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Encyclopedia > Catskill Park
Catskill Park
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location: New York, USA
Nearest city: Kingston
Coordinates: 42°00′00″N, 74°30′00″W
Area: 700,000 acres (2,800 km²)
Established: 1885
Visitation: 553,000 (in 2002)
Governing body: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

The Catskill State Park, also called Catskill Park, is in the Catskill Mountains in New York in the United States. It consists of 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) of land inside a Blue Line in four counties: Delaware, Greene, Sullivan, and Ulster. As of 2005 there are 287,514 acres (1,150 km²), or 41 percent of the land within, owned by the state as part of the Forest Preserve; it is managed by the Department of Environmental Conversation (DEC). Another 5% is owned by New York City to protect four of the city’s reservoirs in the region that lie partially within the park and their respective watersheds. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... NY redirects here. ... Kingston is a city in Ulster County, New York, United States. ... The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC or DEC) is responsible for the conservation, improvement, and protection of natural resources within the U.S. state of New York. ... Catskill Escarpment and Blackhead Range as seen from Overlook Mountain The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are not, despite their popular name, true geological mountains, but rather a mature dissected plateau... NY redirects here. ... Delaware County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Greene County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Sullivan County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the states beautiful Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Yorks Forest Preserve is all the land owned by the state within the Adirondack and Catskill parks, managed by its Department of Environmental Conservation. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ...


There are bobcats, minks and fishers in the preserve, and coyotes are often heard. There are some 400 black bears living in the region. The state operates numerous campgrounds and there are over 300 miles (480 km) of multi-use trails. Hunting is permitted, in season, in much of the park. It has approximately 50,000 permanent residents, bolstered somewhat by second-home ownership on weekends and in the summer, and attracts about half a million visitors every year. Binomial name Lynx rufus Schreber, 1777 The Bobcat (Lynx rufus, or commonly Felis rufus) is a wild cat native to North America. ... An American Mink, Mustela vison, in the wild. ... Binomial name Martes pennanti (Erxleben, 1777) The fisher, Martes pennanti, is a North American marten . ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog) also prairie wolf [2]) is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and a relative of the domestic dog. ... Binomial name Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780 The American black bear (Ursus americanus), also known as the cinnamon bear, is the most common bear species native to North America. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ...


The park is governed by Article 14 of the state constitution, which stipulates that all land acquired within cannot be sold or otherwise transferred (absent amending the constitution, which has been done on several occasions), may not be used for logging and must remain "forever wild."


Being the smaller and less well-known of New York’s two Forest Preserves, residents of and advocates for the Park often feel that it gets neglected by the state government in Albany. A popular saying in the region is that the DEC Commissioner's chair faces north (i.e., toward the Adirondacks). In recent years DEC has been working to change that. Despite that perception, however, some key innovations in how New York manages its Forest Preserve have come from the Catskills. Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Area    - City 56. ... Eagle Lake, Adirondack region The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, and Warren counties. ...

Contents

Location

Location of Catskill Park within southeastern New York
Location of Catskill Park within southeastern New York

The park boundary stretchs from near the Hudson River just west of the city of Kingston in the east to the East Branch of the Delaware River near Hancock at its westernmost. Its northern extreme is at Windham and its southernmost point is between the hamlet of Napanoch and Rondout Reservoir. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... Kingston is a city in Ulster County, New York, United States. ... The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... Hancock is a town located in Delaware County, New York. ... Windham is a town located in Greene County, New York, on the northern boundary of the Catskill_Park. ... Napanoch is a census-designated place located in Ulster County, New York. ... Spillway at eastern end of Rondout Reservoir. ...


In contrast to the Adirondack Park, the Catskill Park does not include all the land generally considered to be part of the Catskill Range. However, all but two of the 35 Catskill High Peaks are inside the Blue Line. Long Pond in the Saint Regis Canoe Area. ... The Catskill High Peaks are all those mountains in the Catskill Mountains in New York in the USA above 3,500 ft (1067 m) in elevation whose summits are separated either by one-half mile (805 m) or a vertical drop of at least 200 ft (61 m) between it...


