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Encyclopedia > Catholic sacraments

According to the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 224, the sacraments are efficacious signs, perceptible to the senses, of grace,. They have been instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, and through them divine life is bestowed on us. They are means by which Christ gives the particular grace indicated by the sign aspect of the sacrament in question, helping the individual to advance in holiness, and contributing to the Church' s growth in charity and in giving witness. Not every individual receives every sacrament, but the Church sees the sacraments as necessary means of salvation, conferring each sacrament' s special graces, forgiveness of sins, adoption as children of God, conformation to Christ, and membership of the Church. The effect of the sacraments comes ex opere operato (by the very fact of being administered). Regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering the sacraments, Christ provides the graces of which they are signs. However, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block their effectiveness in that person. The sacraments presuppose faith and, in addition, their words and ritual elements nourish, strengthen and give expression to faith. Divine grace is believed by Christians to be the sovereign favor of God exercised in the bestowment of blessings upon those who do not merit them. ...


The sacraments are seven, and are listed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (hereinafter referred to as CCC) in the following order: The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...

The following description of each of the seven sacraments is mainly based on the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Baptism in early Christian art. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. ... Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion of Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is also administered in some Protestant Churches. ... Holy Orders in the modern Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, and Independent Catholic Churches, includes three degrees: bishop, priest, and deacon. ... The Christian view of marriage, until recently, according to a nearly universal consensus, has regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ...

Contents


Baptism

Baptism is the first and basic sacrament of Christian initiation. It is administered by immersing the recipient in water or by pouring (not just sprinkling) water on the person's head "in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (cf. Matthew 28:19). The ordinary minister of the sacrament is a bishop or priest, or (in the Western Church, but not in the Eastern Churches) a deacon. In case of necessity, anyone intending to do what the Church does, even if that person is not a Christian, can baptize. Baptism frees from original sin and all personal sins and from the punishment due to them, and makes the baptized person share in the Trinitarian life of God through "sanctifying grace" (the grace of justification that incorporates the person in Christ and his Church). It makes the person a sharer too in the priesthood of Christ and is the foundation of communion between all Christians. It imparts the "theological" virtues (faith, hope and charity) and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. It marks the baptized person with a spiritual seal or character that indicates permanent belonging to Christ. Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (The Latin Rite), is a term by which documents of the Catholic Church designate the particular Church, distinct from the Eastern Rite Churches, that developed in western Europe and northern Africa, where Latin was the language of... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Michelangelos painting of the original sin (the Fall) According to Christian tradition, Original sin describes the condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are hereditarily born. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Confirmation

Confirmation or Chrismation is the second sacrament of Christian initiation. It is conferred by anointing with chrism, an oil into which balm has been mixed, giving it a special perfume, together with a special prayer that refers, in both its Western and Eastern variants, to a gift of the Holy Spirit that marks the recipient as with a seal. Through the sacrament the grace given in baptism is "strengthened and deepened" (CCC 1303). Like baptism, confirmation may be received only once, and the recipient must be in a state of grace (meaning free from any known unconfessed mortal sin) in order to receive its effects. The "originating" minister of the sacrament is a validly consecrated bishop; if a priest (a "presbyter") confers the sacrament — as is done ordinarily in the Eastern Churches and in special cases (such as the baptism of an adult or in danger of the death of a young child) in the Latin-Rite Church (CCC 1312–1313) — the link with the higher order is indicated by the use of oil (known as "chrism" or "myron") blessed by the bishop on Holy Thursday itself or on a day close to it. In the East the sacrament is administered immediately after baptism. In the West, where administration is normally reserved for those who can understand its significance, it came to be postponed until the recipient's early adulthood; but in view of the earlier age at which children are now admitted to reception of the Eucharist, it is more and more restored to the traditional order and administered before giving the third sacrament of Christian initiation. A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in the administration of certain sacraments and ecclesiastical functions. ... Myron was a Greek sculptor of the middle 5th century BC. He was born at Eleutherae on the borders of Boeotia and Attica. ... In the Christian calendar, Holy Thursday (also called Maundy Thursday) is the Thursday before Easter, the day on which the Last Supper is said to have occurred. ...


Eucharist

The host being shown to the people immediately after consecration
The host being shown to the people immediately after consecration

The Eucharist is the sacrament (the third of Christian initiation) by which Catholics partake of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and participate in his one sacrifice. The first of these two aspects of the sacrament is also called Holy Communion. The bread and wine used in the Eucharistic rite are, in Catholic faith, transformed in all but appearance into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change that is called transubstantiation. Only a bishop or priest is enabled to be a minister of the Eucharist, acting in the person of Christ himself. Deacons as well as priests are ordinary ministers of Holy Communion, and lay people may be authorized in limited circumstances to act as extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion. The Eucharist is seen as "the source and summit" of Christian living, the high point of God 's sanctifying action on the faithful and of their worship of God, the point of contact between them and the liturgy of heaven. So important is it that participation in the Eucharistic celebration (see Mass (liturgy)) is seen as obligatory on every Sunday and holy day of obligation and is recommended on other days. Also recommended for those who participate in the Mass is reception, with the proper dispositions, of Holy Communion. This is seen as obligatory at least once a year, during Eastertide. Image File history File links Elevation_of_the_host. ... Image File history File links Elevation_of_the_host. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the... In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. ...


Penance and Reconciliation

Penance and Reconciliation is the first of two sacraments of healing, and is also called the Sacrament of Confession, of Conversion, and of Forgiveness (CCC 1423–1424). It is the sacrament of spiritual healing of a baptized person from the distancing from God involved in sins committed. It involves four elements: the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession to a priest (it may be spiritually helpful to confess to another, but only a priest has the power to administer the sacrament), absolution by the priest, and satisfaction. In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. ...


