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Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. The First Servile War was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Romans on the island of Sicily. ... The Second Servile War was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Romans on the island of Sicily. ... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Combatants Lucius Cornelius Sulla Marius the Younger Commanders Sulla, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey, Metellus Pius Marius the Younger, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, Pontius Telesinus, Lucius Cornelius Cinna Sullas second civil war was one of a series of civil wars of ancient Rome. ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman... The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Marc Antony and the forces of Aulus Hirtius who was providing aid to one of Caesars assassins, Decimus Brutus. ... Liberators civil war Combatants Second Triumvirate Liberators Commanders Marcus Antonius Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Gaius Cassius Longinus Marcus Junius Brutus The Second Triumvirate declared this civil war to avenge Julius Caesars murder. ... Combatants Roman Republic The forces of Sextus Pompeius Commanders Octavian, Marcus Agrippa, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemelius Lepidus Sextus Pompeius Strength More than 200,000 The Sicilian revolt was a revolution against the Second Triumvirate which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC. The revolt was led by Sextus Pompeius, and... Combatants Roman Republic Forces of Fulvia and Lucius Antonius Commanders Octavian, triumvir, Fulvia, Lucius Antonius Strength Unknown 8 legions Fulvias civil war was a civil war which lasted from 41 to 40 BC . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Battle of Actium. ... Centuries: 3rd century BCE - 2nd century BCE - 1st century BCE Decades: 150s BCE 140s BCE 130s BCE 120s BCE 110s BCE - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BCE 70s BCE 60s BCE 50s BCE Years: 113 BCE 112 BCE 111 BCE 110 BCE 109 BCE - 108 BCE - 107 BCE 106 BCE... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


Catiline was one of the most infamous figures of Roman history. Every historian of classical antiquity has condemed the man, if not for his crimes then for his undemocratic spirit. The two chief sources for information on Catiline, Cicero and Sallust, possessed numerous reasons to depict him in the worst possible light on account of their allegiance to the Republican form of government. Cicero was a naturalized citizen and Sallust a Pleb. Catiline, on the other hand, was a noble and on account of this he believed that the highest office of the State ought to be inherited. Marcus Tullius Cicero became his most bitter political enemy, not only on account of Catiline's base morality and his political corruption, but also because Catiline had once tried to assassinate him. Accordingly, he spared no denunciation of him in his Catiline Orations, and Gaius Sallustius, one of the greatest historians of all time, recorded some of his vilest crimes his historical monograph, Bellum Catilinae. Many of the gravest accusations such as human sacrifice are likely whereas Cassius Dio corrected Sallust's narrations of the event. Catiline's conspiracy is one of the most infamous events of the turbulent final decades of the Roman Republic. Indeed the actions of this most notoriuos criminal are believed to have directly contributed to the down fall of the Republic and paved the way for the Empire. For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ...

Cicero Denouncing Catiline by Cesare Maccari.
Cicero Denouncing Catiline by Cesare Maccari.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (962x600, 100 KB)Painting by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919), Cicero Denounces Catiline. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (962x600, 100 KB)Painting by Cesare Maccari (1840-1919), Cicero Denounces Catiline. ...

Life

Family background

Catiline was born in 108 BC to one of the oldest patrician families in Rome. Although his family was of consular heritage, they were then declining in both social and financial fortunes. Virgil later gave the family an ancestor, Sergestus, who had come with Aeneas to Italy, presumably because they were notably ancient; but they had not been prominent for centuries. The last Sergius to be consul had been Gnaeus Sergius Fidenas Coxo in 380 BC.[1] Later, these factors would dramatically shape Catiline's ambitions and goals as he would desire above all else to restore the political heritage of his family along with its financial power.[2] Centuries: 3rd century BCE - 2nd century BCE - 1st century BCE Decades: 150s BCE 140s BCE 130s BCE 120s BCE 110s BCE - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BCE 70s BCE 60s BCE 50s BCE Years: 113 BCE 112 BCE 111 BCE 110 BCE 109 BCE - 108 BCE - 107 BCE 106 BCE... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Sergestus was a friend of Aeneas. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC 382 BC 381 BC 380 BC 379 BC 378 BC 377...


