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Encyclopedia > Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
Queen consort of France
Catherine de' Medici, by François Clouet.
Coronation 10 June 1549, Saint-Denis
Born 13 April 1519
Florence
Died 5 January 1589
Château de Blois
Buried Saint-Sauveur, Blois. Reburied at Saint-Denis in 1610.
Consort 15471559
Consort to Henry II of France
Issue Francis II, Elisabeth of Valois, Claude of Valois, Louis, Charles IX, Henry III, Marguerite of Valois, François, Duke of Anjou, Victoria of Valois, Joan of Valois
Father Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
Mother Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne

Catherine de' Medici (April 13, 1519January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de' Medici. Her parents were Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, countess of Boulogne. She was queen consort of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. source: http://www. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... The rear of the Château de Blois Staircase in the Château de Blois The Royal Château de Blois is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... Élisabeth de Valois, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 Élisabeth de Valois (April 13, 1545 – October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Claude of Valois (November 12, 1547 _ February 21, 1575) was a daughter of King Henry II of France and the wife of Charles II, Duke of Lorraine Categories: Stub | 1547 births | 1575 deaths ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Marguerite de Valois (1553 - 1615), Queen Margot, Queen of France and Navarre. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Victoria of Valois, (June,1556 – June, 1556) was the last daughter (along with her twin sister, Joan of Valois who was born to King Henri II of France and his wife, Catherine de Medici. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catherine de Medici. ... Portrait of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino. ... Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne (birthdate unknown though apparently in 1501, died about 1519) was the wife of Lorenzo (II) de Medicis, Duke of Urbino, and the mother of Catherine of Medici (1519-1589) who became queen of France. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Portrait of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino. ... Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne (birthdate unknown though apparently in 1501, died about 1519) was the wife of Lorenzo (II) de Medicis, Duke of Urbino, and the mother of Catherine of Medici (1519-1589) who became queen of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ...


In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I of France and Queen Claude. When the dauphin, Prince François died in 1536, Henry became the heir to the throne and Catherine as she was now known, his dauphine. Henry ascended the throne as Henry II in 1547. Throughout his reign, he excluded Catherine from influence and instead showered favours on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Henry’s death in 1559 thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he too died in 1560, she was appointed regent for her ten-year-old son King Charles IX, with sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of the third of her sons to become king, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Claude of France with her daughters, Louise and Charlotte (who died young); Madeleine, Queen of Scotland (right); her youngest daughter, Marguerite, duchess of Savoy (left), and Eleanor of Spain Claude of France (14 October 1499 – 20 July 1524), Queen consort of France and duchess of Brittany in her own right... Coat of Arms of the Dauphins of France. ... François, Dauphin of France, (September 28, 1518 – August 10, 1536) was the 1st son and heir of King Francis I of France and Claude de France, daughter of Louis XII of France. ... DAUPHINE is the female form of the particular French feudal (comital or princely) title of Dauphin (also anglicized as Dolphin), applied to the wife of a Dauphin (usually in the sense of heir to the French royal throne). ... Diane de Poitiers (September 3, 1499 - April 25, 1566) was a noblewoman and a fixture at the courts of Francis I and Henri II of France. ... See the appropriate page for Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire François II of France Francis II of the Two Sicilies This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ...


Catherine's three weak sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France. The monarchy had no control over the causes of these conflicts, which would have daunted even a mature king. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the Huguenots, as the Protestant rebels became known.[1] She failed, however, to grasp the theological issues at the root of their movement. Later, she resorted in frustration and anger to hard-line policies against them.[2] As a result, she was blamed for all the sins of the régime, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were butchered in Paris and throughout France. Lurid tales printed about Catherine in the pamphlets of the day gave birth to "the black legend" of the wicked queen. She was branded as a Machiavellian Renaissance prince who fed a lust for power with dark crimes, poisonings, even witchcraft. The Huguenot poet Agrippa d'Aubigné called her, "the Florentine plague".[3] In the nineteenth century, historian Jules Michelet described her as that "maggot which came out of Italy's tomb".[4] In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Agrippa dAubigné. Théodore-Agrippa dAubigné (February 8, 1552 – April 29, 1630) was a French poet, soldier, propagandist and chronicler. ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


Some recent historians have excused Catherine from the worst excesses of the crown.[5] R. J. Knecht, however, points out that proof of her ruthless streak can be found in her letters. Nicola Sutherland also warns against overstating Catherine's real power. Far from bestriding France, she fought a losing battler for control of a kingdom that was lapsing into chaos.[6] Her policies, therefore, may be seen a series of desperate efforts to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne at all costs.[7] It is arguable that without Catherine, her sons would never have survived in power.[8] The years in which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici".[9]

Contents

Birth and upbringing

Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope Leo X, by Raphael. Leo noted with satisfaction how "fine and fat" Catherine was as a baby.
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope Leo X, by Raphael. Leo noted with satisfaction how "fine and fat" Catherine was as a baby.[10]

According to a chronicler, when Catherine de’ Medici was born, in Florence on Wednesday 13 April 1519, her parents, were "as pleased as if it had been a boy".[11] Their pleasure, however, was short-lived. Catherine's mother, Madeleine de la Tour d’Auverne, countess of Bologne, died on 28 April at the age of seventeen. Catherine's father, Lorenzo II de’ Medici, duke of Urbino, died on 4 May, probably from syphilis.[12] The young couple had been married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X, Lorenzo’s uncle, against the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I. King Francis asked that Catherine be raised at the French court, but Pope Leo had other plans for her.[10] He intended to marry her to his brother's bastard son, Ippolito de' Medici, and set the pair up as rulers of Florence. Pope Leo X (portrait by Raphael) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pope Leo X (portrait by Raphael) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Amboise is a medieval town and a commune of France, in the Indre-et-Loire département, on the banks of the Loire River, 14 miles east of Tours. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Ippolito de Medici (1511-1535) was the illegitimate only son of Cardinal Giuliano de Medici. ...


Catherine was first cared for by her grandmother, Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsina died in 1520, Catherine was brought up by her aunt, Clarissa Strozzi, among her own children. Catherine loved her Strozzi cousins for the rest of their lives, treating them as brothers and sisters.[10] The death of Pope Leo in 1521 led to a break in Medici power, until Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. Clement housed Catherine in the Palazzo Medici in Florence, where she lived in state. She was known to the Florentine people as "the little duchess".[13] Clarice de Medici (1493 - May 3, 1528) was the daughter of Piero di Lorenzo de Medici and Alfonsina Orsini. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... The Palazzo Medici, also called the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, is a Renaissance palace located in Florence. ...

Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, Pope Clement VII. By Sebastiano del Piombo, c.1531. Clement called Catherine's betrothal to Henry of Orléans "the greatest match in the world".
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, Pope Clement VII. By Sebastiano del Piombo, c.1531. Clement called Catherine's betrothal to Henry of Orléans "the greatest match in the world".[10]

In 1527, the Medici were overthrown in Florence, and Catherine was taken hostage and placed in a series of convents.[14] Clement had no choice but to crown Charles as Holy Roman emperor in return for his help in retaking the city.[15] In October 1529, Charles's troops laid siege to Florence. As the siege dragged on, voices called for Catherine to be killed and exposed on the city walls or sent to a brothel to spoil her marriage value. When soldiers arrived to move her to the fortified Santa Lucia convent, she put up a fight. They made her ride through the streets on a donkey, jeered by an angry crowd.[16] Though the city withstood all bombardment, hunger and plague finally forced its surrender on 12 August 1530. Clement called Catherine to Rome, greeting her with open arms and tears in his eyes. Then he set about the serious business of finding her a husband.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Sebastiano del Piombo (1485 – June 21, 1547), Italian painter, was born at Venice. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... There have been a number of sieges of the city of Florence: Siege of Florence (1312), part of the Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines Siege of Florence (1529-1530), part of the War of the League of Cognac Category: ...


Marriage

Wedding

 Henry, duke of Orléans. By Corneille de Lyon. During his childhood, Henry spent almost four and a half years as a hostage in Spain, an experience that marked him for life.
Henry, duke of Orléans. By Corneille de Lyon. During his childhood, Henry spent almost four and a half years as a hostage in Spain, an experience that marked him for life.[18]

Catherine was never destined to be a beauty. On her visit to Rome, the Venetian envoy described her as "small of stature, and thin, and without delicate features, but having the protruding eyes peculiar to the Medici family".[19] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 1846 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 1846 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Corneille de Lyon was a painter born in The Netherlands in the early 1500s. ...


Clement lined up many suitors for Catherine, but when in early 1531, Francis I of France proposed his second son, Henry, duke of Orléans, Clement jumped at the chance. Henry was a real catch for Catherine, who despite her wealth was only a commoner. Clement called it "the greatest match in the world".[10] Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ...


The wedding took place in Marseille on 28 October 1533.[20] It was a grand affair, marked by extravagant display and gift-giving. For example, Clement presented the king of France with a supposed unicorn's horn.[21] The Constable of France, Anne de Montmorency, had blown up part of Marseille to make room for a new wooden palace. Prince Henry danced and jousted for Catherine. She was reported to have been pleased with what she saw, a fit young man, his muscles toned from sports.[22] The fourteen-year-old couple left their wedding ball at midnight, to carry out their marital duties. Queen Eleanor of France made Catherine ready for the marriage bed. Henry arrived in the bedroom with King Francis, who is said to have stayed until the marriage was consummated. Both Francis and Clement were well satisfied. Francis noted that “each had shown valour in the joust”.[23] Clement visited the newlyweds in bed the following morning and gave the night’s events his blessing.[24] City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Anne de Montmorency, 1530. ... Eleanor of Habsburg Eleanor of Habsburg, also called Leonor of Castile or Eleanor of Austria (November 15, 1498 – February 25, 1558) was born Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile, became subsequently in turn queen consort of Portugal (1518–1521) and of France, also duchess of Touraine (1547–1558) as...


Catherine saw little of her husband in their first year of marriage. The ladies of the court, however, treated her well, impressed with her intelligence and keenness to please.[25] The honeymoon period, however, was brought to an abrupt end on 25 September 1534 by the death of Pope Clement. The next pope, Paul III, broke the alliance with France and refused to pay off Catherine's huge dowry. Catherine’s political value vanished overnight and with it her standing in the French court. King Francis lamented, "The girl has come to me stark naked."[26] Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


Prince Henry showed not the slightest interest in Catherine as a wife. Instead, he openly took mistresses. Worse still, for the first ten years of the marriage, Catherine failed to produce any children. In 1537, one of Henry's mistresses, Philippa Duc, gave birth to a daughter.[27] This proved to the public that Henry was virile, and piled more pressure on Catherine.


Dauphine

Unidentified baby of Catherine and Henry, probably Alexandre-Edouard, the future Henry III of France, who was born in 1551.
Unidentified baby of Catherine and Henry, probably Alexandre-Edouard, the future Henry III of France, who was born in 1551.

