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Encyclopedia > Cato the Elder

Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 239 BC 238 BC 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC - 234 BC - 233 BC 232 BC... Tusculum, an ancient city of Latium, situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, 18 km (11 miles) north-east of the modern Frascati. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ...



Habaybay came of an ancient plebeian family who all were noted for some military service but not for the discharge of the higher civil offices. He was bred, after the manner of his Latin forefathers, to agriculture, to which he devoted himself when not engaged in military service. But, having attracted the notice of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome, and became successively quaestor (204 BC), aedile (199 BC), praetor (198 BC), and finally consul (195 BC) together with his old patron. In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... At least seven notable Romans were named Lucius Valerius Flaccus. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the Roman rank. ...

Contents

Biography

Origin

Porcia Gens

Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum, a municipal town of Latium, to which his ancestors had belonged for some generations. His father had earned the reputation of a brave soldier, and his great-grandfather had received a reward from the state for five horses killed under him in battle. However the Tusculan Porcii had never obtained the privileges of the Roman magistracy. Cato the Elder, their famous descendant, at the beginning of his career in Rome, was regarded as a novus homo, and the feeling of his unsatisfactory position, working along with the self-awareness of inherent superiority, contributed to exasperate and stimulate his ambition. Early in life, he so far exceeded the previous deeds of his predecessors that he is frequently spoken of, not only as the leader, but as the founder, of the Porcia Gens. Tusculum, an ancient city of Latium, situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, 18 km (11 miles) north-east of the modern Frascati. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ...


Cognomen Cato

His ancestors for three generations had been named Marcus Porcius, and it is said by Plutarch[2] that at first he was known by the additional cognomen Priscus, but was afterwards called Cato—a word indicating that practical wisdom which is the result of natural sagacity, combined with experience of civil and political affairs. However, it may well be doubted whether Priscus, like Major, were not merely an epithet used to distinguish him from the later Cato of Utica, and there is no precise information as to the date when he first received the title of Cato, which may have been given in childhood as a symbol of distinction. The qualities implied in the word Cato were acknowledged by the plainer and less outdated title of Sapiens, by which he was so well known in his old age, that Cicero[3] says, it became his virtual cognomen. From the number and eloquence of his speeches, he was styled orator,[4][5] but Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), and Cato the Elder are now his most common, as well as his most characteristic names, since he carried out the office of censor with extraordinary standing, and was the only Cato who ever accomplished it. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis (95 BC-46 BC), known as Cato the younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a Roman politician and statesman, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Deducing the year of birth

In order to determine the date of Cato's birth, we consider the records as to his age at the time of his death, which is known to have happened 149 BC. According to the coherent chronology of Cicero[6] Cato was born in 234 BC, in the year before the first consulship of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, and died at the age of 85, in the consulship of Lucius Marcius Censorinus and Manius Manilius. Pliny[7] agrees with Cicero. Other authors exaggerate the age of Cato. According to Valerius Maximus[8] he survived his 86th year; according to Livy[9] and Plutarch[10] he was 90 years old when he died. The exaggerated age, however, is inconsistent with a statement recorded by Plutarch[11] on the asserted authority of Cato himself. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ...


Cato is represented to have said, that he served his first campaign in his 17th year, when Hannibal was overrunning Italy. Plutarch, who had the works of Cato before him, but was careless in dates, did not observe that the estimation of Livy would take back Cato's 17th year to 222, when there was not a Carthaginian in Italy, whereas the computation of Cicero would make the truth of Cato's statement in harmony with the date of Hannibal's first invasion. For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC - 222 BC - 221 BC 220 BC... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ...