Military career

An able commander, Catiline had a distinguished military career.[3] He served in the Social War with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cicero, under Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo in 89 BC. During Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo's regime, Catiline played no major role, but he remained politically secure. He later supported Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the civil war of 84 BC81 BC. Then in the early 70s BC he served abroad, possibly with Publius Servilius Vatia at Cilicia. In 73 BC, he was brought to trial for adultery with the Vestal Virgin, Fabia,[4] but Quintus Lutatius Catulus, the principal leader of the Optimates, testified in his favor, and eventually Catiline was acquitted.[5] Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... This article refers to the Roman General. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, often referred to as Strabo or Pompey Strabo in English, was a Roman from the rural province of Picenum. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC - 89 BC - 88 BC 87 BC 86... Lucius Cornelius Cinna[1] (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC - 84 BC - 83 BC 82 BC 81... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC - 81 BC - 80 BC 79 BC 78... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Quintus Lutatius Catulus (c. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ...


He was praetor in 68 BC and for the following 2 years was the propraetorian governor for Africa.[6] Upon his return home in 66 BC, he presented himself as a candidate for the consular elections; however, he was prevented from becoming a candidate on technical grounds by the current consul, Lucius Volcanius Tullus.[7] Subsequently, a delegation from his province appealed to the Senate alleging abuse of power while governor.[8] He was finally brought to trial in 65 BC, where he received the support of many of the most distinguished men in Rome, including many of the consulars.[6] Even one of the consuls for 65 BC, Lucius Manlius Torquatus, demonstrated his support for Catiline.[9] Cicero also contemplated defending Catiline in court.[10] Eventually, Catiline was acquitted. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65... The Roman Empire ca. ... Events Roman Republic Consuls: Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus Catiline accused of conspiring against the Roman Republic with Autronius and the younger Sulla. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... This article is about the Roman rank. ... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... For places with this name, see Manlius, Illinois, Manlius Township, Michigan, and Manlius (town), New York, Manlius (village), New York. ...


The First Catilinarian Conspiracy

Charge of Cicero denouncing Cataline.
Charge of Cicero denouncing Cataline.

In all likelihood, Catiline was not involved in the so called First Catilinarian Conspiracy; however, several historical sources implicate him in it. There does not seem to be a single account that is represented in all of the sources, rather it seems that the accounts represent a collection of rumors accusing and implicating different political figures in attempts to tarnish their names. As it pertains to Catiline, much of the information originates in Cicero’s speech In Toga Candida which was given during his election campaign in 64 BC. Only fragments of this speech still exist. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 505 pixelsFull resolution (2778 × 1752 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 505 pixelsFull resolution (2778 × 1752 pixel, file size: 1. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61...


The consuls-designate, Publius Autronius Paetus and Publius Cornelius Sulla, were prevented from entering office because of ambitus, electoral corruption, under the lex Calpurnia.[11] Thus, the two other leading candidates, Lucius Manlius Torquatus and Lucius Aurelius Cotta, were elected in a second election and were to enter office on January 1, 65 BC. Supposedly, Catiline, incensed because he was not allowed to run for the consulship, conspired with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso and the former consuls-designate to slaughter many of the senators and the new consuls the day they assumed office. Then they would name themselves the consuls for 65 BC and then Piso would have been sent to organize the provinces in Spain.[12] Alternatively, Gaius Suetonius claims that Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus directed the conspiracy, but he fails to mention Catiline's involvement. Instead of assuming the consulship, Crassus is accused of planning to become dictator and intending to name Caesar "magister equitum".[13] Publius Autronius Paetus was a politician of the late Roman Republic who was involved in the conspiracy of Catiline. ... Publius Cornelius Sulla (d. ... Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when praetor in 70 BC brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists, by which the judices were to be eligible, not from the senators exclusively as limited by Sulla, but from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ...


