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Encyclopedia > Cattle
Cattle
A Swiss Braunvieh cow wearing a cowbell
A Swiss Braunvieh cow wearing a cowbell
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos
Species: B. taurus
Binomial name
Bos taurus
Linnaeus, 1758

Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. They are raised as livestock for meat (called beef and veal), dairy products (milk), leather and as draft animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). In some countries, such as India, they are honored in religious ceremonies and revered. It is estimated that there are 1.3 billion cattle in the world today.[1] In terms of food intake by humans, consumption of cattle is less efficient than of grain or vegetables with regard to land use, and hence cattle grazing consumes more acreage than such other agricultural production;[2] this factor was not important in earlier times prior to the Earth's large human population.[3] Species B. acutifrons † B. aegyptiacus † B. frontalis B. gaurus B. grunniens B. javanicus B. planifrons † B. primigenius † B. sauveli B. taurus Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle or oxen. ... Look up cow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Category: ‪Possible copyright violations‬ ... The cowbell is a percussion instrument. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Species B. acutifrons † B. aegyptiacus † B. frontalis B. gaurus B. grunniens B. javanicus B. planifrons † B. primigenius † B. sauveli B. taurus Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle or oxen. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... A draught animal is a (semi-)domesticated animal used for transport and haulage (the heavy labour of pulling carts, hauling timber and ploughing fields are examples). ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...

Contents

Species of cattle

Cattle were originally identified by Carolus Linnaeus as three separate species. These were Bos taurus, the European cattle, including similar types from Africa and Asia; Bos indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and European cattle. More recently[verification needed] these three have increasingly been grouped as one species, with Bos primigenius taurus, Bos primigenius indicus and Bos primigenius primigenius as the subspecies. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ...


Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between European cattle and zebu but also with yaks (called a dzo), banteng, gaur, and bison ("cattalo"), a cross-genera hybrid. For example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only humpless "Bos taurus-type" cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of European cattle, zebu and yak.[4] Cattle cannot successfully be bred with water buffalo or African buffalo. Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... A Dzo is a male hybrid of a yak and a domesticated cow. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... Beefalo are a fertile variety of Cattalo. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The domestic buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo is abundant in Asia, and South America. ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ...


The aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, their range was restricted to Europe, and the last animals were killed by poachers in Masovia, Poland, in 1627. Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing of domesticated cattle breeds, creating the Heck cattle breed. (See also aurochs and zebu articles.)  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Poacher has two different meanings: A poacher is someone who engages in poaching – the theft or illegal killing of animals or plants, or sometimes artifacts. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... A Heck bull Heck Cattle, also called reconstructed aurochs, are a hardy breed of cattle (Bos taurus) often referred to by its promoters by the name of aurochs. The aurochs was an extinct ancestor of modern cattle. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ...


Terminology

Word origin

Cattle did not originate as a name for bovine animals. It derives from the Latin caput, head, and originally meant movable property, especially livestock of any kind.[5] The word is closely related to "chattel" (a unit of personal property) and "capital" in the economic sense.[6][7] Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ...


Older English sources like King James Version of the Bible refer to livestock in general as cattle (as opposed to the word deer which then was used for wild animals). Additionally other species of the genus Bos are sometimes called wild cattle. Today, the modern meaning of "cattle", without any other qualifier, is usually restricted to domesticated bovines. The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Species B. acutifrons † B. aegyptiacus † B. frontalis B. gaurus B. grunniens B. javanicus B. planifrons † B. primigenius † B. sauveli B. taurus Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle or oxen. ...


Terminology of cattle

A Hereford bull
A Hereford bull

In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world but with minor differences in the definitions. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United States of America and other British influenced parts of world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the United Kingdom[8]. A picture of a Hereford bull. ... A picture of a Hereford bull. ... Hereford cattle are a widely-used breed in temperate areas, mainly for beef production. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


An intact adult male is called a bull. An adult female who has had one or two calves (depending on regional usage) is called a cow. Young cattle are called calves until they are weaned, then weaners until they are a year old in some areas, in other areas, particularly with beef cattle, they may be known as feeder-calves or simply feeders. After that, they are referred to as yearlings if between one and two years of age, or by gender. A young female before she has had a calf of her own is called a heifer[9][10] (pronounced /ˈhɛfɚ/, "heffer"). A young female that has had only one calf is occasionally called a first-calf heifer. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States of America, and is called a bullock in other parts of the world; although in North America this term refers to a young bull. A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen). In North America, draft cattle under four years old are called working steers. In the extremely uncommon situation where an adult bull is castrated, it becomes a stag[11]. In all cattle species, a female who is the twin of a bull usually becomes an infertile partial intersex, and is a freemartin. Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and Scottish farmers use the term cattlebeast. Neat (horned oxen, from which "neatsfoot oil" is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll or polled cattle is still a term in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas cattle that have been disbudded. Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either gender. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called dairy cows[8]. The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms "bull", "cow" and "calf" are also used by extension to denote the gender of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants. Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... The Yearling is a 1946 film which tells the story of a boy who adopts a fawn as a pet. ... Cattle the charitable organization Heifer International This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Example EU engergy label According to an EU Directive most white goods and light bulb packaging must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered for sale or rent. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... A freemartin is a female bovine with a masculinized behavior and non-functioning ovaries. ... Polled cattle are cattle that do not grow horns, and are also referred to as polled. Such breeds include: Angus (black) Belted Galloway Galloway Polled Hereford Red Angus Red Poll Some people consider them safer to work with than horned cattle. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


Singular terminology dilemma

Cattle is both a plural and a mass noun, but there is no singular equivalent: it is a plurale tantum. Thus one may refer to "three cattle" or "some cattle", but not "one cattle". There is no universally used singular equivalent in modern English to "cattle", other than the gender and age-specific terms such as cow, bull, steer and heifer. Strictly speaking, the singular noun for the domestic bovine was "ox. However, "ox" today is rarely used in this general sense. An ox today generally denotes a draft beast, most commonly a castrated male (but is not to be confused with the unrelated wild musk ox). It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ... A plurale tantum (plural: pluralia tantum) is a noun that appears only in the plural form and does not have a singular variant, though it may still refer to one or many of the objects it names. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Binomial name Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) is a bovine noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor of the male. ...

A Brahman calf
A Brahman calf

"Cow" has been in general use as a singular for the collective "cattle" in spite of the objections of those who point out that it is a female-specific term, rendering phrases such as "that cow is a bull" absurd. However, it is easy to use when a singular is needed and the gender is not known, as in "There is a cow in the road". Further, any herd of fully mature cattle in or near a pasture is statistically likely to consist mostly of cows, so the term is probably accurate. Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated as calves and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years. Thus, in a pastured herd, any calves or herd bulls usually are clearly distinguishable from the cows due to distinctively different sizes and clear anatomical differences. Download high resolution version (1050x790, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1050x790, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bos indica bull, from Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo The Brahman breed of cattle originated from the Bos indicus cattle originally brought to the US from India and Brazil. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


Colloquially, more general non-specific terms may denote cattle when a singular form is needed. Australian, New Zealand and British farmers use the term "beast" or "cattle beast". "Bovine" is also used in Britain. The term "critter" is common in the western United States and Canada, particularly when referring to young cattle. In some areas of the American South (particularly the Appalachian region), where both dairy and beef cattle are present, an individual animal was once called a "beef critter", though that term is becoming archaic. A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Archaic is a generic adjective that can refer to several things from the past. ...


Other terminology

Cattle raised for human consumption are called "beef cattle". Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the term "beef" (plural "beeves") is still used in its archaic sense to refer to an animal of either gender. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called "dairy cows" or "milking cows" (formerly "milch cows" – "milch" was pronounced as "milk"). Most young male offspring of dairy cows are generally sold for veal, and may be referred to as veal calves. In some places, a cow kept to provide milk for one family is called a "house cow". Obsolete terms for cattle include "neat" (this use survives in "neatsfoot oil", extracted from the feet and legs of cattle), and "beefing" (young animal fit for slaughter). Beef cattle are bovine cattle (cows, see Bos taurus) raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle). ... Contents // Modern Times Dairy cattle are now specialized animals, focused primarily on producing milk. ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... Neatsfoot oil is a yellow oil rendered and purified from the feet and shin bones (not the hooves) of cattle. ... Slaughter is the term used to describe the killing and butchering of domestic livestock. ...


An onomatopoeia imitating one of the commonest sounds made by cattle is "moo", and this sound is also called lowing. There are a number of other sounds made by cattle, including calves bawling and bulls bellowing (a high-pitched yodeling call). The bullroarer makes a sound similar to a territorial call made by bulls. For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... Look up Animal sounds in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yodeling (or yodelling, jodeling) is a form of singing that involves singing an extended note which rapidly and repeatedly changes in pitch from the vocal chest register (or chest voice) to the head register (or head voice), making a high-low-high-low sound. ... Bullroarers from Africa, in the Pitt Rivers Museum A bullroarer or turndun is an ancient ritual musical instrument and means of communicating over extended distances. ...