Youth

Second Punic War

When Cato was a very young man, the death of his father put him in possession of a small hereditary property in the Sabine territory, at a distance from his native town. It was here that he passed the greater part of his childhood, hardening his body by healthful exercise, overseeing and sharing the operations of the farm, learning the way in which business was conducted, and studying the rules of rural economy. Near his lands was a modest hut which had been inhabited, after three triumphs, by its owner Manius Curius Dentatus, whose military feats and rigidly simple character were fresh in the memory of the old, and were often talked of with admiration in the neighborhood. The memory of this hero inspired Cato, who decided to imitate the character, and hoped to match the glory of, Dentatus. Soon an opportunity came for a military campaign in 217 BC, during the Second Punic War against Hannibal Barca. There is some discrepancy among experts as to the events of Cato's early military life. In 214 BC he served at Capua, and the historian Wilhelm Drumann[12] imagines that already, at the age of 20, he was a military tribune. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus had the command in Campania, during the year of his fourth consulship, and admitted the young soldier to the honour of intimate friendship. While Fabius communicated the valued results of military experience, he omitted not to inculcate his own personal and political partialities and dislikes into the ear of his attached follower. At the siege of Tarentum, 209 BC, Cato was again at the side of Fabius. Two years later, Cato was one of the select group who went with the consul Claudius Nero on his northern march from Lucania to check the progress of Hasdrubal Barca. It is recorded that the services of Cato contributed not a little to the decisive victory of Sena on the Metaurus, where Hasdrubal was slain. The Rape of the Sabine Women by Giambologna The tribe of the Sabines (Latin Sabini - singular Sabinus) was an Italic tribe of ancient Italy. ... Manius Curius Dentatus, Manius fils (d. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC - 214 BC - 213 BC 212 BC... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC... For the mountain in Canada named after Lucania, see Mount Lucania. ... Hasdrubal Barca (d. ... The Metauro River (in Latin Metaurus or Mataurus) of Italy rises in the Apennine Mountains of Tuscany and runs east for 109 km, reaching the Adriatic south of Fano. ...


Between the wars

In the pauses between campaigns, Cato returned to his Sabine farm, using a simple dress, and working and behaving like his laborers. Young as he was, the neighboring farmers liked his tough mode of living, enjoyed his old-fashioned and concise proverbs, and had a high regard for his abilities. His own active personality made him willing and eager to employ his powers in the service of his neighbors. He was selected to act, sometimes as an arbitrator of disputes, and sometimes as a supporter, in local causes, which were probably tried in front of recuperatores (the judges for causes of great public interest). Consequently he was enabled to strengthen by practice his oratorical abilities, to gain self-confidence, to observe the manners of men, to analyze the diversity of human nature, to apply the rules of law, and practically to investigate the principles of justice.


Follower of the old Roman strictness

In the surrounding area of Cato's Sabine farm were the lands of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, a young nobleman of significant influence, and high patrician family. Flaccus could not help remarking the energy of Cato, his military talent, his eloquence, his frugal and simple life, and his traditional principles. Flaccus himself was member of that purist faction who displayed their adherence to the stricter virtues of the ancient Roman character. Within the Roman society there was a transition in progress: from Samnite rusticity to Grecian civilization and oriental voluptuousness. The chief magistracies of the state had become almost the patrimony of a few distinguished families, whose wealth was correspondent with their upper-class birth. Popular by acts of graceful but corrupting generosity, by charming manners, and by the appeal of hereditary honors, they collected the material power granted by multitude of clients and followers, and the intellectual power provided by the monopoly of philosophical education, their taste in the fine arts, and their knowledge of stylish literature. Nevertheless, the reaction to them was strong. The less fortunate nobles, jealous of this exclusive oligarchy, and openly watchful of the decadence and disorder associated with luxury, placed themselves at the head of a party which showed its determination to rely on purer models and to attach much importance to the ancient ways. In their eyes, rusticity, austerity, and asceticism were the marks of Sabine robustness and religion, and of the old Roman inflexible integrity and love of order. Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and his family, and Titus Quinctius Flamininus, may be taken as instances of the new civilization; Cato's friends, Fabius and Flaccus, were the leading men in the faction defending the old plainness. At least seven notable Romans were named Lucius Valerius Flaccus. ... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... Scipio (plural, Scipiones) is a Roman cognomen representing the Cornelii Scipiones, a branch of the Cornelii family. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ...


Path to magistracies

Flaccus was a perceptive politician who looked for young and emergent men to support them. He had observed Cato's martial spirit and eloquent tongue. He knew how much courage and persuasiveness were valued at Rome. He also knew that the merits of the battlefield opened the way to achievements in the higher civil offices. Finally, Flaccus knew too that for a stranger like Cato, the only way to the magisterial honors was success in the Roman Forum.[13] For that reason, he suggested to Cato that he shift his ambition to the fruitful field of Roman politics. The advice was keenly followed. Invited to the town-house of Flaccus, and ratified by his support, Cato began to distinguish himself in the forum, and became a candidate for assuming a post in the magistracy. Part of the Roman Forum. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ...