Later, in 62 BC after Catiline's death, Cicero defended Publius Sulla in court after he was indicted for being a member of the second conspiracy. In order to free his client of implication in the First Catilinarian Conspiracy, he places the blame solely on Catiline, who had conveniently waged war against the Republic in the previous months.[14] In the end, Publius Sulla was acquitted, Catiline's name was further tarnished, and Cicero received a large loan to purchase a home.[15] It is even not clear who participated in this alleged conspiracy, as the different accounts accuse different people, but Catiline's association with it appears to have been developed after the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy. Cicero's accusations prior to 63 BC are likely unfounded, since Rome had no penalty for libel. Furthermore, Catiline had little motive to participate in this conspiracy, especially since he had been denied very little. He still held the aspiration of obtaining the consulship legitimately the next year, and the conspiracy involved the murder of the consul, Manlius Torquatus, who supported Catiline. It is unlikely that Catiline would have been involved in the First Catilinarian Conspiracy or if, indeed, it even existed at all. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60...


The intervening years

Catilina propaganda cup for the election to 62 BC consulate (right cup). These cups, filled with food or drinks, were distributed to the electors to support the candidates.

During 64 BC Catiline was officially accepted as a candidate in the consular election for 63 BC. He ran alongside Gaius Antonius Hybrida whom some suspect may have been a fellow conspirator. Nevertheless, Catiline was defeated by Cicero and Antonius Hybrida in the consular election, largely because the Roman aristocracy feared Catiline and his economic plan.[16] The Optimates were particularly repulsed because he promoted the plight of the urban plebs along with his economic policy of tabulae novae, the universal cancellation of debts.[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x1524, 470 KB) Roman propaganda cups, 1st century BC, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x1524, 470 KB) Roman propaganda cups, 1st century BC, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... Gaius Antonius Hybrida (lived 1st century BC) was an Ancient Rome politician. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ...


He was brought to trial later that same year, but this time it was for his role in the Sullan proscriptions. At the insistence of Cato the Younger, then quaestor, all men who had profited during the proscriptions were brought to trial. For his involvement, Catiline was accused of killing his brother-in-law Marcus Marius Gratidianus, carrying this man’s severed head through the streets of Rome and then having Sulla add him to the proscription to make it legal. Other allegations claimed that he murdered several other notable men.[18] Despite this, Catiline was acquitted again, though some surmise that it was through the influence of Caesar who presided over the court. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ...


Catiline chose to run for the consulship again in the following year.[19] However, by the time of the consular election for 62 BC, Catiline had lost much of the political support he had enjoyed during the previous year's election. So, he was defeated by two other candidates, Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena, ultimately crushing his political ambitions. The only remaining chance of attaining the consulship would be through an illegitimate means, conspiracy or revolution.[20] Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59... Lucius Licinius Murena, Roman consul, was the son of Lucius Licinius Murena who was defeated by Mithradates in Asia in 81 BC He was for several years legate of Lucius Licinius Lucullus in the third Mithradatic War. ...


The Second Catilinarian Conspiracy

Composition of the conspiracy

"But at power or wealth, for the sake of which wars, and all kinds of strife, arise among mankind, we do not aim; we desire only our liberty, which no honorable man relinquishes but with life."
From Manlius' message to an approaching army as recorded in Sallust's Bellum Catilinae (XXXIII)

Catiline began to attach many other men of senatorial and equestrian rank to his conspiracy, and like him many of the other leading conspirators had faced similar political problems in the Senate.[21] Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, the most influential conspirator after Catiline, had held the rank of consul in 71 BC, but he was cast out of the senate by the censors during a political purge in the following year on the pretext of debauchery.[22] Autronius was also complicit in their plot, since he was banned from holding office in the Roman government. Another leading conspirator, Lucius Cassius Longinus who was praetor in 66 BC with Cicero, joined the conspiracy after he failed to obtain the consulship in 64 BC along with Catiline. By the time that the election came around, he was no longer even regarded as a viable candidate. Gaius Cethegus, a relatively young man at the time of the conspiracy, was noted for his violent nature. His impatience for rapid political advancement may account for his involvement in the conspiracy.[23] The ranks of the conspirators included a variety of other patricians and plebeians who had been cast out of the political system for various reasons. Many of them sought the restoration of their status as senators and their lost political power. An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, (d. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC - 71 BC - 70 BC 69 BC 68... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Cassius Longinus married Caligulas sister Drusilla in 33ad. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Events Roman Republic Consuls: Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus Catiline accused of conspiring against the Roman Republic with Autronius and the younger Sulla. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61... Cethegus, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens. ...