In 1536, Henry's older brother, François, died after overheating during a game of tennis. Catherine, as dauphine, was now expected to provide a future heir to the throne.[28] According to Brantôme, "many people advised the king and the dauphin to repudiate her, since it was necessary to continue the line of France". The Venetian ambassador reported that Henry and Francis had discussed a divorce. Catherine meanwhile tried every known trick for getting pregnant, such as drinking mule's urine and placing cow dung and ground stags' antlers on her "source of life".[29] On 20 January 1544, she finally gave birth to a son . The boy was named after King Francis, who greeted the news with tears of joy. After becoming pregnant once, Catherine seems to have had no trouble doing so again. She may have owed her change in luck to a doctor called Jean Fernel, who noticed slight abnormalities in the couple's sexual organs and advised them on how to solve the problem.[30] Catherine went on to bear Henry a further nine children, six of whom survived infancy. The long-term future of the Valois line seemed assured. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Francis (French: François), Dauphin of France, also Francis III, Duke of Brittany (September 28, 1518 – August 10, 1536), was the first son and heir of King Francis I of France and Claude of France, daughter of Louis XII of France. ... DAUPHINE is the female form of the particular French feudal (comital or princely) title of Dauphin (also anglicized as Dolphin), applied to the wife of a Dauphin (usually in the sense of heir to the French royal throne). ...


Catherine’s new-found ability to bear children, however, failed to improve the quality of her marriage. In 1538, at the age of nineteen, Henry had taken as his mistress the thirty-eight-year-old Diane de Poitiers, who was to prove the love of his life. Even so, he respected Catherine's status as his consort. When King Francis I died in 1547, therefore, Catherine duly became queen consort of France. She was crowned in the basilica of Saint-Denis in June 1549. Diane de Poitiers (September 3, 1499 - April 25, 1566) was a noblewoman and a fixture at the courts of Francis I and Henri II of France. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ...


Queen of France

Catherine de' Medici as queen of France. "Her mouth is too large and her eyes too prominent and colourless for beauty," wrote a Venetian envoy as Catherine approached forty, "but a very distinguished-looking woman, with a shapely figure, a beautiful skin and exquisitely shaped hands".
Catherine de' Medici as queen of France. "Her mouth is too large and her eyes too prominent and colourless for beauty," wrote a Venetian envoy as Catherine approached forty, "but a very distinguished-looking woman, with a shapely figure, a beautiful skin and exquisitely shaped hands".[31]

Catherine had minimal political influence during Henry's reign.[32] Although she sometimes acted as regent during Henry's absences, her powers were strictly limited.[33] In the words of the historian Ralph Roederer, “Politics died at her doorstep”.[34]Henry began by sacking his father’s advisers. He gave the Château of Chenonceau, which Catherine had an eye on for herself, to his mistress Diane de Poitiers. She took her place at the centre of power, handing out gifts and accepting favours.[35] In 1547, Henry spent a third of each day in Diane’s company. The imperial ambassador wrote that in the presence of guests, Henry would sit on her lap and play the guitar, chat about politics or fondle her breasts.[36] Under Henry, the Guise brothers, sons of Claude, Duke of Guise, also rose to power. Charles de Lorraine became a cardinal in July 1547, and Francis, Duke of Guise, known as “scarface” (le belafré) from a battle wound, became the duke of Guise in 1550.[37] Mary of Guise, their sister, had married James V of Scotland in 1538 and was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. At the age of five and a half, Mary was sent for safety to the French court, where she was promised to the Dauphin Francis.[38] Catherine brought Mary up with her own children at the French court, while Mary of Guise governed Scotland as her daughter’s regent.[39] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (745x1351, 323 KB) en: Catherine de Medici, wife of Henry II. of France de: Katharina von Medici, Frau von Heinrich II. und Königin von Frankreich File links The following pages link to this file: Catherine de Medici ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (745x1351, 323 KB) en: Catherine de Medici, wife of Henry II. of France de: Katharina von Medici, Frau von Heinrich II. und Königin von Frankreich File links The following pages link to this file: Catherine de Medici ... View of Château de Chenonceau from Jardin de Catherine de Medici1 Château de Chenonceau as seen from Diane de Poitiers gardens The Château de Chenonceau, near the small village of Chenonceaux, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France, was built on... Diane de Poitiers (September 3, 1499 - April 25, 1566) was a noblewoman and a fixture at the courts of Francis I and Henri II of France. ... Claude, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Claude of Lorraine (October 20, 1496, Château de Condé-sur-Moselle, – April 12, 1550, Château de Joinville) was the first Duke of Guise, from 1528 to his death. ... The name Charles of Lorraine may refer to: Charles I, Duke of Lorraine Charles II, Duke of Lorraine Charles III, Duke of Lorraine Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine Prince Charles of Lorraine Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that... Francis, Duke of Guise Francis II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale (February 17, 1519 – February 24, 1563), called Balafré (the scarred), was a French soldier and politician. ... Marie de Guise Marie de Guise (in English, Mary of Guise) (November 22, 1515 – June 11, 1560) was the Queen Consort of James V of Scotland and the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ...


Catherine and Henry were devoted parents by the standards of the day. Henry often played with the children and even assisted at their births. In 1556, pregnant with twin daughters, Catherine nearly died giving birth. Surgeons saved her life by breaking the legs of one of the two, who lay dead or dying in her womb for six hours.[40] The surviving daughter, who died seven weeks later, was to be the last of Catherine’s children.


Catherine grimly tolerated Henry’s lovers, fearing divorce if she objected too strongly. "I always told him," she recalled in 1584, "that it was against my will, for no wife who loves her husband has ever loved his whore."[41] Diane was happy that Henry was married to a woman who offered no threat. A Venetian envoy described Catherine as good-looking only when her face was veiled.[42] Diane even encouraged the king to sleep with Catherine and father more children. Despite Henry's lovers, Catherine adored him. "I loved him so much," she wrote to her daughter Elisabeth after his death, “I was always afraid.”[43]


On 3–4 April 1559, Henry signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, ending a long period of war in Italy and with the empire and England. The treaty was sealed with the betrothal of Catherine’s thirteen-year-old-daughter Elisabeth to Philip II of Spain.[44] Elisabeth’s proxy wedding on 22 June was celebrated with festivities, balls, masques and five days of jousting. According to the memoirs of Marguerite de Valois, Catherine then had a dream that Henry lay injured, his face covered with blood. She reminded him that prophets Luca Gaurico and Nostradamus had warned him against single combat, and she begged him to take no part in the jousting.[45] He took no notice of her. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is an agreement reached between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometres south-east of Cambrai, that ended... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... A wedding where the bride and groom are not actually present and are represented by other individuals. ... For the crater, see Gauricus (crater). ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ...

Henry II of France, by François Clouet, c. 1553. The astrologer Luca Gaurico warned Henry in 1552 to take particular care around his fortieth year to "avoid all single combat in an enclosed space".
Henry II of France, by François Clouet, c. 1553. The astrologer Luca Gaurico warned Henry in 1552 to take particular care around his fortieth year to "avoid all single combat in an enclosed space".[46]

Henry was wearing Diane’s black-and-white colours and riding a horse called Malheureux (Unfortunate).[47] He defeated the dukes of Nemours and Guise, but the young Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, knocked him half out of the saddle. Henry insisted on riding against Montgomery again, though Catherine tried to stop him. This time, Montgomery's lance shattered into Henry's face.[48] He came out of the clash reeling, his face pouring blood, with splinters "of a good bigness" sticking out of his eye and head.[49] Amidst wailing from the ladies, Catherine, Diane, and Prince Francis all fainted. Henry was taken to the Château de Tournelles, where five splinters of wood were pulled from his head, one of which had pierced his eye and brain. The country's top medical experts were called. They dressed his wounds with egg-white, bled and purged him, and made him drink an ounce of barley gruel, which he vomited back up.[50] Catherine stayed by his bedside, but Diane kept away, “for fear of being expelled by the Queen”, in the words of a chronicler. For the next ten days, Henry’s state fluctuated. At times he even felt well enough to dictate letters and listen to music. Slowly, however, he lost his sight, speech, and reason, and on 10 July he died. From that day on, Catherine took a broken lance as her emblem, inscribed with the words lacrymae hinc, hinc dolor (from this come my tears and my pain). For the rest of her life she wore black.[51] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... For the crater, see Gauricus (crater). ... Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges (c. ...


Queen mother

Francis II

Guise power

Francis II of France, by François Clouet. Francis found the crown so heavy at his coronation that four nobles had to hold it in place as he walked up the steps to his throne.
Francis II of France, by François Clouet. Francis found the crown so heavy at his coronation that four nobles had to hold it in place as he walked up the steps to his throne.[52]

In what has been called a coup d’état, the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise seized power the day after Henry II’s death.[53] The dauphin, Francis, who now became king at the age of fifteen, had married their niece, Mary, Queen of Scots, the year before. The Guise brothers quickly moved the young couple to the Louvre. They hoped to gain a march on Catherine while she was occupied with mourning. She put duty aside, however,[54] and followed them to the Louvre, determined not to be shut out. The English ambassador reported a few days later that “the house of Guise ruleth and doth all about the French king”.[55] For the moment, Catherine was happy to support the Guise coup as far as it served her purposes. She lost no time in forcing Diane de Poitiers to hand the crown jewels over and give Chenonceau back to the crown.[56] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... John, Cardinal of Lorraine (1498-1550) Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine (1524-1574) Category: ... Duc de Guise was a title in the French nobility. ... This article is about the museum. ...


Despite his puny build and frail health, Francis II was deemed old enough to rule without a regent.[57] Catherine was therefore not entitled to a role in his government. Nevertheless, all Francis's official acts began with the words:

This being the good pleasure of the Queen, my lady-mother, and I also approving of every opinion that she holdeth, am content and command that...".[58]

The Guises set about persecuting the Protestants with zeal. They burned Protestant meeting places, for example, and executed those caught worshipping in them.[59] The policy divided France sharply. Henry II had played the Guise and Montmorency factions off against each other. Now the crown was seen to be in the pocket of the Guise family. Catherine adopted a moderate stance and spoke up against the Guise persecution. As a good Catholic, however,[60] she had no wish to be lectured on religion by Protestants. She told one pastor who sought her help that though she pitied the victims of the Guise purge, she did not wish "to be otherwise instructed or informed as to the truth or falsehood of their doctrine".[61]


The Protestants looked for leadership to Antoine de Bourbon, king-consort of Navarre. He tended, however, to waver between the two faiths.[62] As First Prince of the Blood, he had reason to resent being excluded from the government.[63] The Guises, however, outwitted him with ease. In Catherine's words, he was "reduced to the position of a chambermaid".[64] The Protestants found a more active leader in his brother, Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé. He backed a plot to overthrow the Guises by force.[65] Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 _ 17 November 1562). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Louis I was the first Prince of Condé. Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (May 7, 1530 – March 13, 1569) was a Huguenot leader and general. ...


Armed rebellion

When the Guises heard of the plot,[66] they moved the king and court to the fortified Château of Amboise. The duke of Guise then launched an attack into the woods around the château. His troops took the rebels by surprise and killed many of them on the spot, including the leader, La Renaudie.[67] Others they drowned in the river or strung up around the battlements while Catherine and the court watched on. Fifty-two nobles were executed in the courtyard. It was said that they sang psalms as they waited their turn, the chorus growing fainter with each death.[68] When Catherine tried to save one captain, the Guises turned her down.[69] The Royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France. ...