Early military career

Quaestor

In 205 BC, Cato was appointed quaestor, and in the next year (204 BC) he entered upon the duties of his place of work, following Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major to Sicily. When Scipio, acting on the consent which, after much opposition, he had obtained from the senate, transported the armed forces from Sicily into Africa, Cato and Gaius Laelius were appointed to escort the baggage ships. There was not that friendliness of cooperation between Cato and Scipio which ought to exist between a quaestor and his proconsul. Fabius had opposed the permission given to Scipio to carry out the attack into the enemy's home, and Cato, whose appointment was intended to monitor Scipio's behavior, adopted the views of his friend. It is reported by Plutarch, that the lenient discipline of the troops under Scipio's command, and the exaggerated expense incurred by the general, provoked the protest of Cato; that Scipio immediately afterwards replied angrily, saying he would give an account of victories, not of money; that Cato left his place of duty after the dispute with Scipio about his alleged extravagance, and returning to Rome, condemned the uneconomical activities of his general to the senate; and that, at the joint request of Cato and Fabius, a commission of tribunes was sent to Sicily to examine the behavior of Scipio, who was found not guilty upon the view of his extensive and careful arrangements for the transport of the troops.[14] This version is barely consistent with the narrative of Livy, and would seem to attribute to Cato the wrongdoing of quitting his post before his time. If Livy be correct, the commission was sent because of the complaints of the inhabitants of Locri, who had been harshly oppressed by Quintus Pleminius, the legate of Scipio. Livy says not a word of Cato's interference in this matter, but mentions the bitterness with which Fabius blamed Scipio of corrupting military discipline and of having illegally left his province to take the town of Locri.[15] Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC - 205 BC - 204 BC 203 BC... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC - 204 BC - 203 BC 202 BC... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Gaius Laelius, general and statesman, was a friend of the elder Scipio, whom he accompanied on his Spanish campaign (210 BC - 206 BC). ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Quintus Pleminius was a Roman propraetor who, in 205 BC, took Locris from the Carthaginians by the order of Scipio Africanus . ... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West...


The author of the abridged life of Cato which is commonly considered as the work of Cornelius Nepos, assert that Cato, after his return from Africa, put in at Sardinia, and brought the poet Quintus Ennius in his own ship from the island to Italy; but Sardinia was rather out of the line of the trip to Rome, and it is more likely that the first contact of Ennius and Cato happened at a later date, when the latter was praetor in Sardinia.[16] Cornelius Nepos (c. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC) was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman poetry. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected...


Aedile and praetor

In 199 BC Cato was chosen aedile, and with his colleague Helvius, restored the plebeian games, and gave upon that occasion a banquet in honor of Jupiter. In 198 BC he was made praetor, and obtained Sardinia as his province, with the command of 3,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. Here he took the earliest opportunity of demonstrating his main beliefs by the practice of his strict public morality. He reduced official operating costs, walked his trips with a single assistant, and, by the studied lack of ceremony, placed his own frugality in striking contrast with the oppressive magnificence of ordinary provincial magistrates. The rites of religion were celebrated with reasonable thrift; justice was administered with strict impartiality; usury was controlled with deep severity, and the usurers were banished. Sardinia had been for some time completely calmed, but if we are to believe the improbable and unsupported testimony of Aurelius Victor,[17] a revolt in the island was subdued by Cato, during his praetorship. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC - 199 BC - 198 BC 197 BC... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC - 198 BC - 197 BC 196 BC... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Look up usury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Consul

Repeal of the Oppian law

In 195 BC he was elected consul with his old friend and patron Flaccus. Flaccus gave Cato his wife as a gift for his creation of money. Cato was thirty-nine years old. During his consulship an odd scene took place, noticeably expounding of Roman manners. In 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War, a law —the Oppian Law, (Lex Oppia)— had been passed at the request of the tribune of the plebs Gaius Oppius, to restrict luxury and extravagance on the part of women. The law specified that no woman should own more than half an ounce of gold, nor wear a garment of several colors, nor drive a carriage with horses at less distance than a mile from the city, except for the purpose of attending the public celebration of religious rites. With Hannibal defeated and Rome resplendent with Carthaginian wealth, there was no longer any need for women to contribute towards the exigencies of an impoverished treasury the savings spared from their ornaments and pleasures. Consequently, the tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Valerius thought it was time to propose the abolition of the Oppian law; but they were opposed by their colleagues, tribunes Marcus Junius Brutus and Titus Junius Brutus. Curiously, this particular challenge spawned far more interest than the most important affairs of state. The middle-aged married women of Rome crowded the streets, denied access to every avenue to the forum, and intercepted their husbands as they approached, demanding them to restore the ancient ornaments of the Roman matrons. Even more, they had the boldness to approach and beg the praetors, consuls and other magistrates. Even Flaccus hesitated, but his colleague Cato was inflexible, and made an impolite and characteristic speech, the substance of which, remodeled and modernized, is given by Livy.[18] Finally, the women got what they wanted. Tired of the women's persistent demanding, the dissenting tribunes withdrew their opposition. The hated law was repealed by the vote of all the tribes, and the women made clear their joy and success by going in procession through the streets and the forum, dressed up with their then legitimate finery.[19] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC - 195 BC - 194 BC 193 BC... April 23 - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene. ... The Lex Oppia was a law established in ancient Rome in 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War during the days of national catastrophe after the Battle of Cannae. ...