History

The area was used by the Mohawks primarily for hunting. Later it was heavily exploited by the Dutch, English, Irish and Germans; local industry included logging, bluestone quarrying, leather tanning, wintergreen and blueberry harvesting, trapping, fishing, and later, tourism. The old-growth hemlock and northern hardwood forests on the steep mountainsides and remote valleys were sufficiently inaccessible that they survived the logging, tanbarking and charcoal industries of the 18th and 19th centuries. The Mohawk (Kanienkeh or Kanienkehaka meaning People of the Flint) are an indigenous people of North America who live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... This article is about the mineral dolerite. ... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... Tanning is the process of conversion of putrescible skin into non putrescible leather. ... Wintergreen was originally a term referring to a plant that continues photosynthesis (i. ... Species See text. ... Tanning is the process of conversion of putrescible skin into non putrescible leather. ...


Inhabitants of the region often tell visitors the Park was created to protect New York City's water resources. While one could certainly be forgiven for making that assumption looking at the present-day park map, the park itself was created 30 years before the first reservoir (Ashokan) was built, before the city had started looking north to fulfill its growing water needs.


The truth is far more mundane, and almost a little sordid.


In 1885, as the state legislature was considering the bill that created the Adirondack Park, Ulster County was trying to get out of paying delinquent property taxes that, under the law passed over its objections six years earlier, it owed the state. The lands, mostly around Slide Mountain had come into the county's possession when loggers looking to extract tannin for use in tanning leather from the bark of the many Eastern hemlocks growing there at the time, took the trees, made their money and then left the region without paying taxes. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Property tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the thing taxed. ... Slide Mountain is the highest peak in the Catskills. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Tanning is the process of conversion of putrescible skin into non putrescible leather. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows. ... Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ...


The lands left behind were, if still good quality, often snapped up for use as private hunting and fishing clubs for wealthy businessmen from outside the region, whose determined enforcement of trespassing and poaching laws stirred resentment along the local populace long accustomed to the food provided by those lands; the lesser quality lands were wasted, producing nothing except destructive fires.


A team of forest experts, led by Harvard professor Charles Sprague Sargent, had visited the region when the original Forest Preserve bill was being studied and recommended against including the Catskills in its protections, as its forests "guard only streams of local influence," unlike the Adirondacks, whose preservation was motivated by a desire on the part of the state's businessmen to prevent the Erie Canal from silting up and thus becoming unnavigable. Charles Sprague Sargent Charles Sprague Sargent (April 21, 1841-March 22, 1927) was an American botanist. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ...


At the same time Ulster had lost a lawsuit against the state and had been ordered to pay the back taxes. Two Assemblymen from the county (one of whom, Cornelius Hardenbergh, was a descendant of Johannes Hardenbergh, the original crown grantee of much of the Catskills in 1708) who had been elected because of their firm stands against paying the taxes, lobbied their fellow legislators heavily to pass a second version of the Forest Preserve Act, one that not only forgave the county's tax debt in exchange for the lands at issue, but required that the state would henceforth pay whatever local property taxes were required on the land as if they were intended for commercial use (i.e., logging). That provision was later applied to the Adirondacks as well; it remains in force today and makes the difference between survival and insolvency for many towns and other local governmental entities in both parks. Major Johannes Hardenbergh, (1670–1745) also known as Sir Johannes Hardenbergh, born in Albany, New York, was High Sheriff of Ulster County in 1690. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J...


As the timber industry kept making determined efforts to undermine the bill, its original sponsors took the occasion of New York adopting a new constitution in 1894 to enshrine it in that document, with language that plugged all the loopholes that loggers and officials on the state's Forest Preserve Advisory Board had been using. Article 14 has survived several other major constitutional revisions.


The Blue Line

Sign at entry to Catskill Park near southern end, along NY 55 near Napanoch.
Sign at entry to Catskill Park near southern end, along NY 55 near Napanoch.

