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Encyclopedia > Caucasian Iberia
Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania
Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania

Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. Image File history File links Caucasus03. ... Image File history File links Caucasus03. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ...


The term “Caucasian Iberia” (or Eastern Iberia) is used to distinguish it from the Iberian Peninsula, where the present day states of Spain and Portugal are located. The Caucasian Iberians provided a basis for later Georgian statehood and formed a core of the present day Georgian people (or Kartvelians). What their possible relation to the Spanish Iberians was, or why both the peoples had the same name in Greek, is not known at present (but see below, under "Eastern and Western Iberians"). The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map This article concerns the geographic region. ... topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ...

Contents


History

Earliest history

The area was inhabited in earliest times by several relative tribes, collectively called Iberians (the Eastern Iberians) by ancient authors. Locals called their country Kartli after a mythic chief, Kartlos. Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Kartlos (Georgian: ქართლოს) was the legendary establisher and eponymous father of Georgia, namely its nucleus Kartli (cf. ...


The Moschi mentioned by various classic historians, and their possible descendants, the Saspers (who were mentioned by Herodotus), may have played a crucial role in the consolidation of the tribes inhabiting the area; the word “Iberia” may have been derived from the name of this tribe (Saspers >Speri >Hberi >Iberi). The Moschi had moved slowly to the northeast forming settlements as they traveled. The chief of these was Mtskheta, the future capital of the Iberian kingdom. The Mtskheta tribe was later ruled by a principal locally known as mamasakhlisi (“the father of the household” in Georgian). Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs/Mushki, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC, said to be the offspring of Meshech, son of Japheth. ... Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ...


The medieval Georgian source Moktsevai Kartlisai (“Conversion of Kartli”) speak also about Azo and his people, who came from Arrian-Kartli - the initial home of the proto-Iberians, which had been under Achaemenid rule until the fall of the Persian Empire - to settle on the site where Mtskheta was to be founded. Another Georgian chronicle Kartlis Tskhovreba (“History of Kartli”) claims Azo to be an officer ofAlexander’s, who massacred a local ruling family and conquered the area, until being defeated at the end of the [4th century BC]] by Prince Pharnavaz, who was at that time a local chief. Azo (also known as Azon) was a legendary prince allegedly installed by Alexander the Great as a ruler of the Mtskheta tribe in what is now Georgia. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (Alexander III of Macedon) was born in Pella, Macedon, in July, 356 BC, died in Babylon, on June 10, 323 BC, King of Macedon 336–323 BC, is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history (if not the... Parnavaz I (Farnavaz, Pharnavaz) (ფარნავაზი) (ca. ...


Pharnavaz I and his descendants

Pharnavaz, victorious in power struggle, became the first king of Iberia (ca. 302-ca. 237 BC). Driving back an invasion, he subjugated the neighbouring areas, including significant part of the western Georgian state of Colchis (locally known as Egrisi), and seems to have secured recognition of the newly founded state by the Seleucids of Syria. Now Pharnavaz focused on social projects, including the citadel of the capitol, the Armaztsikhe, and the idol of the god Armaz. He also reformed the Georgian written language, and created a new system of administration subdividing the country in several counties called saeristavos. His successors managed to gain control over the mountainous passes of the Caucasus with the Daryal (also known as the Iberian Gates) being the most important of them. This is a list of the kings and queens of Georgia, an ancient kingdom in the Caucasus Mountains which lasted until 1801. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC Cassander becomes King of... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC 239 BC 238 BC - 237 BC - 236 BC 235 BC... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory of modern Abkhazia. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... The Georgian alphabet is the script currently used to write the Georgian language and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Darial Gorge is found in the Caucasus in modern day Georgia near the border with Russia. ...


The period following this time of prosperity was one of incessant warfare though. Iberia was forced to defend against numerous invasions into their territories. Iberia lost some of its southern provinces to Armenia, and the Colchian lands seceded to form separate princedoms (sceptuchoi). In the end of the 2nd century BC, the Pharnavazid king Farnadjom was dethroned by his own subjects and the crown given to the Armenian prince Arshak who ascended the Iberian throne in 93 BC, establishing the Arshakids dynasty. In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events 175 BCE - Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. ... Farnadjom (Parnajom) (d. ... Arshak I (Arsaces) (d. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC - 93 BC - 92 BC 91 BC 90...