Just had this important affair been concluded when Cato, who had maintained during its progress a severe and determined firmness without, perhaps, any very serious damage to his popularity, set sail for his appointed province, Hispania Citerior. During the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro valley of modern Spain. ...


Post in Hispania Citerior

In his campaign in Hispania, Cato behaved in keeping with his reputation of untiring hard work and alertness. He lived soberly, sharing the food and the labors of the common soldier. Wherever it was possible, he personally superintended the execution of his requisite orders. His movements were reported as bold and rapid, and he never was negligent in pushing the advantages of victory. The sequence of his operations and their combination in agreement with the schemes of other generals in other parts of Hispania appear to have been carefully designed. His stratagems and maneuvers were accounted as original, talented, and successful; and the plans of his battles were arranged with expert skill. He managed to set tribe against tribe, benefited himself of native deceitfulness, and took native mercenaries into his pay. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


The details of the campaign, as related by Livy,[20] and illustrated by the incidental anecdotes of Plutarch, are full of horror and they make clear that Cato reduced Hispania Citerior to subjection with great speed and little mercy. We read of multitudes who, after they had been stripped of all their arms, put themselves to death because of the dishonor; of extensive massacre of surrendered victims, and the frequent execution of harsh plunders. His proceedings in Spain were not at discrepancy with the received idea of the fine old Roman soldier, or with his own firm and overassertive temper. He claimed of having destroyed more towns in Hispania than he had spent days in that country.


His Roman triumph

When he had reduced the whole area of land between the river Iberus and the Pyrenees to a hollow, resentful, and temporary obedience, he turned his attention to administrative reforms, and increased the revenues of the province by improvements in the working of the iron and silver mines. On account of his achievements in Spain, the senate decreed a thanksgiving ceremony of three days. In the course of the year, 194 BC, he returned to Rome, and was rewarded with the honor of a Roman triumph, at which he exhibited an extraordinary quantity of captured brass, silver, and gold, both coin and ingots. In the distribution of the monetary prize to his soldiery, he was more liberal than might have been expected from him, a so vigorous professor of parsimonious economy.[21] For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


End of his consulship

The return of Cato seems to have been accelerated by the enmity of Scipio Africanus, who was consul, 194 BC and is said to have desired the command of the province in which Cato was harvesting notoriety. There is some disagreement between Nepos (or the pseudo-Nepos), and Plutarch,[22] in their accounts of this topic. The former asserts that Scipio was unsuccessful in his effort to obtain the province, and, offended by the reject, remained after the end of his consulship, in a private capacity at Rome. The latter relates that Scipio, who was disgusted by Cato's severity, was actually appointed to succeed him, but, not being able to secure from the senate a vote of censure upon the administration of his rival, passed the time of his command in total inactivity. From the statement in Livy,[23] that in 194 BC, Sextus Digitius was appointed to the province of Hispania Citerior, it is probable that Plutarch was mistaken in assigning that province to Scipio Africanus. The notion that Africanus was appointed successor to Cato in Spain may have arisen from a double confusion of name and place, due to the fact that Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was chosen, 194 BC, to the province of Hispania Ulterior. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was a consul of ancient Rome in 191 BC. He was a son of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior was a region of Hispania roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain. ...


However the true facts may be, Cato successfully proved himself by his eloquence, and by the production of detailed financial accounts, against the attacks made on his behavior while consul; and the existing fragments of the speeches, (or the same speech under different names), made after his return, attest the strength and boldness of his arguments.