The park’s creation meant an increase in state resources focused on the region. First came fire protection, a move greatly welcomed by the local governments and one that was to make a long-lasting impact on the region, as fire towers were built on a number of summits and patrols were regularly made along railroad lines to catch cinder fires before they got too big. Junction Location Sullivan NY-97 0. ... Napanoch is a census-designated place located in Ulster County, New York. ... A USFS fire lookout on Bald Mountain in Butte County, California. ...


It also changed the way the region was seen by visitors. An era dominated by hotels such as the Catskill Mountain House at North-South Lake which catered to the well-to-do and socially prominent was passing its prime, and in its place outdoor recreationists were becoming interested in dry-fly fishing the trout streams, hunting and hiking the mountains. View from The Mountain House, 1836, by Thomas Cole The Mountain House, 1836, by Jasper Francis Cropsey The Catskill Mountain House was a famous hotel near Palenville, New York in the Catskill Mountains overlooking the Hudson River Valley, built in 1824. ... North and South lakes as seen from North Point. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou subsp Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ...


In 1892, the state spent $250 to build a trail up Slide Mountain, which had only recently been proven by Arnold Henry Guyot to be the range's highest peak and was thus attracting a great deal of tourist interest. It would be the first hiking trail built at public expense in New York's Forest Preserve, and is still the most heavily used route up the mountain today. 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Arnold Henry Guyot (September 28, 1807 _ February 8, 1884), Swiss-American geologist and geographer, was born at Boudevilliers, near Neuchâtel, Switzerland. ... A country trail in Slovenia. ...


That year had also seen the delineation of the Adirondack Park to the north, as the state sought to focus its land-acquisition efforts, by designating particular towns for inclusion, drawing a line in blue ink around them, a custom that continues on all official state maps today.


Twelve years later, in 1904, it was decided to do the same with the Catskills. But this Blue Line used not existing municipal boundaries but the old Hardenburgh Patent survey lots, watercourses and railroad rights-of-way, creating a finer, more focused park that gave some of the towns on its periphery areas where they could be assured land would not be subject to Article 14. A similar revision would follow suit in the Adirondacks, and future expansions of both parks would follow this model. Year 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Blue Line is the term used in New York state for the boundaries of the Adirondack and Catskill parks, within which can be found the states Forest Preserve. ... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A right-of-way (plural: rights-of-way) is an easement or strip of land granted to a railroad company upon which to build a railroad. ...


In 1912 the law was again amended to state that the Catskill Park consisted of all lands within the Blue Line, not just those owned by the state. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

The Ashokan Reservoir as seen from Wittenberg Mountain.
The Ashokan Reservoir as seen from Wittenberg Mountain.

Image File history File linksMetadata Ashokan_Reservoir_from_Wittenberg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ashokan_Reservoir_from_Wittenberg. ... The Ashokan Reservoir is a reservoir in Ulster County, New York, USA. The reservoir is in the eastern end of the Catskill State Park, and is one of several reservoirs created to provide the City of New York with water. ...

The reservoirs

Shortly afterwards, a new section was added to Article 14 to allow the construction of reservoirs on up to three percent of the total land in each park. Sargent’s dismissal of the hydrological resources of the Catskills would very quickly turn out to be misguided. The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ...


New York City, having merged in 1898 into its present form, began looking for new water resources the very next year, and its existing system of reservoirs in the city and Westchester County wouldn’t be able to keep up with demand for much longer. The city at first turned to land in Rockland County now part of Harriman State Park, but found a group of speculators called the Ramapo Water Company had beaten them to the water rights. It was thus essential to go even further north, and only in the Catskill Park could it find the land to condemn around Esopus Creek and create the Ashokan Reservoir. Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... The Tappan Zee Bridge, in a view looking toward Rockland. ... There is also a Harriman State Park in Idaho. ... The Esopus Creek is a small river in southeastern New York, United States. ... The Ashokan Reservoir is a reservoir in Ulster County, New York, USA. The reservoir is in the eastern end of the Catskill State Park, and is one of several reservoirs created to provide the City of New York with water. ...