Roman period

This close association with Armenia brought upon the country an invasion (65 BC) by the Roman general Pompey, who was then at war with Mithradates VI of Pontus, and Armenia; but Rome did not establish her power permanently over Iberia. Nineteen years later, the Romans again marched (36 BC) on Iberia forcing King Pharnavaz II to join their campaign against Albania. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marble bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... Parnavaz II (Bartom) (known as Pharnabazius to Romans) (d. ...


The next two centuries saw a continuation of Roman influence over the area, but by the reign of King Pharsman II (116132) Iberia had regained some of its former power. Relations between the Roman Emperor Hadrian and Pharsman II were strained, though Hadrian is said to have sought to appease Pharsman. However, it was only under Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius that relations improved to the extent that Pharsman is said to have even visited Rome, where Dio Cassius reports that a statue was erected in his honor and that rights to sacrifice were given. The period brought a major change to the political status of Iberia with Rome recognizing them as an ally, rather than their former status as a subject state, a political situation which remained the same, even during the Empire's hostilities with the Parthians. Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Events The messianic, charismatic leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... A bust of Hadrian. ... Emperor Antoninus Pius Sestertius of Antoninus Pius, with the personification of Italia on reverse. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. It was the second dynasty of...


Between Rome/Byzantium and Persia

Decisive for the future history of Iberia was the foundation of the Sassanian Empire in 224. By replacing the weak Parthian realm with a strong, centralized state, it changed the political orientation of Iberia away from Rome. Iberia became a tributary of the Sassanian state during the reign of Shapur I (241-272). Relations between the two countries seem to have been friendly at first, as Iberia cooperated in Persian campaigns against Rome, and the Iberian king Amazasp III (260-265) was listed as a high dignitary of the Sassanian realm, not a vassal who had been subdued by force of arms. But the aggressive tendencies of the Sasanians were evident in their propagation of Zoroastrianism, which was probably established in Iberia between the 260s and 290s. However, in the Peace of Nisibis (298) Rome was acknowledged their reign over the area, but recognized Mirian III, the first of the Chosroid dynasty, as King of Iberia. Byzantine predominance proved crucial, since King Mirian II and leading nobles converted to Christianity around 317. The event is related with the mission of a Cappadocian woman, Saint Nino, who since 303 preached Christianity in the Georgian kingdom of Iberia (Eastern Georgia). Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Zoroastrianism (Persian: آيين زرتشت , Aeen-e Zartosht) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Achaemenid and Parthian eras. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Events Jin Hui Di succeeds Jin Wu Di as emperor of China Births Pachomius, Christian monk (approximate date) Deaths Categories: 290 ... Events Constantius Chlorus overthrows the Alamanni in the territory of the Lingones (Langres) and strengthened the Rhine frontier Christians are expelled from the Roman army Baths of Diocletian built in Rome Births Athanasius of Alexandria, bishop and opponent of Arianism Deaths Diophantus, mathematician (approximate date) King Chaekgye of Baekje Categories... Mirian II (3rd century AD), Saint King Mirian was the king of Kartli (Iberia) in the Eastern Georgia. ... This is a list of the kings and queens of Georgia, an ancient kingdom in the Caucasus Mountains which lasted until 1801. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... Events Jin Yuan Di succeeds Jin Min Di; end of the western and beginning of the eastern Jin Dynasty King Marian II of Iberia declares Christianity the official state religion Births February _ Constantine II, Roman Emperor Deaths Categories: 317 ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The religion would become a strong tie between Georgia and Rome (later Byzantium) and have a large scale impact on the state's culture and society. However, after the emperor Julian was slain during his failed campaign in Persia in 363, Rome ceded control of Iberia to Persia, and King Varaz-Bakur I (Asphagur) (363-365) became a Persian vassal, an outcome confirmed by the Peace of Acilisene in 387. Although a later ruler of Kartli, Pharsman IV (406-409), preserved his country's autonomy and ceased to pay tribute to Persia. Persia prevailed, and Sassanian kings began to appoint a viceroy (pitiaxae/bidaxae) to keep watch on their vassal. They eventually made the office hereditary in the ruling house of Lower Kartli, thus inaugurating the Kartli pitiaxate, which brought an extensive territory under its control. Although it remained a part of the kingdom of Kartli, its viceroys turned their domain into a center of Persian influence. Sassanian rulers put the Christianity of the Georgians to a severe test. They promoted the teachings of Zoroaster, and by the middle of the 5th century Zoroastrianism had become a second official religion in eastern Georgia alongside Christianity. However, efforts to convert the common Georgian people were generally unsuccessful. Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... Portrait of Flavius Claudius Iulianus, also known as Julian the Apostate, the last pagan Roman Emperor. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ... Events Emperor Fei succeeds Emperor Ai as emperor of China. ... Region and family of the old Armenia c. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... Zoroastrianism (Persian: آيين زرتشت , Aeen-e Zartosht) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Achaemenid and Parthian eras. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ...


