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Encyclopedia > Catholic social teaching

Part of the Politics series on
Christian Democracy The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ...

Parties

Christian Democratic parties
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It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Christian Democratic Party (disambiguation). ... The Centrist Democrat International was uptil 2001 the Christian Democrat International (CDI) and before that the Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... For the eurosceptic informal grouping, see European Democrats. ... The European Christian Political Movement (ECPM) is an European political association for reflection and working on Christian-democratic politics in Europe from an explicit Christian Social view. ... you suck wener and WE THINK THAT UR STUPID WEBSITE SHOULD GO TO HELL ALL OF YOU FOR MAKING US EAT BROCOLLI>>>> WOMAN<<< SALAD FINGERS HAD A TREAT WHILE RUBBING HIS FINGERS ON METAl IT WAS QUITE ORGASMICAL AND FAIRTAILING YOUR ASS BUMM! BOOTOOM DRIBBLING DOWN MY FACE. ...

Ideas

Social conservatism
Social market economy
Sphere sovereignty
Communitarianism
Stewardship
Catholic social teaching
Neo-Calvinism
Neo-Thomism
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... In Neo-Calvinism, the idea of sphere sovereignty insists that created boundaries should be affirmed and respected. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Stewardship is a concept in theology. ... Neo-Calvinism, a form of Dutch Calvinism, is the movement initiated by the theologian and former Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...

Important documents

Rerum Novarum (1891)
Stone Lectures (Princeton 1898)
Graves de Communi Re (1901)
Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
Laborem Exercens (1981)
Sollicitudi Rei Socialis (1987)
Centesimus Annus (1991)
Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... The steeple of Alexander Hall Princeton Theological Seminary is a theological seminary located in the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey in the United States. ... Graves de Communi Re was an encyclical written by Pope Leo XIII in 1901, on Christian Democracy. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ... Sollicitudi Rei Socialis was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1987, on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum Progressio. ... Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for hundredth year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...

Important figures

Thomas Aquinas · John Calvin
Pope Leo XIII · Abraham Kuyper
Maritain · Adenauer · De Gasperi
Pope Pius XI · Schuman
Pope John Paul II · Kohl
Herman Dooyeweerd Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Prof. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Alcide De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – September 4, 1963) was a noted Luxembourg-born German-French politician, a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) who is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II or Pope John Paul II (The Great) (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Herman Dooyeweerd Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) was a Dutch juridical scholar by training, who by vocation was a philosopher, and the founder of a new approach called, the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea. ...

Politics Portal · edit

Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. The foundations of modern Catholic social teaching are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum Novarum. An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ...


A distinctive feature of Catholic social teaching is its concern for the poorest members of society. This concern echoes elements of the Jewish law and of the prophetic books of the Old Testament, and recalls the teachings of Jesus Christ recorded in the New Testament, such as his declaration that "whatever you have done for one of these least brothers of Mine, you have done for Me."[1] Another distinctive feature of Catholic social doctrine is the way in which it has consistently critiqued modern social and political ideologies both of the left and of the right: communism, conservatism, socialism, libertarianism, capitalism, liberalism and Nazism have all been condemned, at least in their pure forms, by the Popes at one time or another. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ...

Contents

Key themes

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has identified seven key themes of Catholic Social Teaching which are: The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (also known as the USCCB) is the official governing body of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. ...


Life and dignity of the human person

The foundational principle of all Catholic Social Teaching is the sanctity of human life and the inherent dignity of the human person. Human life must be valued infinitely above material possessions. Pope John Paul II wrote and spoke extensively on the topic of the inviolability of human life in his watershed encyclical, Evangelium Vitae, (Latin for "The Gospel of Life"). Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II or Pope John Paul II (The Great) (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ...


Acts considered attacks and affronts to human life include abortion,[2] euthanasia,[3] and every other deliberate taking of life, and must always be opposed. In the Second Vatican Council's Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et Spes (Latin for "Joy and Hope"), it is written that “from the moment of its conception life must be guarded with the greatest care ."[4] Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal with an incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or a possibly undignified death in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ...