Anatomy

Cattle have one stomach, with four compartments. They are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, the rumen being the largest compartment. Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum, the smallest compartment, and this is where hardware disease occurs. The reticulum is known as the "Honeycomb." The omasum's main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. The omasum is known as the "Many Plies." The abomasum is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "true stomach". In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The rumen, also known as the fardingbag or paunch forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. ... This article is about an anatomical part. ... The omasum, also known as the manyplies, is the third compartment of the stomach in ruminants. ... The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach compartment of the stomach in ruminants. ... Hardware disease is a common term for bovine traumatic gastritis and traumatic reticulitis. ...

Dairy farming and the milking of cattle - once performed largely by hand, but now usually replaced by machine - exploits the cow's unique ruminant biology.

Cattle are ruminants, meaning that they have a digestive system that allows use of otherwise indigestible foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as "cud." The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialised microorganisms in the rumen. These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids that cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel. The microbes inside of the rumen are also able to synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources such as urea and ammonia. As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their carcasses continue on through the digestive tract. These carcasses are then partially digested by the cattle, allowing it to gain a high quality protein source. These features allow cattle to thrive on grasses and other vegetation. Download high resolution version (900x1200, 176 KB)Hand milking a cow, at Cobbes farm museum. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 176 KB)Hand milking a cow, at Cobbes farm museum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... Cud is a portion of food that returns from a ruminants stomach in the mouth to be chewed for the second time. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... The rumen, also known as the fardingbag or paunch forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Volatile fatty acids are fatty acids with a carbon chain of six carbons or fewer. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Aerial view of mixed aspen-spruce forest in Alaska Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial extent or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. ...


The gestation period for a cow is nine months. A newborn calf weighs 25 to 45 kg (55 to 100 lb). Large steers can weigh as much as 1,800 kg (4,000 pounds), 600 to 900 kg (1,300 to 1,900 lb) being more common for adults. Cattle usually live to about 15 years (occasionally as much as 25 years).


A common misconception about cattle (particularly bulls) is that they are enraged by the color red (something provocative is often said to be "like a red rag to a bull"). This is incorrect, as cattle are red-green color-blind.[12][13] The myth arose from the use of red capes in the sport of bullfighting; in fact, two different capes are used. The capote is a large, flowing cape that is magenta and yellow. The more famous muleta is the smaller, red cape, used exclusively for the final, fatal segment of the fight. It is not the color of the cape that angers the bull, but rather the movement of the fabric that irritates the bull and incites it to charge. Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ... Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... Capote can refer to: American writer Truman Capote the 2005 film about the same, Capote (film) Spanish writer Ariel Capote A robe, generally made from blankets, blanket capote This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Categories: Stub ...


Although cattle cannot distinguish red from green, they do have two kinds of color receptors in their retinas (cone cells) and so are theoretically able to distinguish some colors, probably in a similar way to other red-green color-blind or dichromatic mammals (such as dogs, cats, horses and up to ten percent of male humans).[14][15] Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina which only function in relatively bright light. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ... In optics, the term dichroic has two related but distinct meanings. ...


Domestication and husbandry

Texas Longhorns are an iconic U.S. breed
Texas Longhorns are an iconic U.S. breed

Cattle occupy a unique role in human history, domesticated since at least the early Neolithic. They are raised for meat (beef cattle), dairy products and hides. They are also used as draft animals and in certain sports. Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft. Texas longhorn (from [1]) Credit: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS/Elkins, WV File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Texas longhorn (from [1]) Credit: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS/Elkins, WV File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Longhorn. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Beef cattle are bovine cattle (cows, see Bos taurus) raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle). ... A Holstein dairy cow. ... Hides are skins obtained from animals that are used for human use. ... A draught animal is a (semi-)domesticated animal used for transport and haulage (the heavy labour of pulling carts, hauling timber and ploughing fields are examples). ... Cattle rustling or cattle raiding is the act of stealing livestock. ...

A cow being inspected for ticks; cattle are often restrained or confined in Cattle crushes when given medical attention.
A cow being inspected for ticks; cattle are often restrained or confined in Cattle crushes when given medical attention.

Cattle are often raised by allowing herds to graze on the grasses of large tracts of rangeland. Raising cattle in this manner allows the use of land that might be unsuitable for growing crops. The most common interactions with cattle involve daily feeding, cleaning and milking. Many routine husbandry practices involve ear tagging, dehorning, loading, medical operations, vaccinations and hoof care, as well as training for agricultural shows and preparations. There are also some cultural differences in working with cattle- the cattle husbandry of Fulani men rests on behavioural techniques, whereas in Europe cattle are controlled primarily by physical means like fences.[16] Breeders utilise cattle husbandry to reduce M. bovis infection susceptibility by selective breeding and maintaining herd health to avoid concurrent disease.[17] Entomologist Elmer Ahrens (left) and animal caretaker Adolfo Pena inspect for cattle fever ticks. ... Entomologist Elmer Ahrens (left) and animal caretaker Adolfo Pena inspect for cattle fever ticks. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Grass fed beef is meat from cows that have been raised primarily on forage (i. ... Rangeland refers to a large, mostly unimproved section of land that is predominantly used for livestock grazing. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Hand milking Milking is the act of removing milk from the mammary glands of an animal, typically cows (cattle) and goats. ... Ear tags - also known as sheep tags or cattle tags - were first developed in the early 1913 as a means to identify livestock, specifically cattle, when testing for tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians. ... A cloven-hoof is a type of hoof that is found on some animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium bovis Karlson & Lessel 1970 Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time), aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...


Cattle are farmed for beef, veal, dairy, leather and they are less commonly used simply to maintain grassland for wildlife- for example, in Epping Forest, England. They are often used in some of the most wild places for livestock. Depending on the breed, cattle can survive on hill grazing, heaths, marshes, moors and semi desert. Modern cows are more commercial than older breeds and, having become more specialized, are less versatile. For this reason many smaller farmers still favor old breeds, like the dairy breed of cattle Jersey. Epping Forest is an area of ancient woodland in south-east England, straddling the border between north-east Greater London and Essex. ...


In Portugal, Spain, Southern France and some Latin American countries, bulls are used in the activity of bullfighting; a similar activity, Jallikattu, is seen in South India; in many other countries this is illegal. Other activities such as bull riding are seen as part of a rodeo, especially in North America. Bull-leaping, a central ritual in Bronze Age Minoan culture (see Bull (mythology)), still exists in southwestern France. In modern times, cattle are also entered into agricultural competitions. These competitions can involve live cattle or cattle carcasses. This region consists of the southern part of France. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... Jallikattu is a South Indian celebration involving bull taming, somewhat similar to the Spanish running of the bulls. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large male bovine, and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Bull-leaping, fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete The Bull Leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of knossos, crete. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... Cattle judging is the process of judging a series of cattle and pronouncing a first, second and third place animal based on each animals qualities. ... Carcass of a chicken after cooking Carcass may refer to: A carcass (or carcase) is a term for a dead body, typically that of an animal. ...


Environmental impact

Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been named as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.
Cattle - especially when kept on enormous feedlots such as this one - have been named as a contributing factor in the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.

A 400-page United Nations report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) states that cattle farming is "responsible for 18% of greenhouse gases."[18] The production of cattle to feed and clothe humans stresses ecosystems around the world,[2] and is assessed to be one of the top three environmental problems in the world on a local to global scale.[19] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x520, 54 KB) Feedlot in the Texas Panhandle taken by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (830x520, 54 KB) Feedlot in the Texas Panhandle taken by myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... UN redirects here. ... FAO redirects here. ...


The report, entitled Livestock's Long Shadow, also surveys the environmental damage from sheep, chickens, pigs and goats. But in almost every case, the world's 1.5 billion cattle are cited as the greatest adverse impact with respect to climate change as well as species extinction. The report concludes that, unless changes are made, the massive damage reckoned to be due to livestock may more than double by 2050, as demand for meat increases. One of the cited changes suggests that intensification of the livestock industry may be suggested, since intensification leads to less land for a given level of production.[19] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


Some microbes respire in the cattle gut by an anaerobic process known as methanogenesis (producing the gas methane). Cattle emit a large volume of methane, 95% of it through eructation or burping, not flatulence.[20] As the carbon in the methane comes from the digestion of vegetation produced by photosynthesis, its release into the air by this process would normally be considered harmless, because there is no net increase in carbon in the atmosphere — it's removed as carbon dioxide from the air by photosynthesis and returned to it as methane. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, having a warming effect 23 to 50 times greater,[21][22] and according to Takahashi and Young "even a small increase in methane concentration in the atmosphere exerts a potentially significant contribution to global warming".[22] Further analysis to the methane gas produced by livestock as a contributor to the increase in greenhouse gases is provided by Weart.[23] Research is underway on methods of reducing this source of methane, by the use of dietary supplements, or treatments to reduce the proportion of methanogenetic microbes, perhaps by vaccination.[24][25] A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air (where air is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic. ... Methanogenesis is the formation of methane by microbes. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... The process of burping, also known as a belching or eructation, is an often audible release through the mouth of gas that has accumulated in the stomach or esophagus. ... Burping, also known as belching, ructus, or eructation involves the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ...