Promoting his policy of debt relief, Catiline initially also rallied many of the poor to his banner along with a large portion of Sulla’s veterans.[24] Debt had never been greater than in 63 BC since the previous decades of war had lead to an era of economic downturn across the Italian countryside.[25] Numerous plebeian farmers lost their farms and were forced to move to the city, where they swelled the numbers of the urban poor.[26] Sulla's veterans had spent and squandered the wealth they acquired from their years of service. Desiring to regain their fortunes, they were prepared to march to war under the banner of the "next" Sulla. Thus, many of the plebs eagerly flocked to Catiline and supported him in the hope of the absolution of their debts. Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60...


Course of the conspiracy

He sent Gaius Manlius, a centurion from Sulla’s old army, to manage the conspiracy in Etruria where he assembled an army. Other men were sent to take other important locations throughout Italy, and even a small slave revolt began in Capua. While civil unrest was felt throughout the countryside, Catiline made the final preparations for the conspiracy in Rome.[27] Their plans included arson and the murder of a large portion of the senators, after which they would join up with Manlius’ army. Finally, they would return to Rome and take control of the government. To set the plan in motion, Gaius Cornelius and Lucius Vargunteius were to assassinate Cicero early in the morning on November 7, 63 BC, but Quintus Curius, a senator, who would eventually become one of Cicero's chief informants warned Cicero of the threat through his mistress Fulvia. Fortunately for Cicero, he escaped death that morning by placing guards at the entrance of his house who scared the conspirators away.[28] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60...


On the following day, Cicero convened the Senate in the Temple of Jupiter Stator and surrounded it with armed guards.[29] Much to his surprise, Catiline was in attendance while Cicero denounced him before the Senate; however, the senators adjacent to Catiline slowly moved away from him during the course of the speech, the first of Cicero's four Catiline Orations. Incensed at these accusations, Catiline exhorted the Senate to recall the history of his family and how it had served the republic, instructing them to not believe false rumors and to trust the name of his family. He finally accused them of placing their faith in a "homo novus", Cicero, over a "nobilis", himself. Supposedly, Catiline violently concluded that he would put out his own fire with the general destruction of all.[30] Immediately afterwards, he threw himself out of the Senate house, and he rushed home. That night, Catiline complied with Cicero's demand and fled Rome under the pretext that he was going into voluntary exile at Massilia because of his "mistreatment" by the consul; however, he arrived at Manlius’ camp in Etruria to further enact his designs of revolution.[31] The Temple of Jupiter Stator (Jupiter the Stayer) was in the area of the Roman Forum. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... Marseilles redirects here. ...

"Besides, soldiers, the same exigency does not press upon our adversaries, as presses upon us; we fight for our country, for our liberty, for our life; they contend for what but little concerns them, the power of a small party. Attack them, therefore, with so much the greater confidence, and call to mind your achievements of old."
From Catiline's speech to his army as recorded in Sallust's Bellum Catilinae (LVIII)

While Catiline was preparing the army, the conspirators continued with their plans. The conspirators observed that a delegation from the Allobroges were in Rome seeking relief from the oppression of their governor. So, Lentulus Sura instructed Publius Umbrenus, a businessman with dealings in Gaul, to offer to free them of their miseries and to throw off the heavy yoke of their governor. He brought Publius Gabinius Capito, a leading conspirator of the equestrian rank, to meet them and the conspiracy was revealed to the Allobroges.[32] The envoys quickly took advantage of this opportunity and informed Cicero who then instructed the envoys to get tangible proof of the conspiracy. Five of the leading conspirators wrote letters to the Allobroges so that the envoys could show their people that there was hope in a real conspiracy. However, a trap had been laid. These letters were intercepted in transit to Gaul at the Mulvian Bridge.[33] Then, Cicero had the incriminating letters read before the Senate the following day, and shortly thereafter these 5 conspirators were condemned to death without a trial despite an eloquent protest by Julius Caesar. Fearing that other conspirators might try to free Lentulus and the rest, Cicero had them strangled in the Tullianum immediately. He even escorted Lentulus to the Tullianum personally.[34] After the executions, he announced to a crowd gathering in the Forum what had occurred. Thus, an end was made to the conspiracy in Rome. A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Allobroges tribe. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison (Carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ...