In June 1560, Michel de l'Hôpital was appointed Chancellor of France. He worked closely with Catherine to defend the law in the face of growing anarchy and seek the support of France's constitutional bodies.[70] They both agreed on the need to resolve differences with the Protestants peacefully. Neither saw the need to punish Protestants who worshipped in private and did not take up arms. On 20 August 1560, Catherine and the chancellor put this policy to an assembly of notables at Fontainebleau. Catherine won the respect of both sides at Fontainebleau. Historians note the occasion as an early example of her statesmanship. Michel lHospital Michel de lHôpital (or lHospital) (c. ... This page is a list of French justice ministers. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... The Royal Château of Fontainebleau (in the Seine-et-Marne département) is one of the largest French royal châteaux. ...


However, the king of Navarre and his brother, Louis de Condé, had boycotted the assembly. Condé raised an army, which in autumn 1560 began to attack towns in the south. Catherine ordered him to court. As soon as he arrived, she had him arrested and thrown into prison. He was tried in November, found guilty of offences against the crown, and sentenced to death. However, a sudden turn of events was to save his life.


Death of the king

In early November, Francis II complained of buzzing in his ear and dizziness and, nursed by Catherine and Mary, began to suffer violent seizures which left him unable to speak. Soon fluids began to discharge from his ear, and treatment with rhubarb failed to help.[71] Realising that if her son died, the First Prince of the Blood, Antoine of Navarre, might be appointed regent to her ten-year-old son Charles-Maximilien, Catherine accused him in front of the Guises of plotting against the crown. When Navarre protested his innocence, fearing the same fate as his brother, Catherine demanded he prove it by renouncing his right to the regency.[72] The ploy, one of the first of the political manipulations for which Catherine became famous, worked; for her part, Catherine agreed to release Condé.[73] As a result, when Francis died on 5 December 1560, after a huge eruption of fluid from his mouth and nose as well as his ear, [74] she assumed full control of the government of France, a remarkable achievement since the regency was traditionally the preserve of the princes of the blood at a time when the Salic law was often used to argue against political power of any sort for women.[75] She summoned the Privy Council and opened the meeting with the following words: is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ...

Since it has pleased God to deprive me of my elder son, I do not mean to abandon myself to despair, but to submit to the Divine Will and to assist and serve the King, my second son, in the feeble measure of my experience".[76]

Charles IX

Regent

The Privy Council appointed the forty-one-year-old Catherine “governor of France” (gouvernante de France), with far-reaching powers. She set out her approach to the role in letter to her daughter Elisabeth:

My principal aim is to have the honour of God before my eyes in all things and to preserve my authority, not for myself, but for the conservation of this kingdom and for the good of all your brothers.[77]

Charles IX of France, by François Clouet. The Venetian ambassador Giovanni Michiel described him as "an admirable child, with fine eyes, gracious movements, though he is not robust. He favours physical exercise that is too violent for his health, for he suffers from shortness of breath".
Charles IX of France, by François Clouet. The Venetian ambassador Giovanni Michiel described him as "an admirable child, with fine eyes, gracious movements, though he is not robust. He favours physical exercise that is too violent for his health, for he suffers from shortness of breath".[78]

She kept the little king, who cried at his coronation, close to her, and slept in his chamber. She presided over the king’s council, decided policy, controlled state business and patronage. However, she never controlled the country as a whole, which was in chaos and on the brink of civil war. In many parts of France the rule of nobles held sway rather than that of the crown. The challenges Catherine faced were complex and in some ways difficult to understand.[79] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist...


Catherine summoned church leaders from both sides to solve their doctrinal differences. Despite her optimism, the resulting Colloquy of Poissy ended in failure on October 13 1561, dissolving itself without the queen's permission.[80] Catherine's view of the religious issues at stake was naive, because she saw the divide only in political terms. In the words of historian R. J. Knecht, "she underestimated the strength of religious conviction, imagining that all would be well if only she could get the party leaders to agree".[81] The duke of Guise accused her of "drinking at two wells" in her religious policies.[82] In January 1562, Catherine issued the tolerant Edict of Saint-Germain in a further attempt to build bridges with the Protestants.[83] On 1 March 1562, however, in an incident known as the Massacre at Vassy, François, duke of Guise, and his men set upon worshipping Huguenots in a barn at Vassy. They killed 74 of them and wounded 104.[84] Guise, who called the massacre “a regrettable accident”, was cheered as a hero in the streets of Paris; while the Huguenots called for revenge.[85] The massacre lit the fuse that sparked the French Wars of Religion. For the next thirty years, the country was to be in a state of either civil war or armed truce.[86] Colloquy of Poissy, a conference held in 1561 with the object of effecting a reconciliation between the Catholics and Protestants of France. ... The Edict of Saint-Germain was an edict of toleration promulgated by the reigning Catherine de Medici in January 1562. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Massacre at Vassy was the first of many religious wars fought in France. ... Francis, Duke of Guise Francis II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale (February 17, 1519 – February 24, 1563), called Balafré (the scarred), was a French soldier and politician. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...


Within a month Prince Louis de Condé and Admiral Gaspard de Coligny had raised an army of 1,800. They formed an alliance with England and seized town after town in France.[87] Catherine met Coligny, but he refused to back down. She therefore told him: "Since you rely on your forces, we will show you ours".[88] The royal army quickly struck back and lay siege to Huguenot-held Rouen. Catherine visited the deathbed of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, who had been fatally wounded by an arquebus shot there.[89] Catherine attended the field herself and when warned of the dangers laughed, “My courage is as great as yours”.[90] Rouen was taken; but the Catholic triumph was short lived. On 18 February 1563, a spy called Poltrot de Méré fired an arquebus into the back of François, duke of Guise, at the siege of Orléans. This murder was to have a lasting effect on the stability of France.[91] It triggered an aristocratic blood feud that was to complicate the French civil wars for years to come,[92] in which the Guises sought revenge on Coligny, de Méré's employer.[93] Catherine was delighted with the death of her ally. “If Monsieur de Guise had perished sooner,” she told the Venetian ambassador, “peace would have been achieved more quickly”.[94] On 19 March 1563, the Edict of Amboise, also known as the Edict of Pacification, ended the war. To the disgust of many Catholics, the edict allowed Huguenot nobles free worship on their own estates and open worship in many towns. With Navarre and Guise dead, Condé and Montmorency held captive, and the Cardinal of Lorraine absent at the Council of Trent, Catherine found herself more powerful at court.[95] She rallied both Huguenot and Catholic forces to retake Le Havre from the English. The harmony, however, was short-lived. Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 _ 17 November 1562). ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Jean de Poltrot (c. ... Blood Feud is the last episode of the second season of The Simpsons. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... The Edict of Amboise was signed on March 19, 1563 by Catherine de Medici. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Huguenots

 Elisabeth de Valois, queen of Spain, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565. "How Spanish you have become, my daughter," Catherine told Elisabeth on meeting her in 1565.
Elisabeth de Valois, queen of Spain, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565. "How Spanish you have become, my daughter," Catherine told Elisabeth on meeting her in 1565.[96]

On 17 August 1563, Charles IX was declared of age at the Parlement of Rouen. He was never able to rule on his own, however, and showed little interest in government.[97] He suffered from shortness of breath, a sign of the tuberculosis that was to kill him. He was also prone to tantrums, which took the form of violent rages as he grew older. In 1570, during talks with Coligny’s brother-in-law, Charles de Téligny, for example, Charles lunged at the Huguenot with one hand on his dagger and had to be forcibly restrained.[98] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (967x1400, 333 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sofonisba Anguissola ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (967x1400, 333 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sofonisba Anguissola ... Élisabeth de Valois, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 Élisabeth de Valois (April 13, 1545 – October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, 1554. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... Charles de Téligny (c. ...


Catherine decided to launch a drive to enforce the edict of Amboise and revive loyalty to the crown. To this end, she set out with Charles and the court on a progress around France that lasted from January 1564 until 1 May 1565.[99] Catherine held talks with the Protestant Queen Jeanne d’Albret of Navarre at Mâcon and Nérac. She also met her daughter Queen Elisabeth of Spain at Bayonne near the Spanish border. Philip II excused himself from the meeting. He sent the duke of Alba to tell her to scrap the edict of Amboise and turn to torture and executions instead.[100] A Royal Progress was a tour of their kingdom by a monarch and his or her entourage. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Mâcon is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Saône-et-Loire département, in the Bourgogne région. ... Nérac is a commune of the Lot-et-Garonne département, in southwestern France. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. ...


In 1567, Catherine placed the country on military alert. The duke of Alba was leading an imperial army north along France's eastern frontier to put down a revolt in the Netherlands.[101] Catherine strengthened the borders and hired 6000 Swiss mercenaries, in case of attack. The Huguenots panicked, guessing that as a result of a secret agreement at Bayonne, these Catholic armies were about to turn on them, and so they took action of their own.[102] On 27 September, in a swoop known as the Surprise of Meaux (surprise de Meaux), their forces tried to ambush the king.[103] Taken unawares, the court fled to Paris in disarray.[104] The Huguenot army then blockaded Paris, before moving off to the south. The seventy-four-year-old Constable Montmorency was killed in fighting outside Paris. The war was ended with the Peace of Longjumeau of March 22–23, 1568. It was followed by civil unrest and bloodshed in many parts of France.[105] The Peace of Longjumeau (also known as the Treaty of Longjumeau or the Edict of Longjumeau) was signed on March 23, 1568 by King Charles IX of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


The Surprise of Meaux marked a turning point in Catherine’s policy towards the Huguenots. From that time, she abandoned compromise for a policy of repression,[106] and her words assume a ruthless edge. She told the Venetian ambassador in June 1568 that all you could expect from Huguenots was deceit. She praised the duke of Alba’s reign of terror in the Netherlands, where Calvinists and rebels were put to death in their thousands.[107] She told the Spanish envoy that Spain had made a “holy decision” in executing the rebel Flemish counts of Egmont and Hornes. She added that she hoped to take a similar decision soon in France.[108] Catherine is reported to have rounded on de l’Hôpital at a king's council meeting. “It is you and your advice," she told him angrily, "that have brought us to this pass!”[109] On 7 October, de l’Hôpital resigned as chancellor. Count of Egmont Statue of Lamoral, Count of Egmont, on market square in Zottegem Lamoral, Count of Egmont (November 18, 1522, La Hamaide near Ellezelles – June 5, 1568, Brussels) was a general and statesman in Flanders just before the start of the Eighty Years War. ... Count of Hoorn Philip de Montmorency (1524-June 5, 1568) was also known as Count of Horne. ...


The Huguenots retreated from the royal armies to the fortified stronghold of La Rochelle on the west coast. Jeanne d’Albret, queen of Navarre, and her fifteen-year-old son Henry of Bourbon, now openly joined the rebels.[110] “We have come to the determination to die, all of us,” she wrote to Catherine, “rather than abandon our God, and our religion”.[111] Jeanne's decision presented a dynastic threat to the Valois. Catherine called her “the most shameless woman in the world”.[112] La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 78,000 in 2004). ... Jeanne (or Joan or Johanna) of Navarre (c. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ...