Cattle are fed a concentrated high-corn diet which produces rapid weight gain, but this has side effects which include increased acidity in the digestive system. When improperly handled, manure and other byproducts of concentrated agriculture also have environmental consequences.[26] For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


Grazing by cattle at low intensities can create a favourable environment for native herbs and forbs; however, in most world regions cattle are reducing biodiversity due to overgrazing driven by food demands by an expanding human population.[27] For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... A forb is a flowering plant with a non-woody stem that is not a grass. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Oxen

Main article: Ox
Draft Zebus in Mumbai, India.

Oxen (singular ox) are large and heavyset breeds of Bos taurus cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult, castrated males. Usually an ox is over four years old due to the need for training and to allow it to grow to full size. Oxen are used for plowing, transport, hauling cargo, grain-grinding by trampling or by powering machines, irrigation by powering pumps, and wagon drawing. Oxen were commonly used to skid logs in forests, and sometimes still are, in low-impact select-cut logging. Oxen are most often used in teams of two, paired, for light work such as carting. In the past, teams might have been larger, with some teams exceeding twenty animals when used for logging. Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Mumbai traffic Source: Antônio Milena/ABr. ... Mumbai traffic Source: Antônio Milena/ABr. ... Zebus (Bos taurus) are known as humped cattle and are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... A draught animal is a (semi-)domesticated animal used for transport and haulage (the heavy labour of pulling carts, hauling timber and ploughing fields are examples). ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other uses, see Wagon (disambiguation). ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ...


An ox is nothing more than a mature bovine with an "education." The education consists of the animal's learning to respond appropriately to the teamster's (ox driver's) signals. These signals are given by verbal commands or by noise (whip cracks) and many teamsters were known for their voices and language. In North America, the commands are (1) get up, (2) whoa, (3) back up, (4) gee (turn right) and (5) haw (turn left). Oxen must be painstakingly trained from a young age. Their teamster must provide as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes as the animals grow. A wooden yoke is fastened about the neck of each pair so that the force of draft is distributed across their shoulders. From calves, oxen are chosen with horns since the horns hold the yoke in place when the oxen lower their heads, back up, or slow down (particularly with a wheeled vehicle going downhill). Yoked oxen cannot slow a load like harnessed horses can; the load has to be controlled downhill by other means. The gait of the ox is often important to ox trainers, since the speed the animal walks should roughly match the gait of the ox driver who must work with it. A teamster was a person who drove a team of oxen, a horse-drawn or mule-drawn wagon or a muletrain (in the latter case, he was also known as a muleteer or muleskinner). ... A teamster was a person who drove a team of oxen, a horse-drawn or mule-drawn wagon or a muletrain (in the latter case, he was also known as a muleteer or muleskinner). ... For other uses, see Yoke (disambiguation). ...


U.S. ox trainers favored larger breeds for their ability to do more work and for their intelligence. Because they are larger animals, the typical ox is the male of a breed, rather than the smaller female. Females are potentially more useful producing calves and milk. A glass of cows milk. ...

Riding an ox in Hova, Sweden.
Riding an ox in Hova, Sweden.

Oxen can pull harder and longer than horses, particularly on obstinate or almost un-movable loads. This is one of the reasons that teams drag logs from forests long after horses had taken over most other draft uses in Europe and North America. Though not as fast as horses, they are less prone to injury because they are more sure-footed and do not try to jerk the load. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1578x1350, 468 KB) Sixten, an ox used for riding. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1578x1350, 468 KB) Sixten, an ox used for riding. ... Hova is a nick name for the rap artist Jay-Z Hova, Sweden is a small town in Gullspång Municipality in Sweden Hova was the prominent class of peasant commoners in Madagascar. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


An "ox" is not a unique breed of bovine, nor have any "blue" oxen lived outside the folk tales surrounding Paul Bunyan, the mythical American logger. A possible exception and antecedent to this legend is the Belgian Blue breed which is known primarily for its unusual musculature and at times exhibits unusual white/blue, blue roan, or blue coloration. The unusual musculature of the breed is believed to be due to a natural mutation of the gene that codes for the protein Myostatin, which is responsible for normal muscle atrophy. Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Paul and Babe in Bemidji, Minnesota Paul Bunyan is a mythical lumberjack in tall tales. ... Belgian Blue cattle are a heavily-bred breed, producing extraordinary amounts of meat. ... Myostatin (formerly known as Growth differentiation factor 8) is a growth factor that limits muscle tissue growth, i. ...


Many oxen are used worldwide, especially in developing countries. In the Third World oxen can lead lives of misery, as they are frequently malnourished. Oxen are driven with sticks and goads when they are weak from malnutrition. When there is insufficient food for humans, animal welfare has low priority.  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Goad, that is, the hook or the hook, used by a trainer of elephants, is one of the eight auspicious objects (known as Astamangala) of Hinduism and certain other religions of the Indian subcontinent. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ...


Ox is also used for various cattle products, irrespective of age, sex or training of the beast – for example, ox-blood, ox-liver, ox-kidney, ox-heart, ox-hide.


Cattle in religion, traditions and folklore

Legend of the founding of Durham Cathedral is that monks carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert were led to the location by a milk maid who had lost her dun cow, which was found resting on the spot.
Legend of the founding of Durham Cathedral is that monks carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert were led to the location by a milk maid who had lost her dun cow, which was found resting on the spot.
  • The Evangelist St. Luke is depicted as an ox in Christian art.
  • In Judaism, as described in Numbers 19:2, the ashes of a sacrificed unblemished red heifer that has never been yoked can be used for ritual purification of people who came into contact with a corpse.
  • The ox is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. See: Ox (Zodiac).
  • The constellation Taurus represents a bull.
  • An apocryphal story has it that a cow started the Great Chicago Fire by kicking over a kerosene lamp. Michael Ahern, the reporter who created the cow story, admitted in 1893 that he had made it up because he thought it would make colorful copy.
  • On February 18, 1930 Elm Farm Ollie became the first cow to fly in an airplane and also the first cow to be milked in an airplane.
  • The first known law requiring branding in North America was enacted on February 5, 1644 by Connecticut. It said that all cattle and pigs have to have a registered brand or earmark by May 1, 1644.[28]
  • The akabeko (赤べこ, red cow?) is a traditional toy from the Aizu region of Japan that is thought to ward off illness.[29]
  • The case of Sherwood v. Walker -- involving a supposedly barren heifer that was actually pregnant -- first enunciated the concept of Mutual mistake as a means of destroying the Meeting of the minds in Contract law.[citation needed]
  • The Maasai tribe of East Africa traditionally believe that all cows on earth are the God-given property of the Maasai

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (c. ... In English folklore, the Dun Cow of Dunsmore Heath was a savage beast slain by Sir Guy, Earl of Warwick. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Judaism, the red heifer (Hebrew parah adumah) is a heifer that is sacrificed and whose ashes are used for the ritual purification of people who came into contact with a corpse. ... Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and the fortune-telling aspects according to movement of heavenly... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... The Ox ( 丑 ) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Taurus (IPA: , Latin: , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Artists rendering of the fire, by John R Chapin, originally printed in Harpers Weekly The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elm Farm Ollie (known locally as Nellie Jay) was the first cow to fly in an airplane, doing so on 18 February 1930. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Akabeko from Aizuwakamatsu Akabeko , red cow) is a traditional toy from the Aizu region of Japan. ... Akabeko from Aizuwakamatsu Akabeko , red cow) is a traditional toy from the Aizu region of Japan. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... Sherwood v. ... Mistake of law and mistake of fact are two types of defense by excuse, via which a defendant may argue that they should not be held criminally liable for breaking the law or liable for damages under a civil law action. ... The Meeting of the Minds (also referred to as mutual assent) is a term in contract law used to describe the intentions of the parties forming the contract. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ...

Cattle in Hindu tradition

Main article: Sacred cow
In Hinduism, the cow is a symbol of wealth, strength, abundance, selfless giving and a full Earthly life.
In Hinduism, the cow is a symbol of wealth, strength, abundance, selfless giving and a full Earthly life.

Cows are venerated within the Hindu religion of India. According to Vedic scripture they are to be treated with the same respect 'as one's mother' because of the milk they provide; "The cow is my mother. The bull is my sire."[30] They appear in numerous stories from the Puranas and Vedas, for example the deity Krishna is brought up in a family of cowherders, and given the name Govinda (protector of the cows). Also Shiva is traditionally said to ride on the back of a bull named Nandi. Bulls in particular are seen as a symbolic emblem of selfless duty and religion. In ancient rural India every household had a few cows which provided a constant supply of milk and a few bulls that helped as draft animals. Many Hindus feel that at least it was economically wise to keep cattle for their milk rather than consume their flesh for one single meal. This article is about Hinduism. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Krsnas name is Govinda. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Nandi is the white bull which Shiva rides, and the leader of the Ganas. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ...


Gandhi explains his feelings about cow protection as follows: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...

"The cow to me means the entire sub-human world, extending man's sympathies beyond his own species. Man through the cow is enjoined to realize his identity with all that lives. Why the ancient rishis selected the cow for apotheosis is obvious to me. The cow in India was the best comparison; she was the giver of plenty. Not only did she give milk, but she also made agriculture possible. The cow is a poem of pity; one reads pity in the gentle animal. She is the second mother to millions of mankind. Protection of the cow means protection of the whole dumb creation of God. The appeal of the lower order of creation is all the more forceful because it is speechless." A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage and in its most strict canonical sense denotes a Vedic sage to whom Vedic hymns were originally revealed. // A Rishi is a person who can hold and transmit knowledge in the form of Light. ...