Plutarch [24] affirms that, after his consulship, Cato accompanied Tiberius Sempronius Longus as legatus to Thrace, but here there seems to be a mistake, for though Scipio Africanus was of opinion that one of the consuls should have Macedonia, we soon find Sempronius in Cisalpine Gaul,[25] and in 193 BC, we find Cato at Rome dedicating to Victoria Virgo a small temple which he had vowed two years before.[26] Tiberius Sempronius Longus was a Roman consul in 194 BCE, and a contemporary of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC - 193 BC - 192 BC 191 BC... Victoria on the reverse of this coin by Constantine II. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the goddess of victory. ...


Late military career

Battle of Thermopylae

The military career of Cato was not yet ended. In 191 BC, he was appointed military tribune (some affirm legatus[27]), under the consul Manius Acilius Glabrio, who was dispatched to Greece to oppose the invasion of Antiochus III the Great, king of the Seleucid Empire. In the decisive Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), which led to the downfall of Antiochus, Cato behaved with his usual valor, and enjoyed the good fortune. By a daring and difficult advance, he surprised and removed a body of the enemy's Aetolian auxiliaries, who were posted upon the Callidromus, the highest peak of the range of Mount Oeta. He then began a sudden descent from the hills above the royal camp, and the panic caused by this unexpected movement promptly turned the day in favor of the Romans, and signaled the end of the Seleucid invasion of Greece. After the action, the general hugged Cato with the greatest warmness, and attributed to him the whole credit of the victory. This fact rests on the authority of Cato himself, who, like Cicero, often indulged in the habit, offensive to modern taste, of sounding his own praises. After an interval spent in the pursuit of Antiochus and the pacification of Greece, Cato was sent to Rome by the consul Glabrio to announce the successful outcome of the campaign, and he performed his journey with such celerity that he had started his report in the senate before the arrival of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, the later conqueror of Antiochus, who had been sent off from Greece a few days before him.[28] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Manius Acilius Glabrio, Roman statesman and general, grandson of the famous jurist P. Mucius Scaevola. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Combatants Roman Republic Seleucid Empire Commanders Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Antiochus III the Great Strength 22,000 10,500 and some allies Casualties 200 10,000 killed and prisoners The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 480 BC between a Spartan and Persian army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... The term auxiliaries comes from the latin auxilia (help). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC) was Roman general and statesman. ...


A doubtful visit to Athens

It was during the campaign in Greece under Glabrio, and, as it would appear from the account of Plutarch, (rejected by the historian Wilhelm Drumann) before the battle of Thermopylae, that Cato was chosen to keep Corinth, Patrae, and Aegium, from siding with Antiochus. It was then too that he visited Athens, and, to prevent the Athenians from listening to the propositions of the Seleucid king, addressed them in a Latin speech, which was explained to them by an interpreter. Already perhaps he had a basic knowledge of Greek, for, it is said by Plutarch, that, while at Tarentum in his youth, he became in close friendship with Nearchus, a Greek philosopher, and it is said by Aurelius Victor that while praetor in Sardinia, he received instruction in Greek from Ennius. It was not so much, possibly, taking into account his still confessed disdain for everything Greek. Nevertheless because his speech was an affair of state, it is probable that he used the Latin language, in compliance with the Roman norm, which was observed as a diplomatic mark of Roman dignity.[29] Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Aigion or Aigio (Greek: Modern: Αίγιο, Ancient/Katharevousa: -on, Latin: Aegium) also, Egio or Egionis a town in northeast Achaea that has a population of around 12,000, with a square, a bus terminal and a fountain in downtown. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... For other uses, see Dignitas (disambiguation). ...


Influence in Rome

His reputation as a soldier was now established; henceforth he preferred to serve the state at home, scrutinizing the conduct of the candidates for public honours and of generals in the field. If he was not personally engaged in the prosecution of the Scipiones (Africanus and Asiaticus) for corruption, it was his spirit that animated the attack upon them. Even Scipio Africanus, who refused to reply to the charge, saying only, "Romans, this is the day on which I conquered Hannibal," and was absolved by acclamation, found it necessary to retire, self-banished, to his villa at Liternum. Cato's enmity dated from the African campaign when he quarrelled with Scipio for his lavish distribution of the spoil amongst the troops, and his general luxury and extravagance. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC) was a Roman general and statesman. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Scipio Africanus. ... An ancient town of Campania, Italy, on the low sandy coast between Cumae and the mouth of the Volturnus. ...