In 1905 the state approved the creation of water supply commissions at various local governmental levels, as well as one at the state level to resolve disputes, like the one rapidly brewing between the city and the Catskill communities over its plan to condemn land for the construction of two reservoirs, Ashokan and what is now Schoharie Reservoir, plus the Shandaken Tunnel to connect the two. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Administrative divisions of New York State differ from those in certain other countries and most U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. ... Eminent domain (U.S.), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to expropriate private property, or rights in private property, without the owners consent, either for its own use or... The Schoharie Reservoir is located about 36 miles (57. ... The Shandaken Tunnel is an underground tunnel in Eastern New York State, and is part of the New York City Water Supply System. ...


The city prevailed, and construction of Ashokan began the very next year, requiring the removal of several small hamlets and many residents in the process (some, such as Shokan, West Shokan and Olive Bridge, survive today on its banks). The Esopus was dammed in 1913 and started sending water to the city two years later. Land claims would continue to be resolved in area courts until 1940. The definitions of the political subdivisions of the state of New York differ from those in certain other countries or even various other U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. ... Shokan is a census-designated place located in the Town of Olive in Ulster County, within the Catskill Park. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ...


It would be the first of several city reservoirs in and around the park that, while rarely appreciated by the residents, have completely changed how it is managed, used and seen, for better or for worse.


The mid-20th century

The model thus established would hold, more or less, for the next 50 years. Within the Blue Line, the state would acquire land (first through the State Parks Council and successor agencies, later through the Conservation Department) and, as time and money permitted, would develop trails, lean-tos and towers on it, without reference to any greater plan and often with little coordination or knowledge of what other state agencies or officials were doing. A country trail in Slovenia. ...


Important steps were nonetheless taken. Bond issues approved by voters in 1916 and 1924 for a total of $12.5 million led ultimately to the addition of 121,000 acres (490 km²) to the state’s holdings. The economic collapse of the late 1920s and 30s made a lot of desirable land available at low prices, and with the notably aggressive Robert Moses in charge of the state parks, valuable properties like the Devil's Path Range, the summit of Slide Mountain and Windham High Peak became part of the Forest Preserve. In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and interest (the coupon) at a later date, termed maturity. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888–July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and other suburbs. ...

North-South Lake in the Catskill Forest Preserve
North-South Lake in the Catskill Forest Preserve

From 1926 to 1931 the state opened its first four public campgrounds within the Park. North and South lakes as seen from North Point. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Campsites are often situated in or near forests. ...


New Deal programs during the Great Depression such as the Civilian Conservation Corps made labor available to build trails and replant forests. The state's Conservation Commission was able to compile the first of a series of "Catskill Trails" booklets. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ...


However, the trails built by the state rapidly fell into disuse, Raymond H. Torrey would note by the end of the decade as what hikers there were tended to bypass the Catskills, which they regarded as passé, in favor of the Adirondacks and higher peaks in northern New England. Unlike those regions, no lasting organizations of hikers and other passive outdoor recreationists were ever formed around the Catskills (a brief attempt to create a Catskill Mountain Club in the late 1920s sputtered out after a few years), leaving the park more or less without a constituency. Raymond H. Torrey (July 15, 1880 – July 15, 1938) was the author of weekly columns, Outings and The Long Brown Path in the New York Evening Post in the 1920s and 1930s. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The most important change during this time period was the amending of Article 14, in 1948 to allow for the construction of Belleayre Mountain Ski Center and thus encourage skiers to come to the Catskills, following the lead taken in the Adirondacks by the creation of Whiteface and Gore ski areas. It remains in operation today, and several other private ski areas such as Hunter Mountain and Windham Mountain have followed its lead. Whiteface Mountain is one of the High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains, located near Lake Placid, New York. ... Hunter Mountain is a four-season ski resort located just over two hours from the New York metropolitan area. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The construction of the Interstate 87 section of the New York State Thruway up the Hudson Valley and the upgrading of Route 17 from a two-lane road into a freeway along much of the park's southwestern border greatly increased access to the Park during the 1950s and '60s, although the latter encountered fierce opposition from trout fishermen over some of the original bridges along the Beaver Kill, which would have destroyed some favored holes. Interstate 87 (abbreviated I-87) is a 346 mile (558 km) intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of New York. ... New York Thruway Trailblazer The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... Junction Location US routes and Interstates only. ... An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider. ...