The failure of the conspiracy in Rome was a massive blow to Catiline. Upon hearing of the death of Lentulus and the others, many men deserted his army leaving him with some 10,000 men, about two Legions worth. He and his ill-equipped army began to march towards Gaul and then back towards Rome several times in vain attempts to avoid a battle. Inevitably, Catiline was forced to fight when Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer with three legions in the north blocked off his escape. So, he chose to engage Antonius Hybrida’s army near Pistoria (now Pistoia) hoping that he would lose the battle and dishearten the other Republican armies.[35] Catiline may have still believed that Antonius Hybrida was conspiring with him, which may have been true as Antonius Hybrida claimed to be ill on the day of the battle.[36] Nevertheless, Catiline himself bravely fought as a soldier on the front lines of the battle. Once he saw that there was no hope of victory, he threw himself into the thickest of the enemy. When the corpses were counted, all of Catiline’s soldiers were found with forward wounds, and his corpse was found far in front of his own lines. The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... Pistoia (ancient Pistoria) is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km (18 mi) west and north of Florence. ... The Battle of Pistoria was fought in January of 62 BC between the Roman Republic and Catiline, a conspirator who wished to overthrow the republic. ...


Legacy

"Catiline was found far away from his own soldiers among the corpses of his enemies. It would have been a glorious death if he had thus fallen fighting for his country."
From Florus' Epitome de Tito Livio (II.xii)

After Catiline’s death, many of the poor still regarded him with respect and did not view him as the traitor and villain that Cicero claimed he was.[37] However, the patrician element of Rome certainly viewed him in a much darker light. At the insistence of Cicero, Sallust wrote an account of the conspiracy that epitomized Catiline as representative of all of the evils festering in the declining Roman republic. In his account, Sallust attributes countless crimes and atrocities to Catiline, but even he refuses to heap some of the most outrageous claims on him, particularly a ritual that involved the drinking of blood of a sacrificed child.[38] Later historians such as Florus and Dio Cassius, far removed from the original events, recorded the claims of Sallust and the aforementioned rumors as facts.[39] Up until the modern era Catiline was equated to everything depraved and contrary to both the laws of the gods and men as Sallust so eloquently described. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ...

"He had many things about him which served to allure men to the gratification of their passions; he had also many things which acted as incentives to industry and toil. The vices of lust raged in him; but at the same time he was conspicuous for great energy and military skill. Nor do I believe that there ever existed so strange a prodigy upon the earth, made up in such a manner of the most various, and different and inconsistent studies and desires."
From Cicero's Pro Caelio (V)

While the Romans despised Catiline for everything he did, they still viewed his character with a degree of respect. Well after Catiline's death and the end of the threat of the conspiracy, even Cicero reluctantly admitted that Catiline was an enigmatic man that possessed both the greatest of virtues and the most terrible of vices. Catiline spoke with an eloquence that demanded loyalty from his followers and strengthened the resolve of his friends. Without doubt Catiline possessed a degree of courage that few have, and he died a particularly honorable death in Roman society. Unlike most Roman generals of the late republic, Catiline offered himself to his followers both as a general and as soldier on the front lines. Even once he was mortally wounded on the battlefield his fiery spirit still burned in his eyes and could not be quenched.[40]


While history has viewed Catiline through the lenses of his enemies, modern historians have reassessed Catiline in a less biased light. To some extent Catiline’s name has been freed from many of its previous associations, and even to some the name of Catiline has undergone a transformation from a traitor and villain to a heroic agrarian reformer. Thus, some view Catiline as a reformer such as the Gracchi who met similar resistance from the government. However, many place him somewhere in between, a man who used the plight of the poor to suit his personal interests and a politician of the time no more corrupt than any other. The Gracchi were a plebeian family of ancient Rome. ...

Title page of Ben Jonson's tragedy (1611) from the Folio of 1692
Title page of Ben Jonson's tragedy (1611) from the Folio of 1692

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...