War and the death penalty[5] must almost always be opposed, the former being guided by the principles of just war doctrine and the latter may only be employed when "this is the only practicable way to defend the lives of human beings effectively against the aggressor."[6] Both must always be a last resort. In addition, each human, being made in the image and likeness of God,[7] has an inherent dignity that must always be respected. Every human person "is called to a fullness of life which far exceeds the dimensions of his earthly existence, because it consists in sharing the very life of God."[8] Racism and other forms of discrimination must then always be opposed. WAR is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: War War (band) Warrenton Railroad (AAR reporting marks WAR) WAR, a Japanese professional wrestling promotion Web ARchive, a file format used to package Java programming language applications. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Just war is a specific concept of how warfare might be justified, typically in accordance with a particular situation, or scenario, and expanded or supported by reference to doctrine, tradition, or historical commentary. ... Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ...


Call to family, community, and participation

Immediately after forming Adam the "LORD God said: "It is not good for the man to be alone.".[9] The Church teaches that man is now not only a sacred but also a social animal and that families are the first and most basic units of a society. Together families form communities, communities a state and together all across the world each human is part of the human family. How these communities organize themselves politically, economically and socially is thus of the highest importance. Each institution must be judged by how much it enhances, or is a detriment to, the life and dignity of human persons. Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...


Catholic Social Teaching opposes collectivist approaches such as Communism but at the same time it also rejects unrestricted laissez-faire policies and the notion that a free market automatically produces justice. The state has a positive moral role to play as no society will achieve a just and equitable distribution of resources with a totally free market.[10] All people have a right to participate in the economic, political, and cultural life of society[11] and under the principle of subsidiarity state functions should be carried out at the lowest level that is practical.[12] Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ...


Rights and responsibilities

Every person has a fundamental right to life and to the necessities of life. In addition, every human has the right to what is required to live a full and decent life, things such as employment, health care, and education.[13]


The Church supports private property and teaches that “every man has by nature the right to possess property as his own."[14] The right to private property is not absolute, however, and is limited by the concept of the social mortgage.[15] It is theoretically moral and just for its members to destroy property used in an evil way by others, or for the state to redistribute wealth from those who have unjustly hoarded it.[16] Social mortgage is a term used in Catholic social teaching. ...


Preferential Option for the poor and vulnerable

Jesus taught that on the Day of Judgement God will ask what each of us did to help the poor and needy: "Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me."[17] This is reflected in the Church's canon law, which states, "[The Christian faithful] are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor from their own resources."[18] This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven...


Through our words, prayers and deeds we must show solidarity with, and compassion for, the poor. When instituting public policy we must always keep the "preferential option for the poor" at the forefront of our minds. The moral test of any society is "how it treats its most vulnerable members. The poor have the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. We are called to look at public policy decisions in terms of how they affect the poor."[19]


Dignity of work and the rights of workers

Society must pursue economic justice and the economy must serve people, not the other way around. Workers have a right to work, to earn a living wage, and to form trade unions[20] to protect their interests. All workers have a right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, and to safe working conditions.[21] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


Workers must "fully and faithfully" perform the work they have agreed to do and employers must not "look upon their work people as their bondsmen, but... respect in every man his dignity as a person ennobled by Christian character."[22]


Solidarity

"Solidarity is undoubtedly a Christian virtue. It seeks to go beyond itself to total gratuity, forgiveness, and reconciliation. It leads to a new vision of the unity of humankind, a reflection of God's triune intimate life...."[23] It is a unity that binds members of a group together.


All the peoples of the world belong to one human family. We must be our brother's keeper,[24] though we may be separated by distance, language or culture. Jesus teaches that we must each love our neighbors as ourselves and in the parable of the Good Samaritan we see that our compassion should extend to all people.[25] The Good Samaritan The Good Samaritan is a famous New Testament parable, that appears only in the Gospel of Luke (10:25-37). ...