The early reign of the Iberian king Vakhtang I dubbed Gorgasali (447-502) was marked by relative revival of the kingdom. Formally vassal of the Persians, he secured the northern borders by subjugating the Caucasian mountaineers, and brought the adjacent western and southern Georgian lands under his control. He established an autocephalic patriarchate at Mtskheta, and made Tbilisi his capital. In 482, he led a general uprising against Persia. A desperate war for independence lasted for twenty years, but he could not get the Byzantine support, and was defeated dying himself in battle in 502. Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali (440 – 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli (Iberia) in 452–502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ... Events Synod of Toledo: The filioque clause is added to the Nicene Creed Merovech becomes king of the Franks Battle of the Utus: Attila the Hun meets the Eastern Romans in an indecisive battle. ... Events End of the Qi Dynasty and beginning of the Liang Dynasty in southern China. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ... Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი) is the capital city of the country of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) river, at 41°43′N 44°47′E. Tbilisi is still sometimes known by its former Turkish name of Tiflis. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Events End of the Qi Dynasty and beginning of the Liang Dynasty in southern China. ...


Fall of the kingdom

The continuing rivalry between Byzantium and Persia for supremacy in the Caucasus, and the next unsuccessful insurrection (523) of the Georgians under Gurgen had tragic consequences for the country. Thereafter, the king of Iberia had only nominal power, while the country was effectively ruled by the Persians. In 580, Hormizd IV (578-590) abolished the monarchy after the death of King Bakur III, and Iberia became a Persian province ruled by a marzpan (governor). Georgian nobles urged the Byzantine emperor Maurice to revive the kingdom of Iberia in 582, but in 591 Byzantium and Persia agreed to divide Iberia between them, with Tbilisi to be in Persian hands and Mtskheta to be under Byzantine control. Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... { ... Events Around this time, the historian Jordanes writes several books. ... Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ... Events Tiberius II Constantine succeeds Justin II as Byzantine Emperor Births Deaths July 30 - Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa October 5 - Justin II, Roman emperor Northern Zhou Wu Di, Chinese ruler John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler Categories: 578 ... Events September 3 - St. ... A solidus of Maurices reign Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus or Maurice I (539 - November, 602) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 582 to 602. ... Events Maurice I succeeds Tiberius II Constantine as Byzantine Emperor. ... Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. ... Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი) is the capital city of the country of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) river, at 41°43′N 44°47′E. Tbilisi is still sometimes known by its former Turkish name of Tiflis. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ...


At the beginning of the 7th century the truce between Byzantium and Persia collapsed. The Iberian Prince Stephanoz I (ca. 590-627), decided in 607 to join forces with Persia in order to reunite all the territories of Iberia, a goal he seems to have accomplished. But Emperor Heraclius's offensive in 627 and 628 brought victory over the Georgians and Persians and ensured Byzantine predominance in western and eastern Georgia until the invasion of the Caucasus by the Arabs. // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... To suck the phallus or penis of another. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...