At about this time, Catherine may have approved what has been called a “policy of elimination”.[113] On 13 March 1569, Louis de Condé was defeated at the battle of Jarnac. After his surrender, the guardsmen of Henry, duke of Anjou shot him in the back, probably on Henry's orders.[114] On 7 May, François d’Andelot, the brother of Admiral Coligny, died of a fever, probably poisoned.[115] “We greatly rejoiced over the news of d'Andelot’s death," Catherine gloated. "...I hope God will mete out to the others the treatment they deserve”.[116] The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 8 August 1570, signed because the army had run out of cash, conceded wider toleration to the Huguenots than ever before.[117] The contemporary historian Étienne Pasquier observed of the treaty, "We have ended where we should have begun if we had been sensible; but in such matters we behave as we do in trials: we never come to an agreement until our purses have been emptied.[118] is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Battle of Jarnac was an encounter during the French Wars of Religion that occurred on March 13, 1569 between the Catholic forces of Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes and the Huguenots led by the Prince of Condé. The forces met at Jarnac on the right bank of the river Charente... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed August 5, 1570 at the royal Château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ending the third of the French Wars of Religion. ... Étienne Pasquier (June 7, 1529 - September 1, 1615), French lawyer and man of letters, was born at Paris, on the 7th of June 1529 by his own account, according to others a year earlier. ...

 Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, by François Clouet, 1570. She wrote to her son, Henry, in 1572: "All she [Catherine] does is mock me, and afterwards tells others exactly the opposite of what I have said...she denies everything, laughing in my face...she treats me so shamefully that the patience I manage to maintain surpasses that of Griselda".
Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, by François Clouet, 1570. She wrote to her son, Henry, in 1572: "All she [Catherine] does is mock me, and afterwards tells others exactly the opposite of what I have said...she denies everything, laughing in my face...she treats me so shamefully that the patience I manage to maintain surpasses that of Griselda".[119]

Meanwhile, Catherine looked to further Valois interests by grand dynastic marriages. In 1570, Charles IX married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the emperor, Maximilian II. Catherine was also eager for a match between one of her two youngest sons and Elizabeth of England.[120] After Catherine's daughter Elisabeth died in childbirth in 1568, she had touted her youngest daughter Marguerite as a bride for Philip II of Spain. Now she sought a marriage between Marguerite and Henry of Navarre, to unite Valois and Bourbon interests. Marguerite, however, was encouraging the advances of Henry of Guise, the son of the late duke of Guise. When Catherine and Charles found out, they became crazed. They called her from her bed and beat her up, pulling out handfuls of her hair and ripping her nightclothes.[121] Guise fled the court and hurriedly announced his marriage to Catherine of Cleves. This affair may have been behind a split between Catherine and the Guises at this time.[122] Image File history File links Jeannedalbret. ... Image File history File links Jeannedalbret. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Portrait by François Clouet (1571) Elisabeth of Austria (June 5, 1554 – January 22, 1592), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Henry I, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (January 31, 1550 – December 23, 1588, Château de Blois), sometimes called Le Balafré, the scarred, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise and...


Catherine worked hard between 1571 and 1573 to bring Jeanne d’Albret to court. When she wrote saying that she wanted to see Jeanne's children and promised not to harm them, Jeanne replied: "Pardon me if, reading that, I want to laugh, because you want to relieve me of a fear that I've never had. I've never thought that, as they say, you eat little children".[123] When Jeanne did come, a confrontation began.[124] Catherine piled mental pressure on Jeanne,[125] playing on her hopes for her beloved son. Jeanne finally agreed to a marriage between her son and Marguerite, so long as Henry could keep his Huguenot beliefs. Soon after Jeanne arrived in Paris to buy clothes for the wedding, she was taken ill and died, aged forty-four. Catherine was to be accused of murdering Jeanne with poisoned gloves.[126] The wedding took place on 18 August 1572 at Notre-Dame, Paris. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ...


St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

Three days later, Admiral Coligny was walking back to his rooms from the Louvre when a shot rang out from a house and wounded him in the hand and arm. A smoking arquebus was discovered in a window, but the culprit had made his escape from the rear of the building on a waiting horse.[127] Coligny was carried to his lodgings at the Hôtel de Béthisy, where the surgeon Ambroise Paré removed a bullet from his elbow and amputated one of his fingers with a pair of scissors. Catherine was said to have received the news without emotion. She visited Coligny and tearfully promised to punish the attacker. A fifty-strong armed guard was posted around the building, commanded by a Guise loyalist called Cosseins. Many historians have blamed Catherine for the attack on Coligny. Others point to the Guise family or a Spanish-papal plot to end Coligny's influence on the king.[128] Whatever the truth, the bloodbath that followed was soon beyond the control of Catherine or any other leader.[129] Historian Nicola Sutherland has called these events "among the most controversial of modern history".[130] Ambroise Paré. Ambroise Paré (1510 – December 20, 1590) was a French surgeon, the official royal surgeon for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, is considered by some as one of the Fathers of Surgery. ...

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, which began two days later, has stained Catherine’s reputation indelibly.[131] It is difficult to excuse her, especially since afterwards she gladly took credit for its planning.[132] There is no reason to believe she was not party to the decision when on 23 August Charles IX ordered, "Then kill them all! Kill them all!".[133] The thinking was clear. Catherine and her advisers expected a Huguenot uprising after the attack on Coligny. They chose therefore to strike first and wipe out the Huguenot leaders while they were in Paris after the wedding.[134] There is no hard evidence that the murders were planned before this meeting.[135] Image File history File links Giorgio_Vasari_San_Bartolomeo. ... Image File history File links Giorgio_Vasari_San_Bartolomeo. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... 19th century painting by François Dubois The St. ...


The killings started in the early hours of 24 August. The king's guard burst into Coligny’s bedroom, killed him, and threw his body out of the window. At the same moment, the bell of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois was sounded. This was the signal to begin the murder of the Huguenot leaders, and most were slain in their beds.[136] Henry of Navarre was taken to a room and asked to choose between death, life imprisonment, or becoming a Catholic. He decided to become a Catholic. He was then told to remain in the room for his own safety. All the senior Huguenots staying in and around the Louvre were killed. Those who escaped into the streets were shot down by the waiting royal archers. The slaughter in Paris continued for almost a week. It also spread to many parts of France, where it persisted into the autumn. In the words of historian Jules Michelet, "St Bartholomew was not a day, but a season".[137] Saint-Germain lAuxerrois Saint-Germain lAuxerrois The Church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois is situated at 2, Place du Louvre, Paris 75001; the nearest Metro station is Louvre. ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


The massacre delighted Catholic Europe, and Catherine basked in the praise. On 29 September, when Navarre knelt before the altar like a good Catholic, she turned to the ambassadors and laughed.[138] From this time dates the "black legend" of Catherine, the wicked Italian queen. Huguenot writers such as Agrippa d'Aubigné and Henri Estienne branded Catherine a scheming Italian, who had acted on Machiavelli’s advice to kill all enemies in one blow.[139] The author of the Réveille-matin accused Catherine of planning the massacre long before August 1572, quoting the proverb "the house is cursed in which the hen crows louder than the rooster".[140] However, historians disagree on how much was planned. Many regard the massacre as a surgical strike that got out of hand.[141] The closest Catherine came to remorse was in a reply to criticism from Venice: Henry Estienne, also known as Stephens or Stephanus, is the name of two 16th-century printers of Paris. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... A surgical strike is a military attack upon a target which results in, was intended to result in, or is claimed only to have resulted in damage to the intended legitimate military target, and does not result in any collateral damage to surronding structures, vehicles, buildings, etc. ...

We deeply regret that, in the commotion, a number of other people belonging to their religion were killed by the Catholics, who were smarting from the infinite afflictions, pillage, murder, and other wrongs which had been inflicted on them.[142]

Henry III

Favourite son

 Henry, duke of Anjou, by François Clouet, 1570. As Henry III, his interest in government proved fitful. In 1583, he wrote to secretary of state Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy: "While I am with the Capuchins, if there are any urgent and important things...you should, all of you, show them to the queen without sending them to me."
Henry, duke of Anjou, by François Clouet, 1570. As Henry III, his interest in government proved fitful. In 1583, he wrote to secretary of state Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy: "While I am with the Capuchins, if there are any urgent and important things...you should, all of you, show them to the queen without sending them to me."[143]

Two years later, Catherine faced a new crisis with the death of Charles IX at the age of twenty-three. His dying words were "oh, my mother...".[144] The day before he died, he named Catherine regent, since his brother and heir the duke of Anjou was in Poland, where he had become king the year before. Catherine wrote to Henry: "I am grief-stricken to have witnessed such a scene and the love which he showed me at the end…My only consolation is to see you here soon, as your kingdom requires, and in good health, for if I were to lose you, I would have myself buried alive with you".[145] Image File history File links Anjou_1570louvre. ... Image File history File links Anjou_1570louvre. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy (1543 – 12 November 1617), was a secretary of state under four kings of France: Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV, and Louis XIII. The most distinguished of all sixteenth-century French secretaries,[1] Villeroy rose to prominence during... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ...


Henry was Catherine’s favourite son. Unlike his brothers, he came to the throne as a grown man. He was also healthier than them, though he too had weak lungs and suffered from constant fatigue.[146] His interest in the details of government, however, proved fitful.[147] He relied on Catherine and her chosen group of loyal secretaries until the last few weeks of her life.[148] He often hid from state affairs and instead spent most of his time in acts of piety, such as pilgrimages and flagellation.[149]


Henry was not particularly interested in women, but he fell for Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, whom he married in February 1575, two days after his coronation. His choice thwarted Catherine’s plans for another grand marriage. The papal nuncio Salviati observed, "it is only with difficulty that we can imagine there will be offspring".[150] Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, 1580 Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont (April 30, 1553 - January 29, 1601) was a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. ...


François, duke of Alençon

Catherine's youngest son, François, duke of Alençon. By Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1577. Elizabeth of England called him “her frog” but found him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.
Catherine's youngest son, François, duke of Alençon. By Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1577. Elizabeth of England called him “her frog” but found him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.[151]

During Henry III's reign, the civil wars descended into anarchy, fed as much by power struggles between the high nobles of France as by religion.[152] A new, unstable element in the mix was Catherine’s youngest son, François, duke of Alençon, known as "Monsieur".[153] The two brothers hated each other.[154] Alençon had plotted to seize the throne while Henry was in Poland. He proceeded to disturb the peace of the realm at every chance. With Henry unlikely to have children, Alençon played upon his role as heir to the throne. On one occasion, Catherine had to lecture him for six hours about his behaviour.[155] However, the more Catherine bought his loyalty with towns and commands, the more powerful and threatening he became. In 1576, in a moment of real danger to Henry's throne, he allied with the Protestant princes against the crown.[156] On 6 May 1576, Catherine gave in to almost all Huguenot demands in the edict of Beaulieu. The treaty became known as the Peace of Monsieur because it was thought that Alençon had forced it on the king.[157] However, his ambition was to lead him into disaster. His ill-equipped campaign in the Low Countries ended with the massacre of his depleted army at Antwerp in January 1583.[158] On 10 June 1584, Alençon, died of consumption, his health broken by his failure in the Netherlands.[159] Catherine wrote, the next day: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1006, 63 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Duc dAlençon, Oval Technique: de: Wasserfarbe auf Pergament auf Pappe Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Victoria and Albert Museum... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1006, 63 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Duc dAlençon, Oval Technique: de: Wasserfarbe auf Pergament auf Pappe Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Victoria and Albert Museum... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Self-portrait, 1577. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... The Edict of Beaulieu, made in 1576 by Henry III of France, gave Huguenots the right of public worship for the religion, thenceforth officially called the prétendue reformée, throughout France, except at Paris and the Court. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

I am so wretched to live long enough to see so many people die before me, although I realize that God’s will must be obeyed, that He owns everything, and that he lends us only for as long as He likes the children whom He gives us.[160]

The death of her youngest son was a calamity for Catherine's dynastic dreams. Henry III had no children and seemed unlikely to produce any. Under Salic law, by which only males could ascend the throne, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre now became heir presumptive to the French crown.[161] Catherine had taken the precaution of marrying Marguerite, her youngest daughter, to Navarre. The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ...