"Many sins wrong our neighbour. One must do what is possible in order to repair the harm (e.g., return stolen goods, restore the reputation of someone slandered, pay compensation for injuries). Simple justice requires as much. But sin also injures and weakens the sinner himself, as well as his relationships with God and neighbour. Absolution takes away sin, but it does not remedy all the disorders sin has caused. Raised up from sin, the sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something more to make amends for the sin: he must 'make satisfaction for' or 'expiate' his sins. This satisfaction is also called 'penance'" (CCC 1459). In early Christian centuries, this element of satisfaction was quite onerous and generally preceded absolution, but now it usually involves a simple task for the penitent to perform, to make some reparation and as a medicinal means of strengthening against further temptation.


The priest is bound by the "seal of confession", which is inviolable. "Accordingly, it is absolutely wrong for a confessor in any way to betray the penitent, for any reason whatsoever, whether by word or in any other fashion" (canon 983 of the Code of Canon Law). A confessor who directly violates the sacramental seal incurs an automatic excommunication whose lifting is reserved to the Holy See (canon 1388).


Anointing of the Sick

Anointing of the Sick is the second sacrament of healing. In it a priest anoints the sick with oil blessed specifically for that purpose. "The anointing of the sick can be administered to any member of the faithful who, having reached the use of reason, begins to be in danger by reason of illness or old age" (canon 1004; cf. CCC 1514). A new illness or a worsening of health enables a person to receive the sacrament a further time. Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion of Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is also administered in some Protestant Churches. ...


When, in the Western Church, the sacrament was conferred only on those in immediate danger of death, it came to be known as "Extreme Unction", i.e. "Final Anointing", administered as one of the "Last Rites". The other "Last Rites" are Confession (if the dying person is physically unable to confess, at least absolution, conditional on the existence of contrition, is given), and the Eucharist, which when administered to the dying is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for a journey". It has been suggested that History of the Latin language be merged into this article or section. ...


Holy Orders

Holy Orders is the sacrament by which a man is made a bishop, a priest, or a deacon. Only a bishop may administer this sacrament. Ordination as a bishop confers the fullness of the sacrament, making the bishop a member of the body of successors of the Apostles, and giving him the mission to teach, sanctify, and guide, along with the care of all the Churches. Ordination as a priest configures the priest to Christ the Head of the Church and the one essential High Priest, and conferring on him the power, as the bishops' assistant, to celebrate the sacraments and other liturgical acts, especially the Eucharist. Ordination as a deacon configures the deacon to Christ the Servant of All, placing him at the service of the bishop, especially in the Church's exercising of Christian charity towards the poor and preaching of the word of God.


Matrimony

Matrimony, or Marriage, like Holy Orders, is a sacrament that consecrates for a particular mission in building up the Church, and that provides grace for accomplishing that mission. This sacrament, seen as a sign of the love uniting Christ and the Church, establishes between the spouses a permanent and exclusive bond, sealed by God. Accordingly, a marriage between baptized persons, validly entered into and consummated, cannot be dissolved. The sacrament confers on them the grace they need for attaining holiness in their married life and for responsible acceptance and upbringing of their children. The sacrament is celebrated publicly in the presence of the priest (or another witness appointed by the Church) and other witnesses, though in the theological tradition of the Latin Church the ministers of the sacrament are the couple themselves. For a valid marriage, a man and a woman must express their conscious and free consent to a definitive self-giving to the other, excluding none of the essential properties and aims of marriage. If one of the two is a non-Catholic Christian, their marriage is licit only if the permission of the competent authority of the Catholic Church is obtained. If one of the two is not a Christian (i.e. has not been baptized) this permission is necessary for validity. The Christian view of marriage, until recently, according to a nearly universal consensus, has regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


Ordinary and extraordinary ministers of the sacraments

Ministers of sacraments in the Catholic Church
Sacrament Ordinary ministers Extraordinary ministers
Baptism bishop, priest or deacon; but reserved normally to the parish priest laity delegated by the bishop, or, in case of necessity, anyone
Confirmation bishop or (in Eastern Churches) priest (in Western Church) priest given faculty by law or special grant
Eucharist bishop or priest none
Eucharist (distribution of) – Holy Communion bishop, priest or deacon instituted acolyte (if not enough clergy)
other laity (if not enough clergy or acolytes)
Eucharist (exposition of) bishop, priest or deacon extraordinary minister of Holy Communion or another person deputed by the local Ordinary
Reconciliation bishop or priest none
Anointing of the Sick bishop or priest none
Holy Orders bishop (for liceity, at least three at an episcopal ordination) none
Matrimony husband and wife (Western tradition); officiating priest (Eastern tradition) none

Baptism in early Christian art. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Confirmation can refer to: Confirmation (sacrament) Confirmation (epistemology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion of Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is also administered in some Protestant Churches. ... Holy Orders in the modern Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, and Independent Catholic Churches, includes three degrees: bishop, priest, and deacon. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Catholic sacraments - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2108 words)
Catholics hold that only a priest properly ordained by a bishop who is in a succession of bishops dating back to the Apostles can perform the miraculous transubstantiation necessary for the validity of the Eucharist, and only such a priest can absolve sins of penitents.
In Eastern-Rite Catholic churches, the usual minister of this sacrament is the parish priest.
Catholics are required by Church discipline, however, to celebrate the sacrament with a priest or deacon as a witness.
Roman Catholic Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (10402 words)
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 85 states that authentic interpretation of the Word of God is entrusted to the living Magisterium of the Church, namely the bishops in communion with the successor of Saint Peter.
The sacrament is celebrated publicly in the presence of the priest (or another witness appointed by the Church) and other witnesses, though in the theological tradition of the Latin Church the ministers of the sacrament are the couple themselves.
Catholic Church thinker, Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development.
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