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The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. Even before the posting of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, there had been evidence of internal reform within the Church, combating trends that heightened radical demands to fundamentally alter the doctrine and structure of the Medieval Church and even contributed to the anticlericalism of figures such as Jan Huss and John Wycliffe in the late fourteenth century. The Catholic Reformation, aimed at correcting the sources of the Reformation, and pronounced since the pontificate of Pope Paul III, was both retaliatory, committed to protecting Catholic institutions and practices from heresy and Protestantism, but also reformist, committed to reform the Church from within to stem the growing appeal of Protestantism. Broadly speaking, the Catholic Reformation, which climaxed in the Council of Trent, the nineteenth of twenty-one ecumenical councils, represented a three-sided strategy: an autocratic church at the top linked to the individual by the parish church. (The first Ecumenical Council was the First Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325; the 21st and latest was the Second Vatican Council, which convened in the mid-1960s under Pope John XXIII.) The Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Medieval Church, presiding over reforms that would preserve its influence the dogma of salvation by faith, works and unwritten tradition. Transubstantiation, during which the consecrated bread and wine were held to become (substantially) the body and blood of Christ, was upheld, along with the Seven Sacraments. Other Catholic practices that drew the ire of liberal reformers within the Church, such as pilgrimages, the cults of saints and relics, and the cult of the Virgin were strongly reaffirmed as spiritually vital as well. Jump to: navigation, search The Catholic Church, known also as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible head is the Pope, Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which... The Council of Trent (Italian: Trento) was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in discontinuous sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Protestant Reformation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from within the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran... The Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, challenged the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... Jump to: navigation, search A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of the society rather than rapid or fundamental changes. ... Jan Hus (1369 Husinec, Southern Bohemia – July 6, 1415 Constance) was a religious thinker and reformer. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Wycliffe (also Wyclif, Wycliff, or Wickliffe) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which... Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... Jump to: navigation, search The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 325 AD, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), reigned as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... Transubstantiation is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the Eucharistic elements of bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Jesus during Consecration. ... The practice of the Roman Catholic Church includes seven sacraments. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pilgrim at Mecca A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture sometimes displayed in homes. ...


But while the basic structure of the Church was reaffirmed, there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the Catholic Reformers tacitly were willing to admit were legitimate. Among the conditions to be corrected by Catholic reformers was the growing divide between the priests and the flock; many members of the clergy in the rural parishes, after all, had been poorly educated. Often, these rural priests did not know Latin and lacked opportunities for theological education at the time. (Addressing the education of priests had been a fundamental focus of the humanist reformers in the past.) Parish priests now became better educated, while Papal authorities sought to eliminate the distractions of the monastic churches. Notebooks and handbooks thus became common, describing how to be good priests and confessors. Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Jump to: navigation, search Humanism is an active ethical and philosophical approach to life, focusing on human solutions to human issues through rational (reasonable) arguments, without recourse to a god, gods, sacred texts or religious creeds. ...

In addition, between 1512 and the 1560s a movement of 'evangelical Catholics' of high-ranking member of the curia, called Spirituali, actively tried to reform the church through reform of the individual. Jump to: navigation, search Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events and Trends In 1564 William Shakespeare was born. ... The Curia, inside the Forum The Curia of ancient Rome was the place where the Senate met to discuss the making of laws and take decisions about the affairs of the Republic. ... The Spirituali were a Catholic reform movement from about 1510 to the 1560s. ...

Members of orders active in overseas missionary expansionism often expressed the need that the rural parishes, whose poor state of affairs contributed to the growth of Protestantism, often needed Christianizing as much as heathens of Asia and the Americas, thus contributing to recovering significant territories that would have otherwise been lost to the Protestants. The Ursulines focused on the special task of educating girls. and other Protestant sects. Not only making the Church more effective, they reaffirmed fundamental premises of the Medieval Church.