Cato was also opposed to the spread of Hellenic culture, which he believed threatened to destroy the rugged simplicity of the conventional Roman type. It was in the discharge of the censorship that this determination was most strongly exhibited, and hence that he derived the title (the Censor) by which he is most generally distinguished. He revised with unsparing severity the lists of senators and knights, ejecting from either order the men whom he judged unworthy of it, either on moral grounds or from their want of the prescribed means. The expulsion of L. Quinctius Flamininus for wanton cruelty was an example of his rigid justice. L. Quinctius Flamininus, the brother of the great Titus Quinctius Flamininus, was a roman Consul in 192 BCE. In 184 BCE he was deposed from the Senate by the Censor, Marcus Porcius Cato for his bad conduct in his Consulship. ...


His regulations against luxury were very stringent. He imposed a heavy tax upon dress and personal adornment, especially of women, and upon young slaves purchased as favourites. In 181 BC he supported the lex Orchia (according to others, he first opposed its introduction, and subsequently its repeal), which prescribed a limit to the number of guests at an entertainment, and in 169 BC the lex Voconia, one of the provisions of which was intended to check the accumulation of an undue proportion of wealth in the hands of women. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC - 181 BC - 180 BC 179 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC - 169 BC - 168 BC 167 BC 166...


Amongst other things he repaired the aqueducts, cleansed the sewers, prevented private persons drawing off public water for their own use, ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public way, and built the first basilica in the Forum near the Curia (Livy, History, 39.44; Plutarch, Marcus Cato, 19). He raised the amount paid by the publicani for the right of farming the taxes, and at the same time diminished the contract prices for the construction of public works. St. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... A Publican can be the manager of a public house, or in New Testament times, a tax collecter. ...


Later years

From the date of his censorship (184) to his death in 149 BC, Cato held no public office, but continued to distinguish himself in the senate as the persistent opponent of the new ideas. He was struck with horror, along with many other Romans of the graver stamp, at the licence of the Bacchanalian mysteries, which he attributed to the influence of Greek manners; and he vehemently urged the dismissal of the philosophers (Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus), who came as ambassadors from Athens, on account of the dangerous nature of the views expressed by them. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... The Bacchanalia were wild and mystic festivals of the Roman god Bacchus. ... Carneades (c. ... Diogenes of Babylon, also known as Diogenes of Seleucia, or Diogenes the Stoic, was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Critolaus, a Greek philosopher, was born at Phaselis in the 2nd century B.C. He lived to the age of eighty-two and died probably before 111 B.C. He studied philosophy under Aristo of Ceos and became one of the leaders of the Peripatetic school by his eminence as... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


He had a horror of physicians, who were chiefly Greeks. He procured the release of Polybius, the historian, and his fellow prisoners, contemptuously asking whether the senate had nothing more important to do than discuss whether a few Greeks should die at Rome or in their own land. It was not till his eightieth year that he made his first acquaintance with Greek literature, though some think after examining his writings that he may have had a knowledge of Greek works for much of his life. Polybius (c. ...


In his last years he was known for strenuously urging his countrymen to the Third Punic War and the destruction of Carthage. In 157 BC he was one of the deputies sent to Carthage to arbitrate between the Carthaginians and Massinissa, king of Numidia. The mission was unsuccessful and the commissioners returned home. But Cato was so struck by the evidences of Carthaginian prosperity that he was convinced that the security of Rome depended on the annihilation of Carthage. From this time, in season and out of season, he kept repeating the cry: "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam." (Moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed.[30]) He was known for saying this at the conclusion of each of his speeches, no matter what he had previously been talking about. Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 162 BC 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC 158 BC - 157 BC - 156 BC 155 BC... Masinissa (c. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... The location of Carthage in North Africa Carthago delenda est (Carthage must be destroyed) is a famous Latin phrase. ...


To Cato the individual life was a continual discipline, and public life was the discipline of the many. He regarded the individual householder as the germ of the family, the family as the germ of the state. By strict economy of time he accomplished an immense amount of work; he exacted similar application from his dependents, and proved himself a hard husband, a strict father, a severe and cruel master. There was little difference apparently, in the esteem in which he held his wife and his slaves; his pride alone induced him to take a warmer interest in his sons, Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus and Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus. Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus or Cato Licinianus (?–c. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus or Cato Salonianus was the son of Cato the Elder by his second wife Salonia. ...


To the Romans themselves there was little in this behaviour which seemed worthy of censure; it was respected rather as a traditional example of the old Roman manners. In the remarkable passage (xxxix. 40) in which Livy describes the character of Cato, there is no word of blame for the rigid discipline of his household. A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Cato's writings

Cato is famous not only as statesman or soldier, but also as author. He was a historian, the first Latin prose writer of any importance, and the first author of a history of Italy in Latin. Some have argued that if it were not for the impact of Cato's writing, Latin might have been supplanted by Greek as the literary language of Rome. He was also one of the very few early Latin authors who could claim Latin as a native language.[31] Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ...