Marguerite

Marguerite de Valois, by François Clouet, c. 1570. Catherine called her "my affliction" and "this creature".
Marguerite de Valois, by François Clouet, c. 1570. Catherine called her "my affliction" and "this creature".[162]

Catherine's youngest daughter, Marguerite, became almost as much of a thorn in Catherine's side as Alençon. On one occasion in 1575, Catherine was heard yelling at her over rumours she had taken a lover.[163] In a separate incident, the king sent a band of assassins to murder Marguerite's lover Bussy d’Amboise, a friend of Alençon's; but they botched the job and he escaped.[164] In 1576, Henry accused Marguerite of improper relations with a lady-in-waiting.[165] Marguerite claimed in her memoirs that if Catherine had not stopped him, he would have killed her. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons named Marguerite de Valois, see Marguerite de Valois (disambiguation). ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Louis de Clermont, seigneur de Bussy dAmboise (1549–1579) was a gentleman at the court of French king of Henri III, a swordsman, dandy, and a lover (of both sexes). ...


In 1582, Marguerite returned to the French court without her husband. Before long she began taking lovers and acting scandalously.[166] Catherine sent Pomponne de Bellièvre to Navarre to placate Marguerite's husband and arrange her return. She reminded Marguerite by letter that her own conduct as a wife had been impeccable, despite all provocation.[167] Marguerite failed to pay heed. In 1585, after she was said to have shot at and tried to poison her husband,[168] she fled Navarre again. This time, she headed for her property at Agen, from where she begged her mother for money. Catherine sent her enough “to put food on her table”.[169] Marguerite was then driven out by the people of Agen. Moving on to the fortress of Carlat, she took a lover called d’Aubiac. Catherine asked Henry to act before Marguerite brought shame on them again. In October 1586, therefore, he had Marguerite locked up in the Château d’Usson. D'Aubiac was executed, though not, despite Catherine’s wish, in front of Marguerite.[170] Catherine cut Marguerite out of her will. She never saw her again. Pomponne de Bellièvre was a French stateman, born in Lyon in 1529 and deceased on September 5, 1607. ... For the Agen meteorite of 1814, see Meteorite falls. ... The château dUsson is one of the Cathar castles in what is now southwestern France. ...


Pacification of the south

Catherine felt she knew how to handle the Bourbon princes, Navarre and Condé.[171] She always appealed to Navarre’s instincts as the First Prince of the Blood. For example, she wrote to him: “I will never believe that having come from such a noble race [the Bourbons] you should wish to be the chief and general of the kingdom’s brigands, thieves and criminals”.[172] The royal armies briefly went to war against the Huguenots in 1577, only to run out of money after a few successes. Hostilities were called off at the peace of Bergerac, known as the “Paix du Roi” (the King’s Peace), on 17 September. During this war, Alençon ordered the slaughter of the Protestant citizens of the town of Issoire, after its surrender.[173] The Huguenots never trusted him again. By this time, the civil wars had become a way of life and for many a means of livelihood.[174] The Treaty of Bergerac (also known as the Edict of Poitiers) was signed on September 17, 1577 between Henry III of France and Huguenot princes. ... Issoire, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the départements of Puy-de-Dôme, on the Couze, near its junction with the Allier, 22 m. ...


Catherine could not control Henry in the way she had Francis and Charles.[175] Her role in his government was more that of chief executive and roving diplomat. She travelled widely across the kingdom, enforcing the king's authority and trying to head off war. In 1578, she took on the job of pacifying the south. At the age of fifty-nine, she embarked on an eighteen-month journey around the south of France to meet Huguenot leaders. She suffered constant catarrh and rheumatism, but her main concern was Henry. When he fell ill with an abscess of the ear like the one that killed Francis II, Catherine was beside herself with worry. On hearing he had recovered, she wrote:

I believe God has taken pity on me. Seeing that I have suffered so much from the loss of my husband and children, he has not wanted to crush me by taking this one…It is a terrible pain, dreadful, believe me, to be far from someone whom one loves as much as I love him, knowing him to be ill; it is like dying on a slow fire”.[176]

Her efforts in search of peace earned Catherine new respect from the French people.[177] On her return to Paris in 1579, she was greeted outside the city by the Parlement and crowds.[178] She was under no illusions, however. On 25 November, she wrote to the king, "You are on the evening of a general revolt. Anyone who tells you differently is a liar".[179]


Catholic League

 Henry, 3rd duke of Guise. Disarmed by Catherine's sweetness on meeting her for negotiations at Épernay in 1585, Guise tearfully insisted that his motives had been misunderstood. Catherine told him it would be better if he took off his boots and ate something, after which they could talk at length.
Henry, 3rd duke of Guise. Disarmed by Catherine's sweetness on meeting her for negotiations at Épernay in 1585, Guise tearfully insisted that his motives had been misunderstood. Catherine told him it would be better if he took off his boots and ate something, after which they could talk at length.[180]

Many leading Catholics were appalled by these attempts to appease the Huguenots. After the edict of Beaulieu, they had started to form local leagues to protect their religion.[181] The death of the heir to the throne in 1584 prompted the duke of Guise to assume the leadership of the Catholic League. He planned to block Henry of Navarre’s succession and place Henry's Catholic uncle Cardinal Charles de Bourbon on the throne instead. In this cause, he recruited the great Catholic princes, nobles and prelates, signed the treaty of Joinville with Spain, and prepared to make war on the "heretics".[182] The chronicler Pierre de L'Estoile noted that Alençon’s death “came at a very opportune time for them [the Guise family], facilitating the designs of their League, which from that moment grew stronger as France grew weaker”.[183] The League's armies seized control of many parts of France. However they dressed this up, it was open revolt;[184] and by 1585, Henry III had no choice but to raise the royal armies against them. As Catherine put it, "peace is carried on a stick" (bâton porte paix).[185] She conducted much of the negotiation with Guise from her bed,[186] dictating her letters to secretary of state Claude Pinart.[187] She was under no illusions about the threat. "Take care, especially about your person," she wrote to the king. "There is so much treachery about that I die of fear”.[188] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry I, Duke of Guise Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (January 31, 1550 – December 23, 1588, Château de Blois), sometimes called Le Balafré, the scarred, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise and... Épernay is a town and commune of northern France. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Charles de Bourbon was born on 22nd september 1523. ... The Treaty of Joinville was signed in secret in December 1584 by the French Catholic League, led by Frances first family of Catholic nobles, the Guise, and Hapsburg Spain. ... Pierre de LEstoile (Paris, 1546 - 8 October 1611) was a French chronicler. ...


In the Treaty of Nemours, signed on 7 July 1585, Henry gave in to all the League’s demands, even that he pay its troops.[189] Ostrich-like, he left Catherine to sort out the mess. In many ways, he could not cope with the situation. He went into hiding to fast and pray, surrounded by a bodyguard known as “the forty-five”.[190] At about this time, he took to wearing death’s heads sewn into his clothes and carrying little dogs around with him in jewelled baskets.[191] Meanwhile, France, in the grip of plague and famine, waited for invasion.[192] Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, told Philip II that the abscess was about to burst.[193] The Treaty of Nemours was signed in Nemours on July 7, 1585 between Catherine de Medici and members from the House of Guise. ...


In 1587, the Catholic backlash against the Protestants turned into a campaign across Europe. Elizabeth I of England's execution of Mary, Queen of Scots on 18 February outraged the Catholic world. Philip II of Spain prepared for an invasion of England.[194] The League occupied much of northern France to make the channel ports safe for the Spanish armada. Henry found himself at war with the Catholics and the Protestants at once, each with stronger armies than his own.[195]


Last months and death

Catherine de' Medici, by François Clouet. As a widow, Catherine wore a widow's cap or a French hood. At the back of her ruff stood a high black collar; and she wore a wide black shirt, pointed bodice, and enormous winged sleeves. "Over all this flowed a long black mantle".
Catherine de' Medici, by François Clouet. As a widow, Catherine wore a widow's cap or a French hood. At the back of her ruff stood a high black collar; and she wore a wide black shirt, pointed bodice, and enormous winged sleeves. "Over all this flowed a long black mantle".[196]

Henry attempted to defend himself in Paris with Swiss and French troops. The Parisians, however, claimed the right to defend the city themselves. In defiance, they set up barricades in the streets on 12 May 1588 and would only take orders from the duke of Guise.[197] When Catherine tried to go to mass, she found her way barred, though she was allowed through the barricades. L’Estoile reported that she cried all through her lunch that day. She wrote to Bellièvre, “Never have I seen myself in such trouble or with so little light by which to escape”.[198] As usual, Catherine advised the king, who had fled the city in the nick of time, to compromise and live to fight another day.[199] On 15 June, Henry duly signed the Act of Union, which gave in to all the League’s demands. It appears that Henry did not forgive Catherine and his government for this humiliation. On 8 September at Blois, where the court had assembled for a meeting of the Estates, he sacked all his ministers without warning. Catherine, in bed with a lung infection, had been kept in the dark as much as anyone.[200] The king’s actions effectively ended her days of power. Image File history File links Catherine_de_Medicis. ... Image File history File links Catherine_de_Medicis. ... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Elizabeth Seymour wearing a French hood. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...


At the meeting of the Estates of Blois in September, Henry thanked Catherine for all she had done. He called her not only the mother of the king but the mother of the state.[201] Henry did not tell Catherine of his drastic plans for a solution to his problems. On 23 December, he asked the duke of Guise to call upon him at the Château of Blois. As Guise entered the king’s chamber, the Forty-five plunged their blades into his body, and he died at the foot of the king's bed. At the same moment, eight members of the Guise family were locked up, including the duke’s brother, Cardinal de Guise, whom Henry's men hacked to death the next day in the palace dungeons.[202] The bodies of the Guise brothers were burned in a fireplace. Immediately after the murder of Guise, Henry entered Catherine’s bedroom on the floor below and announced, “Please forgive me. Monsieur de Guise is dead. He will not be spoken of again. I have had him killed. I have done to him what he was going to do to me”.[203] Catherine’s reaction is not known; but on Christmas day, she told a friar, “Oh, wretched man! What has he done?…Pray for him…I see him rushing towards his ruin". She visited her old friend Cardinal de Bourbon on 1 January 1589 to tell him she was sure he would soon be set free. He shouted at her, “Your words, Madam, have led us all to this butchery”. She left him in tears.[204] The rear of the Château de Blois Staircase in the Château de Blois The Royal Château de Blois is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France. ... Louis II, Cardinal of Guise (July 6, 1555, Dampierre – December 24, 1588, Château de Blois) was the third son of Francis, Duke of Guise and Anna dEste. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ...