In heraldry

Cattle are represented in heraldry by the bull. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...

Image File history File links Torino-Stemma. ... Torino redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nəs... Image File history File links POL_Bielsk_Podlaski_COA.svg‎ pl: Herb Bielska Podlaskiego en: Bielsk Podlaski Coat of Arms File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Podlachian Voivodeship Bielsk Podlaski ... Bielsk Podlaski is a town in north-eastern Poland with 27,600 inhabitants (2004). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: Turek zawsze po drodze / Miasto silne jak tur. ...

Present status

Simmental cattle resting on a Swiss pasture

The world cattle population is estimated to be about 1.3 billion head. India is the nation with the largest number of cattle, about 400 million, followed by Brazil and China, with about 150 million each, and the United States, with about 100 million. Africa has about 200 million head of cattle, many of which are herded in traditional ways and serve partly as tokens of their owner's wealth. Europe has about 130 million head of cattle (CT 2006, SC 2006). Simmental cow on alp pasture (Engstligenalp) English Simmental Bull Simmental cross calves Image:Double-D-Blk-Chyna2. ...


Cattle today are the basis of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. The international trade in beef for 2000 was over $30 billion and represented only 23 percent of world beef production. (Clay 2004). The production of milk, which is also made into cheese, butter, yogurt, and other dairy products, is comparable in economic size to beef production and provides an important part of the food supply for many of the world's people. Cattle hides, used for leather to make shoes and clothing, are another widespread product. Cattle remain broadly used as draft animals in many developing countries, such as India. A glass of cows milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shoe (disambiguation). ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


See also

Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Bull-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of bulls. ... The age of the ox or cow is determined chiefly by examination of the teeth, and less perfectly by the horns. ... Cattle judging is the process of judging a series of cattle and pronouncing a first, second and third place animal based on each animals qualities. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... The following is a list of breeds of cattle. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Dzo is a male hybrid of a yak and a domesticated cow. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Breeds of Cattle at CATTLE TODAY
  2. ^ a b Edward O. Wilson, The Future of Life, 2003, Vintage Books, 256 pages ISBN 0679768114
  3. ^ Ron Nielsen, The Little Green Handbook: Seven Trends Shaping the Future of Our Planet, Picador, New York (2006) ISBN 978-0312425814
  4. ^ Takeda, Kumiko; et al. (April 2004). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Nepalese domestic dwarf cattle Lulu". Animal Science Journal 75 (2): 103-110. Blackwell Publishing. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2004.00163.x. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). Cattle. Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). Chattel. Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). Capital. Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  8. ^ a b http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Cattle_-_Terminology/id/1287270 Cattle Terminology
  9. ^ Definition of heifer. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  10. ^ Warren, Andrea. Pioneer Girl: Growing Up on the Prairie (PDF). Lexile. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  11. ^ Smithfield Foods::Understanding Smithfield::Glossary of Terms
  12. ^ ITLA - Longhorn_Information - handling
  13. ^ http://iacuc.tennessee.edu/pdf/Policies-AnimalCare/Cattle-BasicCare.pdf
  14. ^ Jacobs, G. H., J. F.Deegan, and J. Neitz. 1998. Photopigment basis for dichromatic color vision in cows, goats and sheep. Vis. Neurosci. 15:581–584
  15. ^ Perception of Color by Cattle and its Influence on Behavior C.J.C. Phillips* and C. A. Lomas†2 J. Dairy Sci. 84:807–813
  16. ^ Lott, Dale F.; Hart, Benjamin L. (October 1979). "Applied ethology in a nomadic cattle culture". Applied Animal Ethology 5 (4): 309-319. Elsevier B.V.. doi:10.1016/0304-3762(79)90102-0. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  17. ^ Krebs JR, Anderson T, Clutton-Brock WT, et al. (1997). "Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers: an independent scientific review" (PDF). Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  18. ^ Livestock a major threat to environment. FAO Newsroom.
  19. ^ a b LEAD digital library: Livestock’s long shadow - Environmental issues and options
  20. ^ "Bovine belching called udderly serious gas problem." Los Angeles Times, Sunday, July 13, 2003
  21. ^ (pie charts)
  22. ^ a b Junichi Takahashi and Bruce A. Young, Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture: Proceedings (2002) Elsevier Health Sciences, 372 pages ISBN 0444510125
  23. ^ Spencer Weart: The Discovery of Global Warming: "Other Greenhouse Gases". June 2007.
  24. ^ Triad bid to stop belching. Retrieved on 2006-01-04.
  25. ^ Research on use of bacteria from the stomach lining of kangaroos (who don't emit methane) to reduce methane in cattle
  26. ^ Manure Management
  27. ^ E.O. Wilson, The Future of Life, 2003, Vintage Books, 256 pages ISBN 067976811
  28. ^ Kane, J.; Anzovin, S., & Podell, J. (1997). Famous First Facts. New York, NY: H.W. Wilson, 5. ISBN 0-8242-0930-3. 
  29. ^ Madden, Thomas (May 1992). "Akabeko". OUTLOOK. Online copy accessed 18 January 2007.
  30. ^ Mahabharata, Book 13-Anusasana Parva, Section LXXVI