Dramatizations of Catiline

At least two major dramatists have written tragedies about Catiline: Ben Jonson, the English Jacobean playwright, wrote Catiline, His Conspiracy in 1611; Catiline was the first play by the Norwegian 'father of modern drama' Henrik Ibsen, written in 1850. For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Catiline His Conspiracy is a Jacobean tragedy written by Ben Jonson. ... Catiline or Catalina was Henrik Ibsens first play. ... Ibsen redirects here. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae V.1; Vergil, Aeneid V.121
  2. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae V.3
  3. ^ Cicero, Pro Caelio XII
  4. ^ She was later to become the Chief Vestal and to marry Publius Cornelius Dolabella as his first wife, per McCullough.
  5. ^ Cicero, "In Catilinam" III.9; Asconius 91C
  6. ^ a b Cicero, Pro Caelio IV
  7. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XVIII.3
  8. ^ Asconius 85-87, 89C
  9. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla LXXXI
  10. ^ Cicero, Epistulae Ad Atticam I.2
  11. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla XLIX; Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XVIII.2
  12. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XVIII.5; Asconius 92C; Dio Cassius XXXVI.44.3
  13. ^ Suetonius, Divus Julius IX
  14. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla LXVIII
  15. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae XII.12.2-4
  16. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXIII.5-XIV.1
  17. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXI.2
  18. ^ Asconius 84C
  19. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXVI.1
  20. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXVI.5
  21. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XVII
  22. ^ Dio Cassius XXXVII.30.4; Plutarch, Cicero 17.1
  23. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam III.16 IV.11
  24. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam II.8 IV.6; Cicero, Pro Murena LXXVIII-LXXIX; Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXXVII.1
  25. ^ Cicero, De Officiis II.84
  26. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXXVII
  27. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXVII.1-2 XXX.1-2; Cicero, Pro Murena XLIX
  28. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXVII.3-XXVIII.3
  29. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam I.21
  30. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXXI.5-9
  31. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XXXII.1 XXXIV.2; Cicero, In Catilinam II.13
  32. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam III.4; Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XL
  33. ^ Cicero, In Catilinam III.6; Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XLV
  34. ^ Sallust, Belum Catilinae LV.5-6
  35. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae LVI-LXI
  36. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae LIX
  37. ^ Cicero, Pro Flacco XXXVIII
  38. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae XX
  39. ^ Florus, Epitome de Tito Livio II.xii; Dio Cassius XXXVII.30.3
  40. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae LXI

Publius Cornelius Dolabella, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero, was born about 70 BC. He was by far the most important of the Dolabellae, a family of the patrician Cornelii. ...

References

Appian (c. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus) (86-34 BC), Roman historian, belonging to a well-known plebeian family, was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. ... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... Pro Caelio is one of the most famous surviving speeches by the Roman orator, Cicero. ... Quintus Tullius Cicero was the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Catilina, Lucius Sergius
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Catiline
SHORT DESCRIPTION Politician
DATE OF BIRTH 108 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Rome, Italy
DATE OF DEATH 62 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Pistoria, Italy

  Results from FactBites:
 
The First Oration Against Catiline, Cicero (4255 words)
Catiline, who knew this law to be aimed chiefly at him, formed a design to murder Cicero and some others of the chief men of the Senate, on the day of election, which was fixed for the twentieth of October.
Catiline was rendered desperate by this his second defeat, and resolved without farther delay to attempt the execution of all his schemes.
But, as the vigilance of Cicero was the greatest obstacle to their success, Catiline desired to see him slain before he left Rome; and two knights, parties to the conspiracy, undertook to visit him early on pretence of business, and to kill him in his bed.
Catiline - LoveToKnow 1911 (1006 words)
But Catiline's hopes were again disappointed; once more he failed to obtain the consulship (64); and, moreover, it soon became apparent that one of the new consuls, Cicero, was mysteriously able to thwart all the schemes of the conspirators.
Catiline now resolved upon open war; preparations were set on foot throughout Italy, especially in Etruria, where the standard of revolt was raised by the centurion C. Manlius (or Mallius), one of Sulla's veterans.
Catiline, by his bravery, his military talents, his vigorous resolution, and his wonderful power over men, was eminently qualified as a revolutionary leader.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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