New York City built three more reservoirs partially within the Park: Neversink, Rondout and Pepacton. South end of Neversink Reservoir, from dam Neversink Reservoir is one of several in the Catskill Mountains that supply water to New York City and other communities along its water supply network. ... Spillway at eastern end of Rondout Reservoir. ... The Pepacton Reservoir, also known as the Downsville Reservoir or the Downsville Dam, is a reservoir in Delaware County, New York that was formed by impounding over half of the East Branch of the Delaware River. ...


In 1957, the Blue Line had expanded to its present configuration, taking in not only the lands almost to the Kingston city limit and Thruway at the east, but more of Sullivan and Delaware counties in the west. Kingston is a city in Ulster County, New York, United States. ...


Trails and other recreational resources remained underused, however.


In 1966 the Catskill Mountain 3500 Club, a peak bagging organization, was formally incorporated after having existed informally for several years — the first organization devoted to, among other things, speaking for the Catskill hiking community. For many years afterwards it would be the only such organization with "Catskil" in its name. 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The Catskill Mountain 3500 Club, incorporated as the Catskill 3500 Club and often just referred to as the 3500 Club, is a peakbagging organization for hikers in the Catskill Mountains of New York. ... Peak bagging (also hill bagging, mountain bagging, or among enthusiasts, just bagging) is a popular activity for hillwalkers and mountaineers in which they attempt to reach the summit of each peak in a region above some height, or having a particular feature. ... Incorporation (abbreviated Inc. ...


Three years later, in 1969 the Catskill Center for Conservation and Development was founded, an organization which has been at least partially doing for the Catskills what the venerable Adirondack Council and Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks had done for the northern park. Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


The Temporary Commission and the Master Plan

Things began to change again in the early 1970s.


The Borscht Belt era was ending, as the restrictions on Jewish guests at other hotels and resorts that had given rise to it fell victim to civil rights laws, and younger generations of Jews in any event felt more assimilated than their parents and grandparents had. Borscht Belt is an informal term for the summer resorts of the Catskill Mountains in Sullivan and Ulster Counties in upstate New York which were frequented by Ashkenazic Jews. ... Several United States laws have been called the Civil Rights Act: Civil Rights Act of 1866 aimed to buttress Civil Rights Laws to protect freedmen and to grant full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil except Indians. ...


In the wake of the Woodstock festival, many younger people followed the call to "get ourselves back to the garden" and the Catskills were among the many places whose campgrounds and trails began to swarm with backpacking, pot-smoking hippies. Trails that a decade or so before had almost vanished began to finally see serious usage ... almost to the point of overuse. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Backpacking in the Grand Teton National Park, United States Backpacking (also tramping or trekking or bushwalking in some countries) combines hiking and camping in a single trip. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ...


On Earth Day in 1970, Governor Nelson Rockefeller signed legislation that recognized growing environmental concerns by combing the Conservation Department, which had been managing the Catskills and Adirondacks, with several other agencies to create the new Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), which exists and manages the Forest Preserve to this day. Earth Day Flag. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC or DEC) is responsible for the conservation, improvement, and protection of natural resources within the U.S. state of New York. ...


An idea that the Catskill Center had been pressing for bore fruit in 1973 when, again following in footsteps of what it had recently done in the Adirondacks, the state created a Temporary Commission to Study the Future of the Catskills. It took in as its area of study not just the Park but everywhere that could possibly be considered part of the Catskill region: all four counties of the Park, as well as Schoharie, Otsego and two towns in the southwestern corner of Albany County. It was the state's first-ever effort to look at what resources the Catskills had and what could be done with them. Schoharie County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Otsego County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ...


There was some trepidation in the region, as the Adirondack commission's recommendation for the establishment of a park-wide land use agency, the Adirondack Park Agency had been implemented in full, only to arouse great fury in that region as it issued zoning regulations far stricter than some towns had already enacted and mounted battles against longtime local residents over relatively small infractions. Catskills residents, new and old, were worried that a similar solution awaited them. Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ...


