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An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron shell than it has protons in its nucleus, is known as an anion, for it is attracted to anodes, and a positively charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (pronounced cat eye on), for it is attracted to cathodes. The process of converting into ions and the state of being ionized is called ionization. The recombining of ions and electrons to form neutral atoms is called recombination. Polyatomic anions which contain oxygen are sometimes known as oxyanion. Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle which carries a negative electric charge. ... In atomic physics, an electron shell is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Plural: nuclei In chemistry and physics, the nucleus (atomic nucleus) is the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge. ... Diagram of a zinc anode An anode (from the Greek άνοδος = going up) is the positive electrode in an electrolytic system or circuit. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


Atomic and polyatomic ions are denoted by a superscript with the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+, SO3-2. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ...


A collection of non-aqueous ions, or even a gas containining a proportion of charged particles, is called a plasma, which is called the fourth state of matter because its properties are quite different to solids, liquids, and gases. The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ... A solid is a phase of matter, characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... A gas is one of the phases of matter. ...

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Ionization potential

Main article: Ionization potential

The energy required to detach an electron in its lowest energy state from an atom or molecule of a gas with less net electric charge is called the ionization potential, or ionization energy. The nth ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to detach its nth electron after the first n - 1 electrons have already been detached. The ionization potential, or ionization energy, of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ...


Each successive ionization energy is markedly greater than the last. Particularly great increases occur after any given block of atomic orbitals is exhausted of electrons. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with full orbital blocks. For example, sodium has one valence electron, in its outermost shell, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one lost electron, as Na+. On the other side of the periodic table, chlorine has seven valence electrons, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one gained electron, as Cl-. Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In quantum mechanics, the states of an atom, i. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... In chemistry, valence electrons are the electrons contained in the valence shell (the outermost electron level) of an atom, and which are likely to participate in a chemical reaction through bonding with other atoms, molecules, or ions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ...


Other ions

A dianion is a species which has two negative charges on it. For example, the dianion of pentalene is aromatic. A zwitterion is an ion with a net charge of zero, but has both a positive and negative charge on it. Pentalene has the chemical formula C8H6. ... A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ...


History

Ions were first theorized by Michael Faraday around 1830, to describe the portions of molecules that travel either to an anode or to a cathode. However, the mechanism by which this was achieved was not described until 1884 by Svante August Arrhenius in his doctoral dissertation to the University of Uppsala. His theory was initially not accepted but his dissertation won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903. Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... Uppsala University Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... See also: Other events of 1903 List of years in science . ...


Etymology

The word ion is a name given by Michael Faraday, from Greek ἰόν, neutral present participle of ἰέναι, "to go", thus "a goer". So, anion, ἀνιόν, and cation, κατιόν, mean "(a thing) going up" and "(a thing) going down", respectively, and anode, ἄνοδος, and cathode, κάθοδος, mean "a going up" and "a going down", respectively, from ὁδός, "way". Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ...


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