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Bhattacharya, S. 2003. Cattle ownership makes it a man's world. Newscientist.com. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  • Cattle Today (CT). 2006. Website. Breeds of cattle. Cattle Today. Retrieved December 26, 2006)
  • Clay, J. 2004. World Agriculture and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Washington, D.C., USA: Island Press. ISBN 1559633700.
  • Clutton-Brock, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge UK : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521634954.
  • Purdy, Herman R.; R. John Dawes; Dr. Robert Hough (2008). Breeds Of Cattle, 2nd Edition.  - A visual textbook containing History/Origin, Phenotype & Statistics of 45 breeds.
  • Huffman, B. 2006. The ultimate ungulate page. UltimateUngulate.com. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  • Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2005. .Bos taurus. Global Invasive Species Database.
  • Nowak, R.M. and Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801825253
  • Oklahoma State University (OSU). 2006. Breeds of Cattle. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  • Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 2004. Holy cow. PBS Nature. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  • Rath, S. 1998. The Complete Cow. Stillwater, Minnesota, USA: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0896583759.
  • Raudiansky, S. 1992. The Covenant of the Wild. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 0688096107.
  • Spectrum Commodities (SC). 2006. Live cattle. Spectrumcommodities.com. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  • Voelker, W. 1986. The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medford, New Jersey, USA: Plexus Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0937548081.
  • Yogananda, P. 1946. The Autobiography of a Yogi. Los Angeles, California, USA: Self Realization Fellowship. ISBN 0876120834.
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is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Families  Tragulidae  Moschidae  Cervidae  Giraffidae  Antilocapridae  Bovidae The biological suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest land animal in North America running at speeds up to 54 mph (90 km/h). ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Species  Okapia johnstoni  Giraffa camelopardalis The biological family Giraffidae contains just two members, the Giraffe and the Okapi. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal living in the Ituri Rainforest in the north east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in central Africa. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal living in the Ituri Rainforest in the north east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in central Africa. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... Binomial name Moschus mosciferus Linnaeus, 1758 The Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer (not to be confused with deer mice, Peromyscus), make up the family Tragulidae. ... Category: Possible copyright violations ... Category: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Muntjac are deer of the genus Muntiacus, also known as Barking Deer. ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The Common Muntjac, also called Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) is the most numerous muntjac deer species. ... Binomial name Muntiacus reevesi (Ogilby, 1839) Formosan Reevess Muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi; Chinese name: 山羌), or just Reevess Muntjac, is an endemic muntjac species of Taiwan. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Crinifrons (Sclater, 1885) The Hairy-fronted muntjac, also known as Black muntjac, lives in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian in South China, also reported in Myanmar. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Feae (Thomas & Doria, 1889) Feas muntjac (also known as Tenasserim muntjac from the region of Myanmar) is a rare species of muntjac living in the Myanmar-Thailand-Laos-China border region. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Atherodes (Groves & Grubb, 1982) The Bornean Yellow Muntjac is restricted to the moist forests of Borneo where it lives alongside the common muntjac. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Rooseveltorum (, ) A single specimen of the Roosevelts Muntjac was presented to the Field Museum in 1929 following a hunting expedition led by Theodore (Jnr) and Kermit Roosevelt. ... Binomial name Muntiacus Gongshanensis (Ma, 1990) The Gongshan muntjac was recently identified by Chinese scientists as a new species of muntjac living in the Gongshan mountains in Yunnan, western China and neighbouring Tibet. ... Binomial name Muntiacus vuquangensis Wemmer et al. ... Binomial name Muntiacus truongsonensis Giao et al. ... Binomial name Muntiacus putaoensis Amato, Egan & Rabinowitz, 1999 The leaf muntjac or leaf deer (Muntiacus putaoensis) is a small species of muntjac. ... Binomial name Elaphodus cephalophus (Milne-Edwards, 1872) The Tufted Deer is a close relative of the muntjac, living somewhat further north over a wide area of central China and northeastern India and Myanmar. ... Binomial name Elaphodus cephalophus (Milne-Edwards, 1872) The Tufted Deer is a close relative of the muntjac, living somewhat further north over a wide area of central China and northeastern India and Myanmar. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... species See text. ... This article is about the species of deer. ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... Thorolds deer has the scientific name Cervus Albirostris Przewalski. ... Binomial name Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838 Subspecies The Sika Deer Cervus nippon is a typical member of the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Cervus duvaucelii (G. Cuvier, 1823) The Barasingha (sometimes spelt Barasinga) is a type of deer, native to India and Nepal. ... Binomial name Cervus eldii (MClelland, 1842) The Elds Deer (Cervus eldii), also called the Thamin or Brow-antlered Deer, is a deer indigenous to Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Cervus unicolor (Kerr, 1792) Sambar Sambar in forest Sambar (also sambur, sambhur), is the common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species, which attains a height of 102 to 160 cm (40 to 63 in) at the shoulder and may... [[Image:Example. ... Binomial name Cervus mariannus The Philippine Sambar (Cervus mariannus) is one of three species of deer that is native to the forests of much of the Philippines. ... Binomial name Cervus alfredi Sclater, 1870 The Philippine Spotted Deer (Cervus alfredi) is a species of deer that is native to the forests of the Philippines. ... Species Axis axis Axis calamianensis Axis kuhlii Axis porcinus Axis is a genus of deer. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) The chital (or cheetal) deer, also known as the spotted deer or axis deer is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, and most of India. ... Binomial name Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 The Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) is small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to Myanmar, with a secondary range in southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Axis calamianensis Huede, 1888 The Calamian Deer, Axis calamianensis also known as Calamian Hog Deer is a species of deer found only in the Calamian Group of Islands of Palawan Province of the Philippines. ... Binomial name Axis kuhlii Müller, 1840 The Bawean Deer, Axis kuhlii also known as Kuhls Hog Deer or Bawean Hog Deer is a species of deer found only in the island of Bawean in Indonesia. ... Binomial name Elaphurus davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1866 Père Davids deer (Elaphurus davidianus, other names: Cerf du Père David, Ciervo del Padre David, and Milu in Chinese (麋鹿)), is a species of deer known only in captivity. ... Binomial name Elaphurus davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1866 Père Davids deer (Elaphurus davidianus, other names: Cerf du Père David, Ciervo del Padre David, and Milu in Chinese (麋鹿)), is a species of deer known only in captivity. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Dama mesopotamica (Brooke,, 1875) The Persian Fallow Deer (Dama mesopotamica) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ... Binomial name Hydropotes inermis (Swinhoe, 1870) The Water Deer is superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer (cervidae) but it is classified as a cervid despite having tusks (downward-pointing canine teeth) instead of antlers and other anatomical anomalies. ... Genera Alces Blastocerus Capreolus Hippocamelus Mazama Odocoileus Ozotoceros Pudu Rangifer Capreolinae is a subfamily of deer. ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 Subspecies Odocoileus virginianus clavium Odocoileus virginianus leucurus Odocoileus virginianus virginianus The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America far... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America, northern portions of South America as far south as Peru, and... Binomial name (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) The Marsh Deer, Blastocerus dichotomus, is the largest deer species from South America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) The Marsh Deer, Blastocerus dichotomus, is the largest deer species from South America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Pampas Deer, Ozotocerus bezoarticus, is a deer species from South America. ... Binomial name Blastocerus dichotomus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Pampas Deer, Ozotocerus bezoarticus, is a deer species from South America. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species of the Mazama genus found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... Binomial name Mazama gouazoubyra (Fischer, 1814) The Gray Brocket, Mazama gouazoubyra, is a Brocket Deer species from South America and from Panama. ... The Mazama nana, or Pygmy Brocket Deer, is very small in size. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... Species Brocket Deer are a group of deer species found in South America and the Yucatan Peninsula. ... The pudú (Pudu spp. ... The pudú (Pudu spp. ... Binomial name dOrbigny, 1834 The Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), or North Andean Deer, is a species of deer that ranges across the Northern Andes of Peru and Bolivia. ... Species Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782 Hippocamelus antisensis |} The Huemul is an endangered mammal of the Cervidae family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... Binomial name Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771 Subspecies C. p. ... Caribou redirects here. ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ... Genera Cephalophus Sylvicapra A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species native to sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name True, 1890 Abbotts Duiker (Cephalophus spadix also known as Minde in Swahili) is a large forest dwelling Duiker (small antelope) found only in a couple of scattered enclaves in Tanzania. ... Binomial name Cephalophus adersi Thomas, 1918 The Aders Duiker (Cephalophus adersi also known as Nunga in Swahili, Kunga marara in Kipokomo and Harake in Giriama) is a small forest dwelling Duiker found only on Zanzibar and in a small coastal enclave in Kenya. ... Binomial name Cephalophus dorsalis Gray, 1849 The Bay Duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis also known as the Black-Backed Duiker) is a forest dwelling Duiker found in Gabon, southern Cameroon and northern Congo as well as Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the southern parts of Cote dIvoire, Ghana and Benin. ... Binomial name Cephalophus niger Gray, 1846 Black Duiker (Cephalophus niger also known as Tuba in Dyula) is a forest dwelling Duiker found in the southern parts of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria. ... Binomial name Cephalophus monticola Thunberg, 1789 Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola) is a small forest dwelling Duiker found in the Central Africa and southern South Africa. ... Harveys Red Duiker Harveys Red Duiker (Cephalophus harveyi) is one of 19 species of duiker found in Africa. ... Binomial name Cephalophus jentinki Thomas, 1892 Jentinks Duiker (Cephalophus jentinki also known as Gidi-Gidi in Krio, and Kaikulowulei in Mende) is a forest dwelling Duiker found in the southern parts of Liberia, south-western Côte dIvoire, and scattered enclaves in Sierra Leone. ... Binomial name Cephalophus maxwellii H. Smith, 1871 Maxwells Duikers (Cephalophus maxwellii), are small antelopes found in western Africa. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: patent nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Binomial name Cephalophus rufilatus Gray, 1846 The Red-flanked Duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus), is a tiny antelope found in western and central Africa. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Binomial name Cephalophus silvicultor (Afzelius, 1815) The Yellow-backed Duiker (Cephalophus silvicultor), is a antelope found in central and western Africa. ... Binomial name Cephalophus zebra Gray, 1838 The Zebra Duiker (Cephalophus zebra), is a small antelope found in Ivory Coast, and Liberia. ... Binomial name Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Duiker. ... Binomial name Sylvicapra grimmia (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Duiker. ... Genera Hippotragus Oryx Addax A grazing antelope is any of the 6 species of antelope that make up the subfamily Hippotraginae in the family Bovidae, which also includes sheep, goats, and cattle. ... Species Hippotragus equinus Hippotragus niger Hippotragus is a genus of antelope. ... Binomial name Hippotragus equinus Desmarest, 1804 The Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is a grassland antelope found in West, Central,East Africa and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838 The Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger) is an antelope that inhabits wooded savannah in East Africa south of Kenya, and in Southern Africa. ... Species Oryx beisa Rüppell, 1835 Oryx dammah Cretzschmar, 1827 Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758) Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1766 An Oryx is one of three or four large antelope species of the genus Oryx, typically having long straight almost upright or swept back horns. ... Binomial name Oryx beisa Rüppell, 1835 The East African Oryx (Oryx beisa, also known as the Beisa Oryx) found in steppe and semi-desert throughout the Horn of Africa and in parts of Tanzania. ... | color = pink | name = Scimitar Oryx | status = EW | status_system = iucn2. ... Binomial name Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758) The gemsbok or gemsbuck (Oryx gazella) is a large African oryx antelope. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1766 The Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is a bovid and the smallest member of Oryx genus, native to desert and steppe areas of the Arabian peninsula. ... Binomial name Addax nasomaculatus (Blainville, 1816) The Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is a critically endangered desert antelope that lives in several isolated regions in the Sahara. ... Binomial name Addax nasomaculatus (Blainville, 1816) The Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is a critically endangered desert antelope that lives in several isolated regions in the Sahara. ... Genera Kobus Redunca The subfamily Reduncinae is composed 8 species of antelope all of which dwell in marshes, floodplains or other well-watered areas, including the waterbucks and reedbucks. ... Binomial name Kobus anselli Cotterill, 2005 The Upemba Lechwe Kobus anselli is a species of antelope found only in the Upemba wetlands in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Binomial name Kobus ellipsiprymnus (Ogilby, 1833) The Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) is an antelope found in Western, Central Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Kobus kob (Erxleben, 1777) The Kob (Kobus kob) is an antelope found across Sub-Saharan West Africa. ... Binomial name Kobus leche Gray, 1850 The Lechwe (Kobus leche) is an antelope found in Okavango Delta of Botswana, the Kafue Flats and Bengwelu Swamps of Zambia, and the very southeast of Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Binomial name Kobus megaceros Fitzingger, 1855 The Nile Lechwe (Kobus megaceros) is an antelope found in floodplains in southern Sudan. ... Binomial name Kobus vardonii (Livingstone, 1857) The Puku (Kobus vardonii) is an antelope found in wet grasslands in southern Democratic Republic of Congo and in Zambia. ... Species Redunca arundinum Redunca fulvorufula Redunca redunca Reedbuck is a common name for African antelopes from the genus Reducna. ... Binomial name Redunca arundinum (Boddaert, 1785) The Southern Reedbuck (Redunca arundinum) is an antelope, found in Angola, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and northern South Africa. ... Binomial name Redunca fulvorufula (Boddaert, 1785) The Mountain Reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) is an antelope, found in north-eastern South Africa. ... Binomial name Redunca redunca (Pallas, 1767) The Bohor Reedbuck (Redunca redunca) is an antelope native to central Africa, mostly living in grassland areas near water. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Forster, 1790) The Grey Rhebok or Grey Rhebuck (Pelea capreolus, locally known as the Vaal Rhebok or Vaalribbok) is a species of antelope endemic to South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... Binomial name (Forster, 1790) The Grey Rhebok or Grey Rhebuck (Pelea capreolus, locally known as the Vaal Rhebok or Vaalribbok) is a species of antelope endemic to South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... Binomial name (Forster, 1790) The Grey Rhebok or Grey Rhebuck (Pelea capreolus, locally known as the Vaal Rhebok or Vaalribbok) is a species of antelope endemic to South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... Genera  Beatragus  Damaliscus  Alcelaphus  Sigmoceros  Connochaetes The subfamily Alcelaphinae contains Wildebeest, Hartebeest, Bonteboks and several similar species. ... Binomial name Beatragus hunteri Sclater, 1889 The Hirola (Beatragus hunteri, sometimes Damaliscus hunteri also known as Hunters Haartebeest) is found in arid grassy plains in a pocket on the border between Kenya and Somalia. ... Binomial name Beatragus hunteri Sclater, 1889 The Hirola (Beatragus hunteri, sometimes Damaliscus hunteri also known as Hunters Haartebeest) is found in arid grassy plains in a pocket on the border between Kenya and Somalia. ... Species Damaliscus lunatus Damaliscus pygargus Damaliscus is a genus of antelope in the family Bovidae, subfamily Alcelaphinae. ... Binomial name Damaliscus pygargus Pallas, 1767 The Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus also the Blesbok) is an antelope found in South Africa and Lesotho. ... Binomial name Alcelaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766 The Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is a grassland antelope found in West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Alcelaphus buselaphus Pallas, 1766 The Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) is a grassland antelope found in West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa. ... Binomial name Sigmoceros lichtensteinii Peters, 1849 Lichtensteins Hartebeest (Sigmoceros lichtensteinii) is a savannah and floodplain dwelling antelope found in southern Central Africa. ... Species Connochaetes gnou Connochaetes taurinus The wildebeest (plural, wildebeest or wildebeests), also called the gnu (pronounced or ), is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. ... Binomial name Connochaetes gnou Fouche, 1823 The Black Wildebeest or White-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou) natural populations of this species, endemic to the southern region of Africa, have been almost completely exterminated, but the species has been reintroduced widely, both in private areas and nature reserves throughout most of Lesotho... Binomial name (Burchell, 1823) The Blue Wildebeest is a large ungulate mammal of the genus Connochaetes which grows to 1. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Genera Capricornis Nemorhaedus Rupicapra Oreamnos Budorcas Ovibos Hemitragus Ammotragus Pseudois Capra Ovis Pantholops A goat antelope is any of the species of mostly medium-sized herbivores that make up the subfamily Caprinae or the single species in subfamily Panthalopinae. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Genera See text Antilopinae is a subfamily of Bovidae. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Genera Capricornis Nemorhaedus Rupicapra Oreamnos Budorcas Ovibos Hemitragus Ammotragus Pseudois Capra Ovis Pantholops A goat antelope is any of the species of mostly medium-sized herbivores that make up the subfamily Caprinae or the single species in subfamily Panthalopinae. ... Binomial name Ammotragus lervia Pall. ... Binomial name Ammotragus lervia Pall. ... Binomial name Budorcas taxicolor Hodgson, 1850 The Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a goat-antelope found in heavily forested areas of the Eastern Himalayas. ... Binomial name Budorcas taxicolor Hodgson, 1850 The Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a goat-antelope found in heavily forested areas of the Eastern Himalayas. ... This article is about the Capra genus of animals and the Goat species. ... Binomial name Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Subspecies Capra aegagrus aegagrus Capra aegagrus blythi Capra aegagrus chialtanensis Capra aegagrus cretica Capra aegagrus hircus Capra aegagrus turcmenica The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a common type of goat species, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and... Binomial name Capra caucasica Güldenstaedt and Pallas, 1783 The West Caucasian Tur (Capra caucasica) is a mountain dwelling goat antelope found only in the western half of the Caucasus Mountain range. ... Binomial name Capra cylindricornis Blyth, 1841 The East Caucasian Tur (Capra cylindricornis) is a mountain dwelling goat antelope found only in the eastern half of the Caucasus Mountains. ... Binomial name Capra falconeri (Wagner, 1839) The Markhor (Capra falconeri) is a goat-antelope found in sparse woodland in the Western Himalayas. ... Binomial name Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758 The Alpine Ibex or Capra Ibex (is commonly called by its German name, steinbock) is the species of Ibex that lives in the European Alps. ... Binomial name Capra nubiana F. Cuvier, 1825 The Nubian Ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) is a rocky desert dwelling goat antelope found in mountainous areas of Israel, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Egypt and Sudan. ... Binomial name Capra pyrenaica Schinz, 1838 The Iberian or Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is a type of ibex that had four subspecies. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1776 The Siberian Ibex (Capra sibirica) is a species of ibex that lives in the Central Asia and Northern Asia. ... Binomial name Capra walie Rüppell, 1835 The Walia Ibex (Capra walie) is a species of Ibex that is critically endangered. ... Genus Hemitragus Nilgiritragus Arabitragus Himalayan Tahr Young Himalayan Tahr Tahrs are three species of large ungulates closely related to the wild goat. ... Binomial name Nilgiritragus hylocrius (Ogilby, 1838) The Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) ungulate native to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of southernmost India. ... Binomial name Hemitragus jayakari Thomas, 1894 The Arabian tahr (Hemitragus jayakari) is a species of tahr native to Arabia. ... Binomial name Hemitragus jemlahicus (H. Smith, 1826) Himalayan Tahr Young Himalayan Tahr The Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) is a large ungulate and a close relative to the wild goat, with its habitat in the rugged wooded hills and mountain slopes of the Himalaya from northern India to Tibet, They spend... Binomial name Pocock, 1914 The Red Goral (Naemorhedus baileyi) is a species of even-toed ungulate in the Bovidae family. ... Binomial name Nemorhaedus crispus Temminck, 1845 The Japanese Serow, or Kamoshika (Nemorhaedus crispus) is a goat-antelope found in dense woodland on Honshu, Japan. ... Binomial name Nemorhaedus goral (Hardwicke, 1825) The Gray Goral, Nemorhaedus goral, is a small, rough-haired, cylindrical-horned ruminant native to the Himalayas. ... Binomial name Capricornis sumatraensis Linnaeus, 1758 The Mainland Serow, Capricornis sumatraensis is an endangered species of mammal. ... Binomial name Taiwan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) is a small bovid live on Taiwan island. ... Rocky Mountain Goat and Mountain Goats redirect here. ... Rocky Mountain Goat and Mountain Goats redirect here. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Ovis ammon (Linnaeus, 1758) The mountain sheep (species Ovis ammon) is the globally endangered wild sheep, which roams the highlands of Central Asia (Himalaya, Tibet, Altay). ... Sheep redirects here. ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... Binomial name Nelson, 1884 The Dall Sheep (originally Dalls Sheep, sometimes called Thinhorn Sheep), Ovis dalli, is a wild sheep of the mountainous regions of northwest North America, ranging from white to slate brown and having curved yellowish brown horns. ... Binomial name Ovis musimon, Ovis ammon musimon, Ovis orientalis Pallas, 1762 European Mouflon The Mouflon is a species of wild sheep and as such is one of the Caprinae or goat antelopes. It is thought to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds[1]. It... Binomial name Ovis nivicola Eschscholtz, 1829 The snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) is a species of sheep, which comes from the northeast of Siberia. ... Binomial name Ovis vignei Blyth, 1841 The Urial is a medium-sized wild sheep and as such is considered a member of the goat antelope subfamily. ... Binomial name Pseudois nayaur Hodgson, 1833 The bharal or Himalayan blue sheep is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of Nepal, Tibet, China, throughout Northern Pakistan and Kashmir region. ... Binomial name Pseudois shaeferi Haltenorth, 1963 The Dwarf Blue Sheep or Dwarf Bharal Pseudois schaeferi is an endangered species of caprid found in China and Tibet. ... Rupicapra is a genus of the family Bovidae (bovids), which contains two species: Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). ... Binomial name Rupicapra pyrenaica (Bonaparte, 1845) The Pyrenean Chamois, (French: Izard or Isard, Spanish Rebeco or Sarrio, Catalan: Isard ) Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica is a Goat antelope that lives in the Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and Apennine Mountains. ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Binomial name Tetracerus quadricornis Blainville, 1816 The Four-horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) also known as the chousingha is an antelope found in open forest in South Asia. ... Binomial name Tetracerus quadricornis Blainville, 1816 The Four-horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) also known as the chousingha is an antelope found in open forest in South Asia. ... Binomial name Boselaphus tragocamelus Pall. ... Binomial name Boselaphus tragocamelus Pall. ... Tribes Bovini The Bovini tribe is made up of large to very large grazers, including large animals of great economic significance to humans in Domestic Cattle, Water Buffalo, and the Yak, as well as smaller Asian relatives, and large free-roaming bovids in the African Buffalo and the American Bison. ... Species Bubalus arnee Bubalus depressicornis Bubalus quarlesi Bubalus mindorensis Bubalus is a genus of bovines, the English name of which is buffalo. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The domestic buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo is abundant in Asia, and South America. ... Binomial name Bubalus quarlesi (Ouwens, 1910) Bubalus depressicornis (H. Smith, 1827) There are two species of anoa: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). ... Binomial name Bubalus quarlesi (Ouwens, 1910) Bubalus depressicornis (H. Smith, 1827) There are two species of anoa: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). ... Binomial name Bubalus mindorensis (Heude, 1888) The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis; previously Anoa mindorensis), Tamarao or Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo is a bovine endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. ... Species B. acutifrons † B. aegyptiacus † B. frontalis B. gaurus B. grunniens B. javanicus B. planifrons † B. primigenius † B. sauveli B. taurus Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle or oxen. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bos sauveli Urbain, 1937 The Kouprey (Bos sauveli also known as Kouproh) is a wild forest dwelling ox found mainly in northern Cambodia but also believed to be found in southern Laos, western Vietnam, and eastern Thailand. ... Binomial name Peter and Feiler, 1994 The Kting Voar, also known as the Khting Vor, Linh Duong, or Snake-eating Cow (Pseudonovibos spiralis) is a bovid mammal reputed to exist in Cambodia and Vietnam. ... Binomial name Peter and Feiler, 1994 The Kting Voar, also known as the Khting Vor, Linh Duong, or Snake-eating Cow (Pseudonovibos spiralis) is a bovid mammal reputed to exist in Cambodia and Vietnam. ... Binomial name Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander, MacKinnon, 1993 The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), one of the worlds rarest mammals, is a forest-dwelling bovine found only in Vietnam (Vu Quang Nature Reserve) and in Laos, near the Vietnam... Binomial name Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander, MacKinnon, 1993 The Saola or Vu Quang ox, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), one of the worlds rarest mammals, is a forest-dwelling bovine found only in Vietnam (Vu Quang Nature Reserve) and in Laos, near the Vietnam... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Species T. spekeii T. angasii T. scriptus T. buxtoni T. imberbis T. strepsiceros T. eurycerus The genus Tragelaphus contains several species of bovine, all of which are reletivly antelope-like. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus spekeii Sclater, 1863 The sitatunga or marshbuck (Tragelaphus spekeii) is a swamp-dwelling antelope found throughout Central Africa centering on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in Botswana and in Zambia. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus angasii Gray, 1849 Male nyala. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus scriptus Pallas, 1766 The Bushbuck (Traelaphus scriptus) is an antelope that is found in forest and woodland throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus buxtoni Lydekker, 1910 The Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni known in Ethiopian as Azagen) is an antelope found in high altitude woodland in a small part of central Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Tragelaphus imberbis (Blyth, 1869) The Lesser Kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) are forest antelope found in East Africa and (possibly) the southern Arabian Peninsula. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Ogilby, 1837 Binomial name Ogilby, 1837 The Western or Lowland Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus, is a herbivorous, mostly nocturnal forest ungulate and among the largest of the African forest antelope species. ... Species Taurotragus oryx Taurotragus derbianus Taurotragus is a genus of antelopes, containing two species: the Common Eland, and the Giant Eland. ... Binomial name Taurotragus oryx Pallas, 1766 The Common Eland (Taurotragus oryx) is a savannah and plain antelope found in East and Southern Africa. ... A Giant Eland Binomial name Taurotragus derbianus Gray, 1847 The Giant Eland (Taurotragus derbianus also known as the Derby Eland) is an open forest savannah antelope. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Genera See text Antilopinae is a subfamily of Bovidae. ... The dibatag, or Clarks gazelle, Ammodorcas clarkei, is an antelope found in sandy grasslands of Ethiopia and Somalia. ... The dibatag, or Clarks gazelle, Ammodorcas clarkei, is an antelope found in sandy grasslands of Ethiopia and Somalia. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map For other meanings of Springbok, see Springbok The Springbok (Afrikaans and Dutch: spring = jump; bok = antelope, deer, or goat) (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a small brown and white gazelle that stands about 75 cm high. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map For other meanings of Springbok, see Springbok The Springbok (Afrikaans and Dutch: spring = jump; bok = antelope, deer, or goat) (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a small brown and white gazelle that stands about 75 cm high. ... For other uses, see Blackbuck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blackbuck (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Gazella gazella (Pallas, 1766) The Mountain Gazelle (Gazella gazella) is a species of gazelle that is widely but unevenly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula. ... Binomial name Gazella spekei Blyth, 1863 Spekes Gazelle (Gazella spekei) is the smallest of the gazelle species. ... Binomial name Gazella dorcas Linneaus, 1758 The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is not the smallest of the gazelles nor the most common, but it is pretty small and it is pretty common. ... The Saudi Gazelle, or is a species of gazelle. ... Binomial name Gazella bennettii (Sykes, 1831) The Chinkara is a species of gazelle found in South Asia. ... Binomial name Günther, 1884 Male Thompsons gazelle. ... Binomial name (Gray, 1846) The Red-fronted Gazelle (Gazella rufifrons) is a species of gazelle that is widely but unevenly distributed across the middle Africa from Senegal to north-eastern Ethiopia. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1766) Synonyms Nanger dama The Dama Gazelle (Gazella dama), also known as the Addra Gazelle, is a species of gazelle. ... Binomial name Gazella granti Brooke, 1872 Subspecies Gazella granti lacuum Gazella granti granti Gazella granti brighti Gazella granti petersi Gazella granti robertsi Grants Gazelle, Gazella granti, is a species of large, pale, fawn-colored African gazelle with long legs and lyre-shaped horns. ... Binomial name Cretzschmar, 1828 Soemmerrings Gazelle (Gazella soemmerringii) is a gazelle that lives in eastern Africa. ... Binomial name Gazella cuvieri (Ogilby, 1841) Cuviers Gazelle Gazella cuvieri is a species of gazelle from northern Africa. ... Binomial name Gazella leptoceros (F. Cuvier, 1842) The Rhim Gazelle (Gazella leptoceros) is a slender-horned gazelle, most adapted to desert life. ... Binomial name (Güldenstädt, 1780) The Goitered, Black-tailed or Persian gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) is a gazelle found in a large area of central Asia, including part of Iran and southern west Pakistan in the western end of the range, as well as the Gobi desert. ... Binomial name Litocranius walleri (Brooke, 1878) The Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) is an antelope-like animal, closely related to the gazelle, found in East Africa. ... Binomial name Litocranius walleri (Brooke, 1878) The Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) is an antelope-like animal, closely related to the gazelle, found in East Africa. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1777) The Zeren or Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa is a medium-sized antelope native to the steppe and semi-arid regions of Mongolia and adjacent areas of China and southern Siberia. ... Binomial name Procapra picticaudata Hodgson, 1846 The Goa (Procapra picticaudata), also known as the Tibetan Gazelle, is a species of antelope which inhabits the Himalayan region. ... Binomial name Procapra przewalskii Büchner, 1891 Przewalskis Gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) is a member of the Bovide family and is found only in China. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Binomial name Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope The Saiga (Saiga tatarica) is an antelope which inhabits a vast area between Kalmykia, Kazakhstan, southern Siberia, and northwestern China. ... Binomial name Saiga tatarica Saiga Antelope The Saiga (Saiga tatarica) is an antelope which inhabits a vast area between Kalmykia, Kazakhstan, southern Siberia, and northwestern China. ... The Tribe Neotragini comprises the dwarf antelopes of Africa: Dorcatragus Beira Dorcatragus megalotis Madoqua Günthers Dik-dik Modoqua guntheri Kirks Dik-dik Madoqua kirkii Silver Dik-dik Madoqua piacentinii Salts Dik-dik Madoqua saltiana Neotragus Batess Pygmy Antelope Neotragus batesi Suni Neotragus moschatus Royal Antelope... Binomial name Dorcatragus megalotis Menges, 1894 The Beira (Dorcatragus megalotis) is a small antelope that inhabits arid regions of Somalia, Djibouti and eastern Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Dorcatragus megalotis Menges, 1894 The Beira (Dorcatragus megalotis) is a small antelope that inhabits arid regions of Somalia, Djibouti and eastern Ethiopia. ... The dik-dik is a small antelope named for the sound it makes when alarmed that lives in the brush of southern and eastern Africa. ... Binomial name Madoqua guntheri (Thomas, 1894) The Günthers Dik-dik (Mandoqua guntheri), is a small antelope found in eastern Africa. ... Binomial name Madoqua kirkii (Günther, 1880) The Kirks Dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii), is a small antelope found in eastern and southwestern Africa. ... Binomial name Madoqua piacentinii (Drake-Brockman, 1911) The Silver Dik-dik (Madoqua piacentinii) is a small antelope found in the Horn of Africa region, mostly coastal Somalia. ... Binomial name Madoqua saltiana Desmarest, 1816 Salts dik-dik (Mandoqua saltiana) is a small antelope found in semi-desert vegetation and arid thornbrush of East Africa. ... Species Neotragus batesi Neotragus moschatus Neotragus pygmaeus Neotragus is a genus of antelope. ... Binomial name Neotragus batesi de Winton, 1903 The Batess Pygmy Antelope (Neotragus batesi)—also known as the Dwarf Antelope or Bates Dwarf Antelope—is a very small antelope live in the moist forest and brush of Central and West Africa. ... Suni (Scientific name: Neotragus moschatus) are the smallest antelopes in the world. ... Binomial name Neotragus pygmaeus L., 1758 The Royal Antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus) is a very small West African antelope, only 25-30 cm tall, and the smallest of all antelopes. ... Binomial name Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmerman, 1783) The Klipspringer (literally rock jumper in Afrikaans), Oreotragus oreotragus, also known colloquially as a mvundla (from Xhosa umvundla, meaning rabbit), is a small African antelope that lives from the Cape of Good Hope all the way up East Africa and into Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmerman, 1783) The Klipspringer (literally rock jumper in Afrikaans), Oreotragus oreotragus, also known colloquially as a mvundla (from Xhosa umvundla, meaning rabbit), is a small African antelope that lives from the Cape of Good Hope all the way up East Africa and into Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Ourebia ourebi Zimmermann, 1782 // Oribi are graceful slender-legged, long-necked small antelope found in grassland almost throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Ourebia ourebi Zimmermann, 1782 // Oribi are graceful slender-legged, long-necked small antelope found in grassland almost throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Raphicerus campestris Thunberg, 1811 The Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a common small antelope of southern and eastern Africa. ... Binomial name Raphicerus melanotis Thunberg, 1811 Southern or Cape Grysbok (Raphicerus melanotis) is a small antelope that inhabits the Western Cape region of South Africa between Albany and the Cedarberg Mountains. ... Families  Suidae  Tayassuidae  Hippopotamidae The Suina contains the earliest and most archaic Artiodactyla. ... Genera Babirusas, Babyrousa Giant forest hogs, Hylochoerus Warthogs, Phacochoerus Bush pigs, Potamochoerus Pigs, Sus Suidae is the biological family to which pigs and their relatives belong. ... Binomial name Babyrousa babyrussa Linnaeus,, 1758 Bizzare 4 tusk babirusa from Indonesian region. ... Binomial name Babyrousa babyrussa Linnaeus,, 1758 Bizzare 4 tusk babirusa from Indonesian region. ... Binomial name Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Thomas, 1904 The Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) is the largest wild member of the pig family Suidae. ... Binomial name Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Thomas, 1904 The Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) is the largest wild member of the pig family Suidae. ... Phacochoerus is a genus of even-toed ungulate in the Suidae family. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1766) This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Sus salvanius Hodgson, 1847 Pygmy hogs (Sus salvanius) are an endangered species of small wild pig, previously spread across India, Nepal, and Bhutan but now only found in Assam. ... Binomial name Sus salvanius Hodgson, 1847 Pygmy hogs (Sus salvanius) are an endangered species of small wild pig, previously spread across India, Nepal, and Bhutan but now only found in Assam. ... Binomial name Potamochoerus larvatus (Cuvier, 1822) The Bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) is a very hairy member of the pig family that lives in forest thickets, riverine vegetation and reedbeds close to water in Africa. ... Binomial name Potamochoerus porcus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red River Hog (Potamochoerus porcus) is a wild member of the pig family that lives in the rainforests, mountains and brushes of Africa. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sus barbatus Müller, 1838 Subspecies Sus barbatus oi Sus barbatus barbatus Sus barbatus ahoenobarbus The Bearded Pig (Wattrash) (Sus barbatus) is a species of pig. ... Binomial name Sus cebifrons Linnaeus, 1758 The Visayan warty pig, Sus cebifrons is a critically endangered species of pig. ... Binomial name Müller & Schlegel, 1843 The Celebes Warty Pig (Sus celebensis), Sulawesi warty pig or Sulawesi Pig, lives on Sulawesi in Indonesia. ... English: Philippine warty pig Filipino: Baboy damo The Philippine warty pig is found in the islands of Luzon, Biliran, Mindoro, Mindanao and Polillo. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name Müller, 1840 The Javan Pig or Javan Warty Pig (Sus verrucosus) is a species of even-toed ungulate in the Suidae family. ... Species Tayassu Tayassu tajacu Tayassu pecari Catagonus Catagonus wagneri The peccaries (also known by its Spanish name, javelina or pecarí) are medium-sized mammals of the family Tayassuidae. ... Binomial name Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795) White-lipped Peccary, Tayassu pecari, is a peccary species found in North, Central and South America, living in rainforest, dry forest and chaco scrub. ... Binomial name Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795) White-lipped Peccary, Tayassu pecari, is a peccary species found in North, Central and South America, living in rainforest, dry forest and chaco scrub. ... Binomial name Catagonus wagneri Wetzel , 1975 The Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri), is the closest living relative to the extinct Platygonus pearcei. ... Binomial name Catagonus wagneri Wetzel , 1975 The Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri), is the closest living relative to the extinct Platygonus pearcei. ... Binomial name Tayassu tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758) Collared Peccary, Tayassu tajacu, is a peccary species found in North, Central and South America, living in many habitats, from dry, Sonoran desert and chaco to deep rainforest. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama guanicoe  Vicugna vicugna  Camelus dromedarius  Camelus bactrianus The four llamas and two camels are camelids: members of the biological family Camelidae, the only family in the suborder Tylopoda. ... Map of the world showing distribution of camelids. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama huonaeus Lama, the modern genus name for a small group of closely allied animals, which, before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, were the only domesticated ungulates of the continent. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 Dromedary range The Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) (often referred to simply as the Dromedary) is a large even-toed ungulate native to northern Africa, Greater Middle East area and western India, also the land of east Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ... Orders Order: Cetacea Suborders: Suina Tylopoda Ruminantia Family: Hippopotamidae Humpback Whale breaching. ... Genera Hippopotamus Phanourios Hexaprotodon Archaeopotamus Choeropsis Saotherium Hippopotami (colloquially also Hippopotamuses) are the members of the family Hippopotamidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... Binomial name Hexaprotodon liberiensis (Morton, 1849) The Pygmy Hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) is a large mammal native to the forests and swamps of western Africa (the species name, meaning of Liberia, reflects this). ... Binomial name (Morton, 1849)[2] Range map[1] Subspecies C. l. ... In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field on an escutcheon (or shield). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... The winged lion of Mark the Evangelist for centuries has been the national emblem and landmark of Venice (detail from a painting by Vittore Carpaccio, 1516) The lion is a common charge in heraldry. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Rooster (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... The Polish coat of arms has an eagle as the main subject. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rook. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ... The biscione as a symbol of Milan, seen here at the Central Station The biscione, together with the Imperial eagle, on the coat of arms of the Duchy of Milan The Biscione (‘large grass snake’), also known as the Vipera (‘viper’ or in Milanese as the Bissa), is a heraldic... Cockatrice A cockatrice is a legendary creature, an ornament in the drama and poetry of the Elizabethans (Breiner). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... Roman griffon, Turkey The griffin (also spelled gryphon, griffon or gryphin) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion, the head of an eagle and the ears of a horse or a donkey. ... Manticore illustration from The History of Four-footed Beasts (1607) For other uses, see Manticore (disambiguation). ... A martlet is a type of heraldic bird similar to the swallow, but having no feet. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... A 16th-century image of a salamander from M. M. Pattison Muirs The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry The salamander an amphibian of the order Urodela. ... The gentle and pensive maiden has the power to tame the unicorn, in this fresco in Palazzo Farnese, Rome, probably by Domenichino, ca 1602 For other uses, see Unicorn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wyvern (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...

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About Cattle (846 words)
Cattle spend approximately six hours each day eating and eight more hours chewing cud, a combination of semi-digested food and bile that must be further broken down before the plant fibers are digestible for the animal.
Cattle may also use a call to regain contact with a companion after they've been separated; as a prime example, when newly born calves are removed from their mothers, the cow will call to her child for days.
The HSUS is working to stop one of the cruelest practices that cattle endure on factory farms, that of keeping veal calves in crates.
Cattle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2441 words)
Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae.
Cattle are ruminants, meaning that they have a unique digestive system that allows them to digest otherwise unpalatable foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as "cud." The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialized bacterial, protozoal and fungal microbes that live in the rumen.
Cattle are often raised by allowing herds to graze on the grasses of large tracts of rangeland called ranches.
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