  • His manual on running a farm (De Agri Cultura or "On Farming") is his only work that survives completely. It is a miscellaneous collection of rules of husbandry and management, including sidelights on country life in the 2nd century BC. Adopted by many as a textbook at a time when Romans were expanding their agricultural activities into larger scale and more specialized business ventures geared towards profitability, De Agri Cultura assumes a farm run and staffed by slaves. Cato advises on hiring gangs for the olive harvest,[32] and was noted for his chilling advice on keeping slaves continually at work, on reducing rations for slaves when sick, and on selling slaves that are old or sickly.[33] Intended for reading aloud and discussing with farm workers, De Agri Cultura was widely read and much quoted (sometimes inaccurately) by later Latin authors.[34]
  • Probably Cato's most important work, Origines, in seven books, related the history of the Italian towns, with special attention to Rome, from their legendary or historical foundation to his own day. The text as a whole is lost, but substantial fragments survive in quotations by later authors.[35]
  • Under the Roman Empire a collection of about 150 political speeches by Cato existed. In these he pursued his political policies, fought verbal vendettas, and opposed what he saw as Rome's moral decline. Not even the titles of all of these speeches are now known, but fragments of some of them are preserved. The first to which we can give a date was On the Improper Election of the Aediles, delivered in 202 BC. The collection included several speeches from the year of his consulship, followed by a self-justifying retrospect On His Consulship and by numerous speeches delivered when he was Censor. It is not clear whether Cato allowed others to read and copy his written texts (in other words, whether he "published" the speeches) or whether their circulation in written form began after his death.[36]
  • On Soldiery was perhaps a practical manual comparable to On Farming.[37]
  • On the Law Relating to Priests and Augurs was a topic that would follow naturally from some of the sections of On Farming. Only one brief extract from this work is known.[38]
  • Praecepta ad Filium, "Maxims addressed to his son",[39] from which the following extract survives:
In due course, my son Marcus, I shall explain what I found out in Athens about these Greeks, and demonstrate what advantage there may be in looking into their writings (while not taking them too seriously). They are a worthless and unruly tribe. Take this as a prophecy: when those folk give us their writings they will corrupt everything. All the more if they send their doctors here. They have sworn to kill all barbarians with medicine—and they charge a fee for doing it, in order to be trusted and to work more easily. They call us barbarians, too, of course, and Opici, a dirtier name than the rest. I have forbidden you to deal with doctors.
Quoted by Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia 29.13–14.
  • A history of Rome from which Cato taught his son to read.
  • Carmen de moribus ("Poem on morality"), apparently in prose in spite of the title.[40]
  • A collection of Sayings, some of them translated from Greek.

The two surviving collections of proverbs known as Distichs of Cato and Monosticha Catonis, in hexameter verse, probably belong to the 4th century AD. They are not really by Cato. De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written around 150 BC by Cato the Elder, is the first surviving work of Latin prose. ... Origines (Origins) is the title of a historical work by Marcus Porcius Cato, commonly known as Cato the Elder. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... The Osci, also called Opici, Opsci or Obsci (and Oscans or Opicans in English) were an ancient Italic people, living in what is now Campania in southern Italy. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... The Distichs of Cato (Latin: Catonis Disticha, most famously known simply as Cato), is a Latin collection of proverbial wisdom and morality by an unknown author named Dionysius Cato from the 3rd or 4th century AD. The Cato was the most popular medieval schoolbook for teaching Latin, prized not only... Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


Other influences

The wrinkle ridge system Dorsa Cato on the Moon is named after him. A wrinkle-ridge is a type of feature commonly found on Lunar mares. ... Dorsa Cato is a wrinkle ridge at on the Moon. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Quotes

  • "This corn is well grown and Carthage must be destroyed."
  • "Grasp the subject, words will follow".
  • "Anger so clouds the mind, that it cannot perceive the truth".
  • "Take no account of dreams."
  • "And what do you think of usury?" - "What do you think of murder?"
  • "After I'm dead I'd rather have people ask why I have no monument than why I have one."