Arab period

The Arabs reached Iberia about 645 and forced its eristavi (prince), Stephanoz II (637-ca. 650), to abandon his allegiance to Byzantium and recognize the Caliph as his suzerain. Iberia thus became a tributary state and an Arab emir was installed in Tbilisi about 653. At the beginning of the 9th century, eristavi Ashot I (813-830) of the new Bagrationi dynasty, from his base in southwestern Georgia, took advantage of the weakening of the Arab rule to establish himself as hereditary prince (titled as kouropalates) of Iberia. A successor, Adarnase II of Tao, formally vassal of Byzantium, was crowned as the “king of Georgians” in 888. His descendant Bagrat III (975-1014), brought the various principalities together to form a united Georgian state. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Emirs of Tbilisi ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi (Tiflis), from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122). ... Events Pope Martin I arrested Sigeberht II the Good succeeds Sigeberht I the Little as king of Essex Aripert, nephew of Theodelinda, succeeds Rodoald as king of the Lombards Births Deaths Chindaswinth, king of the Visigoths Rodoald, king of the Lombards Abbas, uncle of Muhammad and his chief financial supporter. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ... The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. ... Events January 13: With the death of Charles the Fat, the Frankish kingdom is split again, and this time permanently. ... Bagrat III (ca. ... Events Coronation of King Edward the Martyr Births Deaths July 8 Edgar of England Categories: 975 ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock...


Eastern and Western Iberians

The similarity of the name with the old inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula, the 'Western' Iberians has lead to an idea of ethnogenetical kinship between them and the people of Iberia (called the 'Eastern' Iberians). topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians or Celtiberians The Iberians arrived in Spain sometime in the third millennium B.C., although their arrival has been dated as early as 4000 B.C. Most scholars believe the Iberians came from a region farther east in the Mediterranean, although some have...


It has been advocated by various ancient and medieval authors, although they differed in approach to the problem of the initial place of their origin. The theory seems to have been popular in medieval Georgia. The prominent Georgian religious writer Giorgi Mthatzmindeli (George of Mt Athos) (1009-1065) writes about the wish of certain Georgian nobles to travel to Spain and visit the local “Georgians of the West”. Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Events December 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated. ...


The theory has been defended – but not with complete success, by some modern authors. According to the opinion of several historians, the Caucasian peoples together with the Iberians, Pelasgians and Etruscans, might be branches of a former population living in a vast territory near the Mediterranean, and in Asia Minor, before the people of the Indo-European group made the area the place of their habitat. Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


See also

In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... The recorded history of Georgia dates back more than 4,000 years and the Georgian language is one of the oldest living languages in the world. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... This is a list of the kings and queens of Georgia, an ancient kingdom in the Caucasus Mountains which lasted until 1801. ...

External links

  • History of Iranian-Georgian Relations - Encyclopaedia Iranica article
  • Iberia at www.amarcord.be (in German)
  • Iberia at Iberiana Association web site
  • Iberia: history, archaeology
  • Strabo on Iberia

Further reading

  • Thomson, R.W. Rewriting Caucasian History (1996) ISBN 0198263732
  • Braund, David. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) ISBN 0198144733
  • Lang, David Marshall. The Georgians (London: Thames & Hudson, 1966)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caucasian Iberia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1794 words)
Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia.
Iberia became a tributary of the Sassanian state during the reign of Shapur I (241-272).
According to the opinion of several historians, the Caucasian peoples together with the Iberians, Pelasgians and Etruscans, might be branches of a former population living in a vast territory near the Mediterranean, and in Asia Minor, before the people of the Indo-European group made the area the place of their habitat.
Caucasian Iberia - definition of Caucasian Iberia in Encyclopedia (203 words)
Caucasian Iberia is the term designated to the Kingdom of Iberia (4th century BC–5th century AD) established in Eastern Georgia by the Georgians (Kartvelians).
The king of Iberia, Parnavaz I was a reformer of the Georgian alphabet (284 BC).
The term "Caucasian Iberia" is an anachronism, used to distinguish it from the Iberian peninsula, where modern day Spain and Portugal are located.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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