On 5 January, Catherine died at the age of sixty-nine. The autopsy revealed rotten lungs and an abscess in her left side; modern opinion suggests that the cause of death was pleurisy. The chronicler L’Estoile wrote: “those close to her believed that her life had been shortened by displeasure over her son’s deed". He added that she had no sooner died than she was treated "with as much consideration as a dead goat”.[205] Because Paris was held by enemies of the crown, Catherine had to be buried at Blois. Diane, daughter of Henry II and Philippa Duci, later had her body moved to Saint-Denis basilica. In 1793, a revolutionary mob tossed her bones into a mass grave with those of the other kings and queens.[206] Eight months after Catherine's burial, all her work came to nothing when a friar called Jacques Clément pulled a knife out of his cloak and stabbed Henry III to death. At the time, Henry was besieging Paris with the king of Navarre, who succeeded him as Henry IV of France. Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... Diane de France (1538 - January 11, 1619) was the natural (illegitimate) daughter of Henry II, King of France and a Piedmontese, although some sources claim that she was the daughter of Diane de Poitiers. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ...


Henry IV was later reported to have said of Catherine:

I ask you, what could a woman do, left by the death of her husband with five little children on her arms, and two families of France who were thinking of grasping the crown—our own [the Bourbons] and the Guises? Was she not compelled to play strange parts to deceive first one and then the other, in order to guard, as she did, her sons, who successively reigned through the wise conduct of that shrewd woman? I am surprised that she never did worse.[207]

Arts and entertainment

Catherine followed the example of Francis I in seeking to divert the nobles from civil strife by entertaining them lavishly at court. She employed about eighty ladies-in-waiting who accompanied the court on its tours. These became known as her "flying squad" and were alleged to seduce courtiers for political ends.[208]


During her lifetime, Catherine unwittingly had vast influence on fashions by enforcing a ban on thick waists at court attendance during the 1550s. For nearly 350 years thereafter, women employed the use of corsets, with laces and stays made of whalebone or metal to forcefully shrink their waists from their natural dimensions to as little as 43, 38, or even fewer centimetres (17, 15, or fewer inches). Hourglass corset from around 1880. ...

Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici in Saint Denis Cathedral
Tomb of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici in Saint Denis Cathedral

In her taste for art and her love of magnificence and luxury, Catherine was a true Medici. She had a collection of 476 paintings, mostly portraits, many painted on commission by Jean Clouet and Corneille de Lyon, and currently part of the French paintings collection of the Louvre.[209] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 992 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Basilica_di_saint_Denis tomba_enrico_II_e_caterina_de_Medici Paris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Catherine... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 992 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Basilica_di_saint_Denis tomba_enrico_II_e_caterina_de_Medici Paris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Catherine... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of the almost all French monarchs. ... François I of France - Jean and François Clouet (c. ... Corneille de Lyon was a painter born in The Netherlands in the early 1500s. ... This article is about the museum. ...


It was also said that she was one of the most "influential people in culinary history." [1]. Her banquets at the Palace of Fontainebleau in 1564 were famous for their sumptuousness. In architecture she was especially well versed, and Philibert de l'Orme (Philibert of the Elm) relates that she discussed with him the plan and decoration of her palace of the Tuileries. Catherine's policy provoked a crowd of pamphlets, the most celebrated being the Discours merveilleux de la vie, actions et diportemens de la reine Catherine de Medecis, in which Henry Estienne undoubtedly collaborated. The Royal Château of Fontainebleau (in the Seine-et-Marne département) is one of the largest French royal châteaux. ... Philibert de lOrme (c. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ...


Catherine was reported to bring ballet from Italy, which sparked the popularity of ballet in France. Subscript text


Marriage and Issue

On October 28, 1533, she married Henry II of France (March 31, 1519July 10, 1559) is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ...

Name Birth Death Notes
Francis II, King of France January 19, 1544 December 5, 1560 Married Mary, Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587) in 1558. Had no issue.
Elizabeth, Princess of France April 2, 1545 October 3, 1568 Married Philip II, King of Spain (1527 - 1598) in 1559. Had issue.
Claude of Valois November 12, 1547 February 21, 1575 Married Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (1543 - 1608). Had issue.
Louis of France February 3, 1549 October, 1549 Died young. Had no issue.
Charles IX, King of France June 27, 1550 May 30, 1574 Married Elizabeth of Austria (1554 - 1592) in 1570. Had issue.
Henry III, King of France September 19, 1551 August 2, 1589 Married Louise of Lorraine in 1575. Had no issue. Briefly King of Poland in 1574.
Margaret, Princess of France May 14, 1553 March 27, 1615 Known as Margot. Married Henry IV, King of France. Divorced and had no issue.
Hercules, Prince of France March 18, 1555 June 19, 1584 Later known as Francis, Duke of Alencon and Anjou.
Joan, Princess of France June 24, 1556 June 24, 1556 Twin with Victoria, Princess of France. Died young. Had no issue.
Victoria, Princess of France June 24, 1556 August 1556 Twin with Joan, Princess of France. Died young. Had no issue.

Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Elizabeth of Valois, by Sofonisba Anguissola, 1565 Elizabeth of Valois (April 2, 1545 – October 3, 1568) was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Claude of Valois (November 12, 1547 _ February 21, 1575) was a daughter of King Henry II of France and the wife of Charles II, Duke of Lorraine Categories: Stub | 1547 births | 1575 deaths ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Charles III (February 15, 1543 – May 14, 1608), known as the Great, was Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Portrait by François Clouet (1571) Elisabeth of Austria (June 5, 1554 – January 22, 1592), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1551 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, 1580 Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont (April 30, 1553 - January 29, 1601) was a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other persons named Marguerite de Valois, see Marguerite de Valois (disambiguation). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catherine de Medici. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Victoria of Valois, (June,1556 – June, 1556) was the last daughter (along with her twin sister, Joan of Valois who was born to King Henri II of France and his wife, Catherine de Medici. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ...

Genealogical table

Genealogy of Catherine de' Medici in three generations

 
 
 
 
Lorenzo de' Medici
 
 
Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clarissa Orsini
 
 
Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
 
 
 
 
 
 
Roberto Orsini, Count of Tagliacozzo
 
 
Alfonsina Orsini
 
 
 
 
 
 
Caterina Sanseverino
 
Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici
 
 
 
 
 
Bertrand VI of Auvergne
 
 
John III, Count of Auvergne
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louise de la Tremoille
 
 
Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme
 
 
Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendome
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isabelle de Beauvau
 