However, the Jesuits, founded by the Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) were, by far, the most effective of the new Catholic orders. His Societas Jesu was founded in 1534 and received papal authorization in 1534 under Paul III. An heir to the devotional, observantine, and legalist traditions, the Jesuits organized their order along military lines, they strongly reflected the autocratic zeal of the period. Characterized by careful selection, rigorous training, and iron discipline, the worldliness of the Renaissance Church had no part in the new order. Loyolas masterwork Spiritual Exercises reflected the emphasis on was strongly reminiscent of devotionalism. However, they are really the heirs to the observantine reform tradition, taking strong monastic vows of chastity, obedience, and poverty and set an example that improved the effectiveness of the entire Church. They became preachers, confessors to monarchs and princes, and educators reminiscent of the humanist reformers, and their efforts are largely credited with stemming Protestantism in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, southern Germany, France, and the Spanish Netherlands. They also strongly participated in the expansion of the Church in the Americas and Asia, conducting efforts in missionary activity that far outpaced even the aggressive Protestantism of the Calvinists. Even Loyolas biography contributed to the new emphasis on popular piety that had been waning under the eras of politically oriented popes such as Alexander VI and Leo X. After recovering from a severe battle wound, he took a vow to "serve only God and the Roman pontiff, His vicar on earth." Once again, the emphasis on the Pope is a key reaffirmation of the Medieval Church as the Council of Trent firmly defeated all attempts of Conciliarism, the belief that general councils of the church collectively were God's representative on earth, rather than the Pope. Firmly legitimizing the new role of the Pope as an absolute ruler strongly characteristic of the new age of absolutism ushered in by the sixteenth century, the Jesuits strongly contributed to the reinvigoration of the Church during the Catholic Reformation. Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo López de Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events February 27 - Group of Anabaptists of Jan Matthys seize Münster and declare it The New Jerusalem - they begin to exile dissenters and forcible baptize all others May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bohemia This article is about the historical region in central Europe; for other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Alexander VI, (Rodrigo Borgia) (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475, Florence – 1 December 1521, Rome), pope between 1513 and his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther first attacked the Roman Catholic... The Council of Trent (Italian: Trento) was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in discontinuous sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Protestant Reformation. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not with the pope. ...

The inadvertent start of the scientific revolution

Some historians such as James Burke have noted some would ironically create even more formidable challenges to the Roman Catholic Church's authority and very world view. In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... James Burke (born November 22, 1936) is a British science historian, author and television producer best known for his documentary television series focusing on the history of science and technology leavened with a sense of humor. ...

This came about with the initiative to make the Catholic Church more attractive to the common person. In addition to better training for the clergy, there was also the idea of making the Church's facilities and activities more attractive to the laypeople. Part of this including extensive decorations that would eventually encourage the baroque art style and more celebrations of holidays and similar events. Jump to: navigation, search Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In arts, the Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the style that...

The need to have these events followed closely throughout the dioceses raised the problem with the accuracy of the calendar. It was noted having problems with in part because the Ptolemic astronomical model was extremely complicated owing to the frequent modifications needed to account for new observations. In 1514, at the request of the Secretary to the Pope asked a Polish mathematician and canon of Frombork, MikoĊ‚aj Kopernik to see how the calendar could be reformed. To do so, the priest, known today as [[used to establish a new calendar in 1582 with relatively little comment in the Catholic Church itself who treated the conception as little more than a mathematical convenience. Jump to: navigation, search A calendar is a system for naming periods of time, typically days. ... Jump to: navigation, search This drawing from an Icelandic manuscript dated around 1750 illustrates the geocentric model. ... Events March - Louis XII of France makes peace with Emperor Maximilian. ... A mathematician is a person whose area of study and research is mathematics. ... Jump to: navigation, search A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ...

However, the fact that this model directly contradicted the official doctrines of the Church and allied philosophers eventually became an unavoidable issue. This occurred when scholars like Galileo Galilei began to amass physical evidence that this concept of the universe actually existed in reality. This examination of the Copernican theory was a factor in starting the Jump to: navigation, search Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was an astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
reform12 (6270 words)
The Catholic Reformation is a difficult concept to assign a specific period to or to delimit specifically its extent.
The Catholic Reformation encapsulates at least 150 years of reforming, evolving and adapting to new social, political and religious conditions, not least of which was the Protestant Reformations and the opening up of the Americas and the Far East.
One of the fundamental aspects of the Catholic Reformation was the rise - or the perpetuation - of the exaltation of moral discipline, religious conformity and social obedience [6.2, Bossy, 1970].
Counter Reformation - HighBeam Encyclopedia (1074 words)
Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present none of the tradition breaking that characterized Protestantism.
Spanish religion was deepened by the Carmelite reforms of St. Theresa of Ávila and by St. John of the Cross.
In England the Counter Reformation took effect less in the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church under Queen Mary (although Cardinal Pole was a reformer) than in the mission of the Jesuits (1580), led by St. Edmund Campion and Robert Persons.
  More results at FactBites »



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