While the commission considered the same recommendation for the Catskills, it ultimately decided against it in its final report in 1975 (it did try to promulgate a master land use plan, but that was rejected). What it did recommend was a master plan for the state land in the Forest Preserve, important since management was divided (and still is) between two different DEC regions, which had never been on the same page nor known what the other was doing.


It further recommended, following contemporary trends in public-land management (and a recommendation a special legislative committee had made back in 1960), that at least four of the growing tracts, or "management units" of Forest Preserve be formally designated as either wilderness areas or wild forests, again following a distinction drawn in the Adirondack Park. The former was similar in philosophy to those the federal government had already been designating in National parks and forests in the West, but slightly less restrictive; the latter is an even less restrictive category that exists only in New York's Forest Preserve and allows for greater human impact. The practical effects are discussed below under Management. Broadly, a wilderness area is a region where the land is left in a state where human modifications are minimal; that is, as a wilderness. ... The Wilderness Act protects spectacular scenery, such as in the Ansel Adams Wilderness A United States Wilderness Area within federal lands is set aside by the 1964 Wilderness Act as a nature preserve. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ...


A Master Plan was developed and implemented in the early 1980s. DEC got busy finally clarifying what user groups (in addition to hikers, snowmobilers, horseback riders and cross-country skiers) were allowed on which trails, and marking them appropriately. A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park, note the snowdust in the air (NPS Photo) A 1997 Arctic Cat ZR 580 Snowmobile A snowmobile (or snow scooter, often referred to by enthusiasts as a sled and in the Canadian north and Alaska as a snowmachine, or as the genericized trademark... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe and Canada. ...


The 1990s

Another Adirondack innovation that advocates for the Catskills wanted to copy was the construction of an Interpretive Center , that would educate visitors about the park and its purpose, as a focus for regional tourism. In fits and starts, this project was begun and pursued under the administration of Gov. Mario Cuomo. A site was found on Route 28 near the hamlet of Mount Tremper. It was cleared and roads were built to facilitate the eventual building. The Palisades Interstate Park Commission was to operate it (to get around the restrictions of Article 14) and the New York - New Jersey Trail Conference made plans to route the Long Path past it. Mario Matthew Cuomo (born June 15, 1932), a New York State Democratic Party politician, was the 56th Governor of New York from 1983 to 1995. ... New York State Highway 28 is a New York State highway that runs between Kingston and Warren County. ... The Palisades Interstate Park Commission was formed in 1900 by governors Theodore Roosevelt of New York and Foster Voorhees of New Jersey in response to the destruction of the Palisades by quarry operators in the late 19th century. ... The New York-New Jersey Trail Conference (NYNJTC) is a federation of more than 95 hiking clubs and environmental organizations with approximately 10,000 members. ... The Long Path is a 330-mile (528 km) long-distance hiking trail running from George Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey to Altamont, New York, in the Albany area. ...


However, in 1995 a new governor, George Pataki took over, and after some consideration decided to put the project on hold, where it remains to this day, citing financial considerations. The site, locally referred to as the "road to nowhere," is still maintained, but there is little to do except stop and picnic and follow the short nature trail that has been cut through the nearby woods. 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current Governor of New York State, USA serving since January 1995, and as of late 2006 is the longest-serving of all current U.S. governors. ... PICNIC is an acronym which stands for Problem In Chair, Not In Computer. It is most commonly used by experts to describe to one another that the problem was not in the computer but was instead caused by the user operating it. ...


Finishing the project was a cornerstone recommendation of DEC's 1999 Public Access Plan, which again followed an Adirondack lead and proposed ways to increase public knowledge and awareness of the Park's resources. Some were implemented (such as improving and extending the trail system, which occurred later that year when a trail across Mill Brook Ridge was completed as part of the Finger Lakes Trail, linking the trail network on the lesser peaks in the Delaware County section of the park with the long-established system in Ulster and Greene counties), some have not been. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... An access point to the Finger Lakes Trail on Bleck Road in Dryden, Tompkins County, New York. ...