Solidarity at the international level primarily concerns the Global South. For example, the Church has habitually insisted that loans be forgiven on many occasions, particularly during Jubilee years.[26] Charity to individuals or groups must be accompanied by transforming unjust structures. Solidarity in sociology refers to the feeling or condition of unity based on common goals, interests, and sympathies among a groups members. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ...


Care for God's creation

Stewardship of creation: The world's goods are available for humanity to use only under a "social mortgage" which carries with it the responsibility to protect the environment. The "goods of the earth" are gifts from God, and they are intended by God for the benefit of everyone.[27] Man was given dominion over all creation,[28] but in return must be a good steward of the gifts God has given him.[29] We cannot use and abuse the natural resources God has given us with a destructive consumer mentality. Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their entirety by a supernatural deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... Social mortgage is a term used in Catholic social teaching. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ...


History

Key Documents
Rerum Novarum (1891)

Quadragesimo Anno (1931) Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ...


Mater et Magistra (1961) Mater et Magistra is the encyclical written by Pope John XXIII on the topic of Christianity and Social Progress. It was released on May 15, 1961. ...


Pacem in Terris (1963) A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ...


Gaudium et Spes (1965) Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ...


Dignitatis Humanae (1965) Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ...


Populorum Progressio (1967) Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ...


Solicitudo Rei Socialis (1987) Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II on 30 December 1987. ...


Centesimus Annus (1991) Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for hundredth year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...


Deus Caritas Est (2005) Pope Benedict signs the encyclical Deus Caritas Est. ...

Key Figures
Pope Leo XIII

Pope Pius XI Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ...


Dorothy Day Dorothy Day was declared Servant of God when a cause for sainthood was opened for her by Pope John Paul II. Dorothy Day (November 8, 1897– November 29, 1980) was an American journalist turned social activist and devout member of the Catholic Church. ...


Oscar Romero Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ...


Pope John Paul II Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II or Pope John Paul II (The Great) (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland...


Joseph Bernardin Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, served as Archbishop of Chicago from 1982 till his death in 1996. ...

The principles of Catholic social teaching, though in most cases far older in origin, first began to be combined together into a system in the late nineteenth century. Since then, successive popes have added to and developed the Church's body of social teaching, principally through the medium of encyclical letters. An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ...


Rerum Novarum and Quadragesimo Anno

On May 15, 1891, Pope Leo XIII issued his seminal encyclical Rerum Novarum, subtitled "On Capital and Labor". In this document, Leo set out the Catholic Church's response to the social instability and labor conflict that had arisen in the wake of industrialization and had led to the rise of socialism. The Pope taught that the role of the State is to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the Church must speak out on social issues in order to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony. He restated the Church's long-standing teaching regarding the crucial importance of private property rights, but recognised, in one of the best-known passages of the encyclical, that the free operation of market forces must be tempered by moral considerations: is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ...

Let the working man and the employer make free agreements, and in particular let them agree freely as to the wages; nevertheless, there underlies a dictate of natural justice more imperious and ancient than any bargain between man and man, namely, that wages ought not to be insufficient to support a frugal and well-behaved wage-earner. If through necessity or fear of a worse evil the workman accept harder conditions because an employer or contractor will afford him no better, he is made the victim of force and injustice.[30]

Rerum Novarum is remarkable for its vivid depiction of the plight of the nineteenth-century urban poor and for its condemnation of unrestricted capitalism. Among the remedies it prescribed were the formation of trade unions and the introduction of collective bargaining, particularly as an alternative to state intervention. Rerum Novarum also recognized that the poor have a special status in consideration of social issues: the modern Catholic principle of the "preferential option for the poor" and the notion that God is on the side of the poor found their first expression in this document.[16][31]


