman (Paperback), ISBN 0-948390-49-2
  • The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley, by John W. Cole (Author), Eric R. Wolf University of California Press; 1 edition (October 11, 1999) ISBN-10: 0520216814 ISBN-13: 978-0520216815

Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Caucasian race - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1838 words)
His studies based the classification of the Caucasian race primarily on skull features, which Blumenbach claimed were optimized by the Armenians and Georgians, a people living in the Southern Caucasus.
Nordicism, the belief that the blond Nordic sub-division constitutes a "master race", was influential in Northern Europe and the United States during the early twentieth century, eventually becoming the official ideology of the Nazi state.
Caucasians typically have the lowest degree of projection of the, alveolar bones which contain the teeth, a notable size prominence of the cranium and forehead region, and a projection of the midfacial region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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