Also in 1999, Governor Pataki designated most of the summits of the High Peaks as Bird Conservation Areas, in recognition of the importance of their boreal forests as summer habitat for Bicknell's thrush, only recently declared to be a separate species. It was the first such designation within either Forest Preserve, and the Adirondacks would this time be the one to follow suit a few years later. The Catskill High Peaks are all those mountains in the Catskill Mountains in New York in the USA above 3,500 ft (1067 m) in elevation whose summits are separated either by one-half mile (805 m) or a vertical drop of at least 200 ft (61 m) between it... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Binomial name Catharus bicknelli (Ridgway, 1882) The Bicknells Thrush, Catharus bicknelli, is a medium-sized thrush. ...


Today: The Master Plan update

In 2003, DEC released its long-awaited draft update to the Master Plan. It would designate more of the wild forest areas as wilderness and establish some more rules for the use of wilderness, such as limits on group size. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The most controversial aspect, however, was its decision to limit mountain biking to designated trails and ban them from wilderness areas. While this had been done everywhere else where wilderness protection existed, mountain bikers and their organizations have lobbied hard for an exception, arguing that bicycles are not machines and do not deserve to be banned from use of the wilderness. Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ...


This remains unresolved at the moment. DEC missed its target date of 2004, to coincide with the park's centennial celebrations, for the release of the final version. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Management

Under the Master Plan, all state land in the Catskills is organized into contiguous management units falling under one of four categories: Wilderness, Wild Forest, Intensive Use or Administrative.


Wilderness

The pending Master Plan update would add much more land to this classification, the most restrictive, although slightly less so than those on federal lands. The Wilderness Act protects spectacular scenery, such as in the Ansel Adams Wilderness A United States Wilderness Area within federal lands is set aside by the 1964 Wilderness Act as a nature preserve. ...


New York's wilderness areas must be composed of 10,000 acres (40 km2) of contiguous land, twice the federal standard. Land is to be left as "untrammeled by man" and as close to its natural state as possible, offering outstanding opportunities for solitude. No artificially-powerered devices are permitted to be used in wilderness areas — chainsaws may only be used to clear trails with express written authorization from the DEC commissioner, and vehicle usage is forbidden in all save dire emergency circumstances. Most trails are single-track, avoiding old logging roads except at the lowest elevations. Designated campsites are kept to a minimum. A chainsaw (also spelled chain saw) is a portable mechanical, motorized saw. ...


The goal of wilderness is to minimize human impact on the land as much as possible. Passive recreation such as hiking, hunting and birding is the main use of these lands.


Under the current Master Plan, much of the remaining tracts of first-growth forest, and many of the higher summits, are within wilderness areas. Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ...


Currently there are four: the Slide Mountain and Big Indian-Beaverkill wildernesses in Ulster County, and the Indian Head and West Kill wildernesses in Greene County. The updated Master Plan would add more wilderness in Greene County, most notably the Blackhead Range and Escarpment. Slide Mountain is the tallest mountain in all of the Catskill Mountis which are located in southern Ny. ...


It has also been informal DEC policy to treat all lands in its possession in the Catskill Park above 3,100 feet (944 m) in elevation as de facto wilderness. The proposed update would not only make that rule official, it would extend it as much as possible to all land 2,700 feet (823 m) and higher.


Wild Forest

While still covered by the strictures of Article 14, Wild Forest areas are often lower in elevation and contain forest that has been more recently and historically disturbed, sometimes having been logged just prior to state acquisition. It is thus not as easy to avoid evidence of human impact as it is in wilderness, and consequently a higher impact is tolerated.


In Wild Forest areas, vehicles may be used as DEC designates. This has made them popular places for snowmobilers, cross-country skiers, and (in one area) mountain bikers. (all-terrain-vehicles remain banned, however). Hunters also find them desirable as the second- and third-growth forests in the area are more likely to contain deer and the carcass of the taken animal can be driven out of the woods instead of being walked out. A group of “quad bike” all terrain vehicles The term all-terrain vehicle is used in a general sense to describe any of a number of small open motorised buggies and tricycles designed for off-road use. ...