Forty years after Rerum Novarum, and more than a year into the Great Depression, Pope Pius XI issued Quadragesimo Anno, subtitled "On Reconstruction of the Social Order". Released on May 15 of 1931, this encyclical expanded on Rerum Novarum, noting the positive effect of the earlier document but pointing out that the world had changed significantly since Pope Leo's time. Pius XI reiterated Leo's defence of private property rights and collective bargaining, and repeated his contention that blind economic forces cannot create a just society on their own: The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Just as the unity of human society cannot be founded on an opposition of classes, so also the right ordering of economic life cannot be left to a free competition of forces. For from this source, as from a poisoned spring, have originated and spread all the errors of individualist economic teaching. Destroying through forgetfulness or ignorance the social and moral character of economic life, it held that economic life must be considered and treated as altogether free from and independent of public authority, because in the market, i.e., in the free struggle of competitors, it would have a principle of self direction which governs it much more perfectly than would the intervention of any created intellect. But free competition, while justified and certainly useful provided it is kept within certain limits, clearly cannot direct economic life...[32]

Quadragesimo Anno also supported state intervention to mediate labor-management conflicts (a reference to the economic system which Mussolini was attempting to establish in Italy at the time), and introduced the concept of subsidiarity into Catholic thought. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ...


One question which had occupied some Catholics prior to Quadragesimo Anno was whether Leo XIII's condemnation of radical left-wing politics in Rerum Novarum extended only to outright Communism or whether it included milder forms of Socialism as well. Pius made it clear that non-communistic Socialism was included in the condemnation. The Catholic Church thus marked out a distinctive position for itself between free-market capitalism on the right and statist Socialism on the left.[16] Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Pope John XXIII and the Second Vatican Council

Further development came in the post-World War II period when attention turned to the problems of social and economic development and international relations. On May 15, 1961 Pope John XXIII released Mater et Magistra, subtitled "Christianity and Social Progress". This encyclical expanded the Church's social doctrine to cover the relations between rich and poor nations, examining the obligation of rich countries to assist poor countries while respecting their particular cultures. It includes an examination of the threat of global economic imbalances to world peace. On April 11, 1963, Pope John expanded further on this in Pacem in Terris (Latin for "Peace on Earth"), the first encyclical addressed to both Catholics and non-Catholics. In it, the Pope linked the establishment of world peace to the laying of a foundation consisting of proper rights and responsibilities between individuals, social groups, and states from the local to the international level. He exhorted Catholics to understand and apply the social teachings: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ),(Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Mater et Magistra is the encyclical written by Pope John XXIII on the topic of Christianity and Social Progress. It was released on May 15, 1961. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ...

Once again we exhort our people to take an active part in public life, and to contribute towards the attainment of the common good of the entire human family as well as to that of their own country. They should endeavor, therefore, in the light of the Faith and with the strength of love, to ensure that the various institutions--whether economic, social, cultural or political in purpose -- should be such as not to create obstacles, but rather to facilitate or render less arduous people's perfectioning of themselves both in the natural order as well as in the supernatural.[33]

This document, issued at the height of the Cold War also included a denunciation of the nuclear arms race and a call for strengthening the United Nations.[16] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


It was Pope John XXIII who convened the Second Vatican Council, which considered a wide variety of topics in its four sessions from 1962 to 1965, and which was presided over by Pope Paul VI after Pope John's death in 1963. The primary conciliar document concerning social teachings is Gaudium et Spes, the "Pastoral Constitution on the Church and the Modern World", which is considered one of the chief accomplishments of the Council. Unlike earlier documents, this is an expression of all the bishops, and covers a wide range of issues of the relationship of social concerns and Christian action. Fundamentally, this document asserts the fundamental dignity of each human being, and declares the Church's solidarity with both those who suffer, and those who would comfort the suffering: The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ...