Notes

  1. ^ Marcus Porcius Marci filius Cato - Marcus Porcius Cato, son of Marcus
  2. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder, 1.
  3. ^ Cicero, Laelius On Friendship, 2.
  4. ^ Justinus, xxxiii. 2
  5. ^ Gellius, xvii. 21.
  6. ^ Cicero, On old age, 4.
  7. ^ Pliny, Natural History, xxix. 8.
  8. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 7. § 1.
  9. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxix. 40.
  10. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder, 15.
  11. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder, 1.
  12. ^ Wilhelm Drumann, Geschichte Roms (History of Rome), v. p. 99, 6 Bde. Königsberg 1834-1844.
  13. ^ Compare that conception with the opinion stated by Montesquieu about the subsequent corruption of Rome (referring to the Roman Republican civil wars between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces): "But, in general, the Romans knew only the art of war, which was the sole path to magistracies and honors. Thus, the martial virtues remained after all the others were lost." (from Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, chapter X, 1734.)
  14. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder, 3.
  15. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxix. 19, etc.
  16. ^ Aurelius Victor, On famous Roman men, 47.
  17. ^ Aurelius Victor, On famous Roman men, 47.
  18. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxiv. 1, 8.
  19. ^ Valerius Maximus, ix. 1. §3.
  20. ^ Livy, History of Rome, book xxxiv.
  21. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxiv. 46.
  22. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder, 11.
  23. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxiv. 43.
  24. ^ Plutarch, Cato the Elder, 12.
  25. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxiv. 43, 46.
  26. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxv. 9.
  27. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxvi. 17, 21.
  28. ^ Livy, History of Rome, xxxvi. 21.
  29. ^ Valerius Maximus, ii, 2. § 2.
  30. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato
  31. ^ (Dalby 1998, pp. 7-8).
  32. ^ Cato, De Agri Cultura ch. 64-68.
  33. ^ Cato, De Agri Cultura ch. 2.
  34. ^ (Dalby 1998, pp. 22-28).
  35. ^ (Chassignet 1986).
  36. ^ (Malcovati 1955); (Dalby 1998, p. 13).
  37. ^ (Astin 1978, pp. 184-185).
  38. ^ (Astin 1978, p. 185).
  39. ^ (Astin 1978, pp. 332-340).
  40. ^ (Astin 1978, pp. 185-186).

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Justinus was the leader of a group of Christian gnostics who was criticised by the late 2nd and early 3rd century writer Hippolytus. ... Aulus Gellius (c. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written around 150 BC by Cato the Elder, is the first surviving work of Latin prose. ... De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written around 150 BC by Cato the Elder, is the first surviving work of Latin prose. ...

References

  • Astin, A. E. (1978), written at Oxford, Cato the Censor, Clarendon Press
  • Chassignet, M. (1986), written at Paris, Caton: Les Origines. Fragments, Collection Budé, Les Belles Lettres
  • Dalby, Andrew (1998), written at Totnes, Cato: On Farming, Prospect Books, ISBN 0907325807
  • Malcovati, H. (1955), written at Turin, Oratorum romanorum fragmenta liberae rei publicae, Paravia
  • This entry incorporates public domain text originally from: William Smith (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

The Collection Budé, or the Collection des Universités de France, is a series of books comprising the Greek and Latin classics up to the middle of the 6th century. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Cato the Elder
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cato Major
  • Cato's De Agricultura: Latin text, English translation, information on the manuscripts, prefatory material.
  • Works by Cato the Elder at Project Gutenberg
Preceded by
Lucius Furius Purpureo and Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Valerius Flaccus
195 BC
Succeeded by
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Tiberius Sempronius Longus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cato the Elder (1118 words)
Marcus Porcius Cato (234 - 149 BC), Roman statesman, surnamed "The Censor," Sapiens, Priscus, or Major (the Elder), to distinguish him from Cato of Utica[?], was born at Tusculum.
Cato's enmity dated from the African campaign when he quarrelled with Scipio for his lavish distribution of the spoil amongst the troops, and his general luxury and extravagance.
Cato had, however, a more serious task to perform in opposing the spread of the new Hellenic culture which threatened to destroy the rugged simplicity of the conventional Roman type.
The Internet Classics Archive | Marcus Cato by Plutarch (4458 words)
Marcus cato, we are told, was born at Tusculum, though (till he betook himself to civil and military affairs) he lived and was bred up in the country of the Sabines, where his father's estate lay.
Cato was sent to the Carthaginians and Masinissa, King of Numidia, who were at war with one another, to know the cause of their difference.
Cato Salonius died when he was praetor, but his son Marcus was afterwards consul, and he was grandfather of Cato the philosopher, who for virtue and renown was one of the most eminent personages of his time.
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