For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Piero de Medici by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Clarice Orsini (Rome, c. ... Portrait of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino. ... John III of Auvergne (1467 – 28 March 1501), Count of Auvergne, was the son of Bertrand VI of Auvergne and Louise de La Tremoille, Dame de Boussac. ... Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne (birthdate unknown though apparently in 1501, died about 1519) was the wife of Lorenzo (II) de Medicis, Duke of Urbino, and the mother of Catherine of Medici (1519-1589) who became queen of France. ... Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme (died January 6, 1477) was a French nobleman, son of Louis I, Count of Vendôme. ... Jeanne de Bourbon) (1465 - 22 January 1511) was the mother of Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Catherine de' Medici". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  2. ^ Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 272.
  3. ^ Heller, 120.
  4. ^ Quoted by Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, xii.
  5. ^ For a summary of the fluctuations in Catherine's historical reputation, see the preface to R. J. Knecht's Catherine de' Medici (1998: xi–xiv).
  6. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 20.
  7. ^ Frieda, 454.
  8. ^ Sutherland, for example, suggests that it was largely thanks to Catherine that Henry III was not deposed (p. 26). For contrasting summaries of Catherine’s achievement, see Nicola Sutherland’s pamphlet Catherine de Medici and the Ancien Régime (1966: 5–34), R. J. Knecht’s concluding chapter to Catherine de’ Medici (1998: 270–75), and Leonie Frieda’s concluding chapter to Catherine de Medici ([2003] 2005 edition: 453–56).
  9. ^ Thomson, 97.
    •Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 3.
  10. ^ a b c d e Frieda, 21–23.
  11. ^ Goro Gheri, quoted by Frieda, 14.
  12. ^ According to the French chronicler Florange, Lorenzo was riddled with syphilis at the time of his marriage and passed it on to Madeleine. Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 8
  13. ^ Frieda, 23–24.
  14. ^ Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 11.
  15. ^ Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 10–11.
  16. ^ Frieda, 29–30.
  17. ^ Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 12.
  18. ^ Frieda, 45.
  19. ^ Frieda, 31.
    • Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 14.
  20. ^ The contract was signed on the 27th and the religious ceremony took place the next day. Frieda, 52.
  21. ^ Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 17.
    • Frieda, 53.
  22. ^ Frieda, 51–52.
  23. ^ Frieda, 53.
    • Knecht, Catherine de’ Medici, 16.
  24. ^ Frieda, 53.
  25. ^ Frieda, 54.
  26. ^ "J’ai reçu la fille toute nue." Frieda, 54.
  27. ^ Henry legitimised this daughter under the name of Diane de France, eventually marrying her to Ercole Farnese, duke of Castro. He also later produced at least two bastard sons by other women. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 29–30.
  28. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 29.
  29. ^ Frieda, 67.
  30. ^ Frieda, 68.
  31. ^ Giovanni Capello, quoted by Frieda, 132.
  32. ^ Historian T. A. Morris calls her "virtually a political nonentity". Morris, 247.
  33. ^ Frieda, 118.
    • Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 42–43.
  34. ^ Ralph Roeder, Catherine de’ Medici and the Lost Revolution, 1937, 70. Quoted by Frieda, 80.
  35. ^ Frieda, 80–86.
  36. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 38.
    • Frieda, 94–95.
  37. ^ Frieda, 84.
  38. ^ Catherine found Mary beautiful and vivacious: "our little Scottish Queen has but to smile to turn all the French heads." Guy, 46.
  39. ^ Guy, 41.
  40. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 34.
    • Frieda, 123.
  41. ^ Letter to Bellièvre, 1584. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 39.
  42. ^ Frieda, 132.
  43. ^ Frieda, 95
  44. ^ Philip's second wife, Mary I of England, had died the previous year. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 55.
  45. ^ Catherine was a strong believer in astrology and prophesies. In 1552, Luc Gaurico, the astrologer of the Medici family, had warned Henry to "avoid all single combat in an enclosed space" during his fortieth year. And in 1555, Nostradamus had published the following prophecy:
    The young lion will overcome the old, in
    A field of combat in a single fight. He will
    Pierce his eyes in a golden cage, two
    Wounds in one, he then dies a cruel death.
    Quoted by Frieda, 3.
  46. ^ Frieda, 3.
  47. ^ The horse was given to him by Emmanuel-Philip, the "Iron-head", of Savoy. Some historians have pointed out that no one would give the king a horse called “Unfortunate”. The horse may have been given that name afterwards. Frieda, 4.
  48. ^ Pettegree, 154.
  49. ^ The words are those of eyewitness Nicholas Throckmorton, the English ambassador. Frieda, 5.
  50. ^ Frieda, 6.
  51. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 56–58.
    • Frieda, 146.
  52. ^ Guy, 102–3.
  53. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 59.
    • Frieda, 140.
  54. ^ It was traditional for a French queen to stay at her dead husband’s side for forty days. Frieda, 135–36.
  55. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 60.
  56. ^ Catherine moved into Chenonceau herself and altered it to undo and outdo the work of her former rival. Frieda, 144.
  57. ^ Morris, 248.
  58. ^ Frieda, 146.
  59. ^ Frieda, 140.
  60. ^ "Her religion was of the formal Medicean type, with a strong taint of superstition, of belief in prophecies and amulets." Armstrong, 87.
  61. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 63.
  62. ^ Holt, 38–39,
  63. ^ Antoine de Bourbon was married to Jeanne d'Albret, the queen regnant of Navarre, an independent kingdom in the south west of France.
  64. ^ Frieda, 142.
  65. ^ Frieda, 154.
  66. ^ The incident was known later as the "tumult" or conspiracy of Amboise. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 64.
    • Holt, 44.
  67. ^ Knecht, Renaissance France, 282.
  68. ^ Frieda, 156.
  69. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 65–66.
  70. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 32.
  71. ^ Frieda (151) describes the problem as an abscess .
    • Knecht (72) calls it a fistula, Guy (119) an ear infection.
  72. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 72.
    • Frieda, 163.
  73. ^ Pettegree, 154.
  74. ^ Guy, 119.
  75. ^ Hoogvliet, 105.
  76. ^ Frieda, 164.
  77. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 73.
  78. ^ Quoted by Frieda, 203.
  79. ^ The nobles often used religious ideology as a mask for political disaffection. "Not only was this a new and obscurely complicating factor, it was also highly dangerous in that religion was, in all senses, a popular issue, comparable in effect to famine or economic distress, and capable of embroiling others in the quarrels of noblemen...the contending parties, by dividing the country along religious lines, precluded the formation of a centre party, there being only two religions. Thus, by opposing each other and not, ostensibly, the crown–far more dangerous than straightforward rebellion–they created a triple interest in the state." This "tripartite problem" remained a feature of "that kaleidoscopic background which makes Catherine's career so hard to understand". Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 28.
  80. ^ Manetsch, 22.
  81. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 80.
  82. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 10.
  83. ^ Knecht, Renaissance France, 311.
    • The edict, also known as the Edict of Toleration and the Edict of January, was significant for effectively recognising the existence of Protestant churches and permitting their worship outside city walls. Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 11–12.
  84. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 87.
    • Frieda, 188.
  85. ^ Frieda, 188–89.
  86. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 140.
  87. ^ The rebels signed the Treaty of Hampton Court with Elizabeth I of England, agreeing to give her Le Havre, to be later substituted by Calais, in return for her support. Elizabeth sent 6000 men to Le Havre (which the English called Newhaven), where they set about improving its defences. Frieda, 191.
  88. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 89.
  89. ^ After the King of Navarre’s death, his wife, Jeanne d’Albret, remained queen regnant. Her eight-year-old son, Henry of Navarre, became First Prince of the Blood. Frieda, 192–93.
  90. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 90.
  91. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 17.
  92. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 91; Carroll, 126.
  93. ^ It is not certain that Coligny was responsible. He denied involvement, but said he regarded the duke’s death as the greatest benefit that could have befallen the kingdom. Frieda, 197.
  94. ^ Under torture, Poltrot de Mére implicated Coligny in his first confession, though he later contradicted himself. White, 228. Catherine is alleged to have told Marshal Tavannes, “The Guises wished to make themselves kings, but I stopped them outside Orléans”. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 90.
  95. ^ Carroll, 124.
  96. ^ Frieda, 224.
  97. ^ Frieda, 268.
    • Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 20.
  98. ^ Frieda, 203–4, 255.
  99. ^ Sutherland calls this journey "one of the most courageous and imaginative ventures of Catherine' life. Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 15.
  100. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 104, 107–8.
    • Frieda, 224.
  101. ^ Holt, 63–4.
  102. ^ Pettegree, 158.
  103. ^ Wood, 17.
  104. ^ Catherine was so surprised that she could not at first grasp what had caused this revolt. Frieda, 234.
    • The Florentine ambassador commented on the great confusion of the retreat, especially of women and baggage. Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 147.
  105. ^ More Protestants were said to have been killed in this period than in the two civil wars together. One commentator remarked: “Since France has learned Italian fashion in murder, and the custom has grown of hiring assassins to cut throats as one might make a deal with a mason or a carpenter, it would be almost a novelty if several days were to pass without a crime of this sort, whereas formerly a man might not hear of a murder more than ten times in his lifetime. Frieda, 239.
    • Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 118.
  106. ^ Nicola Sutherland believes that she was forced into this policy by the Cardinal of Lorraine, who announced that the government intended to wipe the Huguenots out entirely. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 120.
  107. ^ Frieda, 232.
  108. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 121–22.
  109. ^ Frieda, 235.
  110. ^ Bryson, 204.
  111. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 132.
  112. ^ Frieda, 241.
  113. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 126.
  114. ^ Frieda, 247; Carroll, 128.
  115. ^ Others fell seriously ill at the same time; and it was said that an Italian had claimed a reward for the deed. Frieda, 250–51.
  116. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 127.
  117. ^ Wood, 28.
  118. ^ " Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 137.
  119. ^ Quoted by Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 149.
  120. ^ Holt, 77.
    • In 1579, François, duke of Alençon, visited Elizabeth, who called him "her frog"; and at one point Catherine considered going with him. As always, Elizabeth proved elusive. Frieda, 397.
  121. ^ Frieda, 257.
    • Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 135.
  122. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 136.
  123. ^ Bryson, 282.
  124. ^ Bryson, 292.
  125. ^ Jeanne d’Albret wrote her son, Henry: "I am not free to talk with either the King or Madame, only the Queen Mother, who goads me [me traite á la fourche]...You have doubtless realized that their main object, my son, is to separate you from God, and from me". Quoted by Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 148–49.
  126. ^ An autopsy revealed tuberculosis and an abscess. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 151.
    • "There is not the slightest evidence for imputing to her a single case of poisoning." Armstrong, 56.
  127. ^ The investigators traced the house and horse to the Guises and claimed to have found evidence that the would-be killer was one de Maurevert: if this is true, he may have been recruited for his previous success in shooting the seigneur de Mouy, one of Coligny’s senior captains, in the back in 1569, after the battle of Moncontour. De Maurevert became known to history as le tueur du roi (the King’s killer). Frieda, 254, 304–5.
    • Holt, 83.
  128. ^ Coligny was lobbying the king to intervene against the empire in the Netherlands. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 154–57.
    • The duke of Anjou was later reported as saying that he and Catherine had planned the assassination with Anne d’Este, who longed to avenge her husband. Frieda, 292.
    • For an overview of historians' varying interpretations, see Holt, 83–4.
  129. ^ Pettegree, 159–60.
  130. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 21.
  131. ^ Pettegree, 154.
  132. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 162.
  133. ^ Holt, 84.
    Marshal Tavannes recalled that Catherine had summoned a war council in the Tuileries Gardens (so as not to be overheard) to plan the next move: “Because the attempt on the Admiral would cause a war, she, and the rest of us, agreed that it would be advisable to bring battle in Paris.” Frieda, 306.
    • It is almost certain that when Charles gave the order “Kill them all!”, he meant those drawn up on a list by Catherine, not, as has often been claimed, all Huguenots. Frieda, 308.
    • “This event must be considered in its context as an act of war, not as a sudden, isolated outrage”. Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 176.
  134. ^ Holt, 84.
  135. ^ Holt, 85.
  136. ^ Holt, 85.
  137. ^ Quoted by Morris, 252.
  138. ^ Frieda, 324.
  139. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 163–64.
    • Machiavelli’s The Prince, had been dedicated to Catherine’s father. Frieda, 325.
    • "According to a widespread sentiment in Huguenot ranks, the rule of women and especially of a foreign woman was inherently perverse. Catherine's dominion and especially her key role in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre reflected the deviant course France had taken under Italian domination. Focusing Huguenot misogyny on Catherine gave it an anti-Italian twist." Heller, 117.
    • On Estienne's Discours merveilleux de la vie, actions, et deportements de Catherine de Médicis, Royne-mère (1575), "the most sweeping and comprehensive Huguenot attack on Catherine", see Heller, 120–1.
  140. ^ This scandalous history of 1574 is often attributed to the Protestant refugee Nicolas Barnaud. The themes of misogyny and anti-Italianism in such "histories" were effective, appealing not only to Protestants but to many Catholics who blamed France's woes on female leadership and Italian influence at court. Manetsch, 60–61.
  141. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 158–63.
    • Pettegree, 159.
  142. ^ Quoted by Frieda, 321.
  143. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 247.
  144. ^ Frieda, 350.
  145. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 172.
  146. ^ He had to take a lie down during his coronation in 1575 because the crown was making him feel dizzy. Frieda, 375.
  147. ^ "Henry's indolence and frivolity left her a large residuum of power". Armstrong, 89.
  148. ^ Nicola Sutherland has demonstrated in The French Secretaries of State in the Age of Catherine de Medici (London, 1962) how important the loyal secretaries of state were to Catherine’s government and that of her sons.
  149. ^ From about 1582, Henry began to take part in “veritable religious orgies”. He founded a new order of flagellants and a monastery at Vincennes, where he fled to escape from affairs of state. Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 232, 240, 247.
  150. ^ Frieda, 369.
  151. ^ Frieda, 397.
  152. ^ Noble extremists, rather than religious zealots, now commanded the initiative in war and politics. "This permitted the convergence of different and even disparate forms of opposition, if only for limited periods." Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 22.
  153. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 22.
  154. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 180.
  155. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 205.
  156. ^ Holt, 104.
  157. ^ Holt, 105–6.
    • Catherine later told the duchess of Nevers that she and the king agreed the terms only "to get back Monsieur, not to re-establish the Huguenots". Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 186.
    • By the terms of the treaty, Alençon received valuable lands and titles, including the duchy of Anjou. Frieda, 384–87.
  158. ^ Alençon had been installed as duke of Brabant in 1582. The ill-fated attack on Antwerp was later called the "French Fury". Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 212–13.
  159. ^ Frieda, 406–7.
  160. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 217.
  161. ^ Pettegree, 154.
  162. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 254–55.
  163. ^ Frieda, 378.
  164. ^ As Leonie Frieda puts it, "he then decided to leave the Court immediately citing health reasons, which happened to be nothing less than the truth". Frieda, 378–379.
  165. ^ Frieda, 384.
  166. ^ When she was interrogated at an abbey where Henry had imprisoned her, she screamed, “He complains of how I spend my time? Does he not remember that it was he who first put my foot in the stirrup!” Frieda, 404.
  167. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 215–16.
  168. ^ Frieda, 414.
  169. ^ Frieda, 415.
  170. ^ Frieda, 416.
    • Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 254–55.
  171. ^ When Henri de Montmorency-Damville, the governor of Languedoc, declared an independent state in the south of France, it was a different matter. He headed a new alliance of moderate Catholics and Huguenots known as the “Politiques”. “It is he,” Catherine wrote, "whom I fear the most in as much as he has more sense, experience and consistency". However, she was able to buy him off for the time being with the duchy of Saluzzo. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 188.
    • Frieda, 374–76, 389.
  172. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 202.
  173. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 190.
    • Frieda, 389.
  174. ^ Sutherland, Ancien Régime, 29.
  175. ^ She wrote to Queen Louise: “He disapproves of everything I do. Clearly I am not free to do as I wish”. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 189.
    • Frieda, 389.
  176. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 200.
  177. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 209.
    • Frieda, 392.
  178. ^ The Venetian ambassador, Gerolamo Lipomanno, wrote: “She is an indefatigable princess, born to tame and govern a people as unruly as the French: they now recognize her merits, her concern for unity and are sorry not to have appreciated her sooner”. However, he feared she had appeased the south rather than achieved lasting solutions there. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 200.
  179. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 201.
  180. ^ Frieda, 412, interprets this incident as an example of Catherine's cunning.
  181. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 185.
    • Frieda, 386.
  182. ^ Pettegree, 164.
  183. ^ Quoted by Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 246.
  184. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 255.
  185. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 249.
    • Frieda, 412.
  186. ^ She was afflicted at the time with a cough, earache, toothache, pains in her side and thighs, and with gout. Frieda, 411.
  187. ^ Pinart worked in closer co-operation with Catherine than any of the other secretaries. He referred to her affectionately as “the poor princess”, and “the queen, my good mistress” and talked of her “great patience”. Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 207, 258.
  188. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 251.
  189. ^ Knecht, Renaissance France, 440.
  190. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 253.
  191. ^ Frieda, 419.
    • Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 270.
  192. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 267, 283.
  193. ^ Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 287.
  194. ^ Catherine had sent Bellièvre to England to plead for clemency. Frieda, 420.
    • Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 257.
  195. ^ Armstrong, 85.
  196. ^ Frieda, 362–63.
  197. ^ "The Day of the Barricades", as the revolt became known, "reduced the authority and prestige of the monarchy to its lowest ebb for a century and a half". Morris, 260.
  198. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 263.
  199. ^ Catherine wrote to Bellièvre: “It would be much to his [Henry’s] credit if he were to come to terms in whatever way he could for the present; for time often brings many things which one cannot foresee, and we admire those who know how to yield to time in order to preserve themselves”. Frieda, 432.
  200. ^ Henry wrote a note to Villeroy, which began: “Villeroy, I remain very well contented with your service; do not fail however to go away to your house where you will stay until I send for you; do not seek the reason for this my letter, but obey me”. Historians have never conclusively explained Henry’s decision. Historian Nicola Sutherland believes it may simply have been the impulsive act of a man who “was wandering on the borders of insanity”. Sutherland, Secretaries of State, 300–3.
  201. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 264–65.
  202. ^ Pettegree, 165.
  203. ^ The words were reported to the government of Florence by Catherine’s doctor, Filippo Cavriana. Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 266.
  204. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 267.
  205. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 269.
  206. ^ Knecht, Catherine de' Medici, 269.
  207. ^ Brantôme, 88.
  208. ^ Knecht, Renaissance France, 327.
  209. ^ Taylor, F. H. (1948). The taste of angels, a history of art collecting from Rameses to Napoleon. Boston: Little, Brown, pg.194