The joys and the hopes, the griefs and the anxieties of the people of this age, especially those who are poor or in any way afflicted, these are the joys and hopes, the griefs and anxieties of the followers of Christ.[34]

Other conciliar documents such as Dignitatis Humanae, written largely by American Jesuit John Courtney Murray, who was silenced for his views on religious freedom prior to Vatican II, have important applications to the social teachings of the Church on freedom today. [35] Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ...


Pope Paul VI

Like his predecessor, Pope Paul VI gave attention to the disparities in wealth and development between the industrialised West and the Third World:

There can be no progress towards the complete development of individuals without the simultaneous development of all humanity in the spirit of solidarity.[36]

Released on March 26, 1967, Populorum Progressio, (Latin for "The Development of Peoples"), asserts that free international trade alone is not adequate to correct these disparities and supports the role of international organizations in addressing this need. Pope Paul called on rich nations to meet their moral obligation to poor nations, pointing out the relationship between development and peace. The intention of the Church is not to take sides, but to be an advocate for basic human dignity: March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ...

Experienced in human affairs, the Church ... "seeks but a solitary goal: to carry forward the work of Christ Himself under the lead of the befriending Spirit." ... But, since the Church lives in history, she ought to "scrutinize the signs of the times and interpret them in the light of the Gospel." Sharing the noblest aspirations of men and women and suffering when she sees them not satisfied, she wishes to help them attain their full flowing, and that is why she offers all people what she possesses as her characteristic attribute: a global vision of man and of the human race.[37]

The May 1971 apostolic letter Octogesima Adveniens addressed the challenge of urbanization and urban poverty and stresssed the personal responsibility of Christians to respond to injustice. For the tenth anniversary of the Second Vatican Council Pope Paul issued Evangelii Nuntiandi, (Latin for "Evangelization in the Modern World") (October 26, 1975). In it he asserts that combating injustice is an essential part of evangelizing modern peoples.[16] 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Octogesima Adveniens is the name of an Apostolic Letter written by Pope Paul VI to Maurice Cardinal Roy, who at the time was serving as the President of the Council of the Laity and of the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pope John Paul II and the new millennium

John Paul II, who was elected to the papacy in 1978, continued his predecessors' work of developing the body of Catholic social doctrine. Of particular importance was his 1981 encyclical Laborem Exercens. Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ...

On one hand there is a growing moral sensitivity alert to the value of every individual as a human being without any distinction of race, nationality, religion, political opinion, or social class. On the other hand these proclamations are contradicted in practice. How can these solemn affirmations be reconciled with the widespread attacks on human life and the refusal to accept those who are weak, needy, elderly, or just conceived? These attacks go directly against respect for life; they threaten the very meaning of democratic coexistence, and our cities risk becoming societies of people who are rejected, marginalized, uprooted, and oppressed, instead of communities of "people living together."[38]

While not endorsing any particular political agenda, the Church holds that this teaching applies in the public (political) realm, not only the private.


Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher has argued that John Paul II was significantly more friendly towards capitalism than Paul VI, an attitude that she attributed to his experience of Communism in Poland. Certain other discontinuities between the different Popes' approaches to social questions may perhaps be discerned: for example, Prof. Eamon Duffy has argued that Leo XIII's successor, Pope Pius X, retreated somewhat from the position articulated in Rerum Novarum. On the other hand, the general development of Catholic social teaching since the nineteenth century has been consistent and evolutionary, with the Church continuing both to insist upon the importance of the ethical dimension of social and political action and to critique ideologies of the left and of the right, from Communism to Laissez-faire, which it judges not to conform with the requirements of Christian morality. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Eamon Duffy is an Irish Professor of the History of Christianity at the University of Cambridge, and former President of Magdalene College. ... Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope...