Some Wild Forest units exist with rather forced boundaries to allow for a use otherwise incompatible with a surrounding wilderness, such as the Overlook Mountain Wild Forest a corridor through the Indian Head Wilderness Area which contains the popular and still driveable dirt road to the fire tower atop the summit near Woodstock. A similar solution has been proposed under the new Master Plan to continue to allow more active use of the Hunter Mountain fire tower and the road leading up to it. Woodstock is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States. ...


The Halcott Mountain Wild Forest is so designated only because it lacks enough contiguous area to qualify as wilderness.


Current Wild Forest areas besides those mentioned above include the Long Pond-Willowemoc in Sullivan County; the Touch-Me-Not, Cherry Ridge-Campbell Mountain and Dry Brook Ridge in Delaware County; the Balsam Lake,Bluestone, Lundy, Peekamoose Valley and Phoenicia-Mt. Tremper, Shandaken and Sundown in Ulster and the Blackhead, Colgate Lake, Hunter Mountain, Kaaterskill, North Point and Windham High Peak Wild Forests.


In addition to redesignating a good portion of those areas as wilderness, the proposed update would consolidate some into larger units (all the Delaware County properties, for instance).


Intensive use

Most of these areas save one, Belleayre Mountain Ski Center, are state campgrounds, meant for heavier, higher-impact use.


The campgrounds are generally far smaller units, with many sites and basic facilities available, sometimes abutting wilderness and wild forest areas, and paved roads offering easy vehicle access. North-South Lake, however, is a vast area (New York's largest public campground) including not only many sites but swimming areas at both lakes, the former Catskill Mountain House site at Pine Orchard and many of the historic trails around it. North and South lakes as seen from North Point. ... Swimming is a technique that humans and animals use to move through water using only movements of the body, often for exercise, fun and competition. ...


Similarly, Belleayre's property extends well east of its ski trails and includes some of the hiking trails in the region as well.


Other campgrounds include Beaverkill, Devil's Tombstone, Kenneth L. Boice, Mongaup Pond and Woodland Valley.


There are at least two Day Use Areas, within the park, one near Belleayre and the other at the Catskill Interpretive Center site. These are small tracts with picnic tables and sites where camping is forbidden, much as one would find in a small local park. PICNIC is an acronym which stands for Problem In Chair, Not In Computer. It is most commonly used by experts to describe to one another that the problem was not in the computer but was instead caused by the user operating it. ...


Administrative use

These are even smaller, unnamed plots that DEC is permitted to use for non-Forest Preserve purposes. Three, the Vinegar Hill Wildlife Management Area, the Simpson Ski Slope and the Catskill Mountain Fish Hatchery, which includes the DeBruce Environmental Education Camp, and the Esopus Creek Fish and Wildlife Management Parcel.


See also

This is a list of state parks in the U.S. state of New York. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Catskill State Park - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3598 words)
In contrast to the Adirondack Park, the Catskill Park does not include all the land generally considered to be part of the Catskill Range.
An era dominated by hotels such as the Catskill Mountain House at North-South Lake which catered to the well-to-do and socially prominent was passing its prime, and in its place outdoor recreationists were becoming interested in dry-fly fishing the trout streams, hunting and hiking the mountains.
It took in as its area of study not just the Park but everywhere that could possibly be considered part of the Catskill region: all four counties of the Park, as well as Schoharie, Otsego and two towns in the southwestern corner of Albany County.
Catskill Mountains - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1748 words)
The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are not, despite their popular name, true geological mountains, but rather a mature dissected plateau, an uplifted region that was subsequently eroded into sharp relief.
The Catskills are west of the Hudson River and lie within the bounds of six counties (Otsego, Delaware, Sullivan, Schoharie, Greene, and Ulster).
The name "Catskills" did not come into wide popular use for the mountains until the mid-19th century — in fact, that name was disparaged by purists as too plebeian, too reminiscent of the area's Dutch colonial past, especially since it was used by the local farming population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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