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Diane de France (1538 - January 11, 1619) was the natural (illegitimate) daughter of Henry II, King of France and a Piedmontese, although some sources claim that she was the daughter of Diane de Poitiers. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (unknown artist) Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (or Throgmorton) (1515 – February 12, 1571) was an English diplomat and politician, who played a key role in the relationship between Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 – June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... The Amboise conspiracy, or Tumult of Amboise (1560), was a failed attempt by Huguenots and the house of Bourbon to wrest power over France, by abducting the young king, Francis II and arresting François (the Duke of Guise) and his brother Charles (cardinal of Lorraine). ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... In medicine, a fistula (pl. ... The Treaty of Hampton Court was signed on September 20, 1562 between Queen Elizabeth and Huguenot leader Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé. The treaty was concluded by François de Beauvais, Seigneur de Briquemault. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Gaspard de Saulx, sieur de Tavannes (1509–75) was a French military leader during the Italian Wars and the French Wars of Religion. ... The Battle of Moncontour occurred on October 30, 1569 between the Catholic forces of King Charles IX of France and the Huguenots. ... Gaspard de Saulx, sieur de Tavannes (1509–75) was a French military leader during the Italian Wars and the French Wars of Religion. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... Nicolas Barnaud[1] (1538-1604) was a French Protestant writer, physician and alchemist, from Crest, in Dauphiné, from which he took the name Delphinas (or Delphinus). ... Flagellants, from a fifteenth century woodcut Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments. ... This article is about the city in France. ... Coat of arms of Dukes of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. ... The French Fury was a failed attempt by François, Duke of Anjou to conquer the city of Antwerp by surprise on January 17, 1583. ... Henri I de Montmorency (1534 - 1614), Marshal of France, became duc de Montmorency on his brothers death in 1579, had been governor of Languedoc since 1563. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Politique is an archaic term used in late 1500s and early 1600s to describe either a head of state who puts politics before their religion, or individuals who sought political accommodation between Protestants and Catholics in the interest of peace. ... Saluzzo is a town in Cuneo province, Piedmont region. ...

References

  • Armstrong, E. The French Wars of Religion, Their Political Aspects. Kila (MT): Kessinger, [1892] 2004 edition. ISBN 1417948477.
  • Brantôme, Pierre de Bourdeille. Illustrious Dames of the Court of the Valois Kings. Translated by Katharine Prescott Wormeley. Lamb, 1912. OCLC 347527.
  • Bryson, David M. Queen Jeanne and the Promised Land: Dynasty, Homeland, Religion and Violence in Sixteenth-century France. Leiden and Boston (MA): Brill Academic, 1999. ISBN 9004113789.
  • Carroll, Stuart. Noble Power During the French Wars of Religion: The Guise Affinity and the Catholic Cause in Normandy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0521023874.
  • Frieda, Leonie. Catherine de Medici. London: Phoenix, 2005. ISBN 0173820390.
  • Guy, John. My Heart is my Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London: Fourth Estate, 2004. ISBN 084115752X.
  • Hearn, Karen, ed. Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530-1630. New York: Rizzoli, 1995. ISBN 084781940X.
  • Heller, Henry. Anti-Italianism in Sixteenth-century France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. ISBN 0802036899.
  • Holt, Mack P. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 (2nd ed.). ISBN 0521547504.
  • Hoogvliet, Margriet. "Princely Culture and Catherine de Médicis". In Princes and Princely Culture, 1450-1650. Gosman, Martin; Alasdair A. MacDonald, Arie Johan Vanderjagt (eds.). Leiden and Boston (MA): Brill Academic, 2003. ISBN 9004135723.
  • Knecht, R. S. Catherine de' Medici. London and New York: Longman, 1998. ISBN 0582082412.
  • Knecht, R. J. The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001 (2nd ed.). ISBN 0631227296.
  • Manetsch, Scott Michael. Theodore Beza and the Quest for Peace in France, 1572-1598. Leiden and Boston (MA): Brill Academic, 2000. ISBN 9004111018.
  • Morris, T. A. Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. ISBN 041515040X.
  • Pettegree, Andrew. Europe in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. ISBN 063120704X.
  • Sutherland, N. M. Catherine de Medici and the Ancien Régime. London: Historical Association, 1966. OCLC 1018933.
  • Sutherland, N. M. The French Secretaries of State in the Age of Catherine de Medici. London: Athlone Press, 1962. OCLC 1367811.
  • Tomas, Natalie R. The Medici Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence. Aldershot (UK): Ashgate, 2003. ISBN 0754607771.
  • White, Henry. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew. Preceded by a History of the Religious Wars in the Reign of Charles IX. Kila (MT): Kessinger, [1868] 2004 edition. ISBN 1417949465.
  • Wood, James B. The King's Army: Warfare, Soldiers and Society during the Wars of Religion in France, 1562–76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0521550033.

Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur (and abbé) de Brantôme (c. ... Leonie Frieda Leonie Frieda (born 1956) is a Swedish-born former model, translator, and writer, working and living in the United Kingdom. ... John Guy (born 1949 in Warragul, Australia) is a leading British historian and biographer. ...

Further reading

  • (French) Cloulas, Ivan. Catherine de Médicis. Paris: Fayard, 1979. ISBN 2213007381.
  • Gould, Kevin. Catholic Activism in South-West France, 1540–1570. Aldershot (UK): Ashgate, 2006. ISBN 0754652262.
  • Knecht, R.J. The French Religious Wars, 1562-1598. Oxford: Osprey, 2002. ISBN 1841763950.
  • Knecht, R.J. Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1994. ISBN 052157885X.
  • (French) Mariéjol, Jean-Hippolyte. Catherine de Médicis. Paris: Tallandier [Hachette, 1920] 2005 edition. ISBN 2847342265.
  • Sproxton, Judy. Violence and Religion: Attitudes Towards Militancy in the French Civil Wars and the English Revolution. London and New York: Routledge, 1995. ISBN 0415076811.

External links

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Memoirs of Marguerite de Valois Full text at Gutenberg. Retrieved 18 June 2007. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Preceded by
Anne de la Tour d'Auvergne
Countess of Auvergne
1524January 5, 1589
Succeeded by
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine
Preceded by
Charlotte of Savoy
Dauphine of France
10 August 153631 March 1547
Succeeded by
Mary I of Scotland
Preceded by
Eleanor of Habsburg
Queen of France
March 31, 1547July 10, 1559

  Results from FactBites:
 
Catherine de' Medici - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1508 words)
Born in Florence, Italy, she was a daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and a French princess, Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne.
Catherine was zealous in the interests of her children, especially those of her favourite third son, the duke of Anjou.
Catherine, thinking her influence menaced, sought to regain it, first by the murder of Coligny and after that failed, by initiating in Paris what became a wholesale slaughter of Protestants by Catholics, thereafter known as the St.
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1729 words)
Catherine de Medici had hoped that the marriage alliances of her children would support her move for peace, including the proposed marriage of her son, François, Duke of Anjou and Elizabeth I of England.
Ostensibly to quell the rancour between the Protestants and the Catholics (the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise), the Queen-Mother, Catherine de Medici, arranged for Henry of Navarre, Duke of Bourbon, the patron of the Huguenots, to marry her daughter Marguerite.
Catherine therefore planned the massacre of many of the Huguenots while they were in town for the wedding, but she had a hard time convincing her son, Charles IX of France, to go along, since he had developed a friendly relationship with Admiral de Coligny.
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