Christian Democracy, a political movement in numerous European countries, took the social and political principles taught by the Popes as its main agenda. Catholic principles have also influenced many other political movements in varying degrees throughout the Christian world, even in non-Catholic nations. Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


John Paul II qualifies the teaching of private ownership in relation to the common use of goods that all men as children of God are entitled to. The Church "has always understood this right within the broader context of the right common to all to use the goods of the whole creation: the right to private property is subordinated to the right to common use, to the fact that goods are meant for everyone." [39]


The teaching of subsidiarity has always been complemented by the principle of solidarity (sociology). Solidarity in sociology refers to the feeling or condition of unity based on common goals, interests, and sympathies among a groups members. ...


Encyclicals and other official documents of the Catholic Social Teaching tradition

Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Mater et Magistra is the encyclical written by Pope John XXIII on the topic of Christianity and Social Progress. It was released on May 15, 1961. ... A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ... Dignitatis Humanæ is the Second Vatican Councils Declaration on Religious Freedom. ... Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ... Octogesima Adveniens is the name of an Apostolic Letter written by Pope Paul VI to Maurice Cardinal Roy, who at the time was serving as the President of the Council of the Laity and of the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace. ... Laborem Exercens was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. ... Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II on 30 December 1987. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... Centesimus Annus (which is Latin for hundredth year) was an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1991, on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum Novarum. ...

References

  1. ^ Matthew 25:40.
  2. ^ Evangelium Vitae § 62.
  3. ^ Evangelium Vitae § 65;,Catechism of the Catholic Church § 2277.
  4. ^ Gaudium et Spes § 51.
  5. ^ Evangelium Vitae § 56.
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church § 2267.
  7. ^ see Genesis 1:26.
  8. ^ Evangelium Vitae § 2.
  9. ^ Genesis 2:18.
  10. ^ Economic Justice, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  11. ^ Participation, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  12. ^ Role of Government and Subsidiarity, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  13. ^ Rights and Responsibilities, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  14. ^ Rerum Novarum § 6.
  15. ^ Solicitudo Rei Socialis § 42.
  16. ^ a b c d e The Busy Christian's Guide to Social Teaching.
  17. ^ Matthew 25:40.
  18. ^ 1983 CIC, canon 222 §2.
  19. ^ Option for the Poor, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  20. ^ Rerum Novarum § 49.
  21. ^ Economic Justice, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  22. ^ Rerum Novarum § 20.
  23. ^ Solicitudo Rei Socialis § 40.
  24. ^ see Genesis 4:9.
  25. ^ see Luke 10:25-37.
  26. ^ Bono recalls pontiff's affection for the poor — and cool sunglasses.
  27. ^ Stewardship of God's Creation, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  28. ^ see Genesis 1:26-30.
  29. ^ see Matthew 25:14-30.
  30. ^ Rerum Novarum, § 45
  31. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia (1911): Rerum Novarum.
  32. ^ Quadragesimo Anno § 88.
  33. ^ Pacem in Terris § 146.
  34. ^ Gaudium et Spes § 1.
  35. ^ Catholic Social Teaching: 1891-Present
  36. ^ Populorum Progressio §43.
  37. ^ Populorum Progressio §13.
  38. ^ Evangelium Vitae § 18.
  39. ^ "Laborem Exercens," Proclaiming Justice and Peace

The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II on 30 December 1987. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II on 30 December 1987. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... A visibly ill Pope John XXIII, who died shortly afterwards, signing Pacem in Terris. ... Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, was one of the chief accomplishments of the Second Vatican Council. ... Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ... Calling attention to the worsening marginalization of the poor, Paul VI presents the various dimensions of an integral human development and the necessary conditions for growth in the solidarity of peoples. ... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Catholic Social Teaching (252 words)
Here you will find most of the official social teaching documents of the Catholic Church and also a variety of resources to help you explore this rich body of moral teaching.
More fundamentally, many Catholics do not adequately understand that the social teaching of the Church is an essential part of Catholic faith.
This poses a serious challenge for all Catholics, since it weakens our capacity to be a Church that is true to the demands of the Gospel.
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