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Encyclopedia > Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II
Catherine the Great
Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign June 28, 176217 November 1796
Coronation September 12, 1762
Full name Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst
Born May 2, 1729(1729-05-02)
Birthplace Stettin (the future Szczecin in Poland)
Died 6 November 1796 (aged 67)
Place of death Saint Petersburg, Russia
Buried Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg
Predecessor Peter III of Russia
Successor Paul I of Russia
Offspring Paul
Anna Petrovna (1757-1759) (
Aleksey Bobrinsky
Dynasty Romanov
Father Christian Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst
Mother Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp

Catherine II, called Catherine the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 172917 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from 9 July [O.S. 28 June] 1762 until her death. She exemplifies the enlightened despot of her era. Catherine the Great may refer to: Catherine II of Russia, Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 through 17 November 1796 Catherine the Great, 1934 film (based on the play The Czarina by Lajos Biro and Melchior Lengyel) starring Elisabeth Bergner as Catherine II Catherine the Great, 1995 television movie... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1742 pixel, file size: 459 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Stettin redirects here. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... First Count Bobrinsky in infancy (1760s). ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ...

Contents

Early life

Catherine's father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as Governor of the city of Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland) in the name of the king of Prussia. Though born as Sophia Augusta Frederica (Sophia Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst, nicknamed "Figchen"), a minor German princess in Stettin, Catherine did have some (very remote) Russian ancestry, and two of her first cousins became Kings of Sweden: Gustav III and Charles XIII. In accordance with the custom then prevailing amongst the German nobility, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stettin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Catherine the Great was widely known as that German petty princess wherefore her own propaganda highlighted her Russian and Eastern Orthodox being. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Charles XIII (Swedish: ) (7 October 1748 - 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway (where he was known as Karl II) from 1814 until his death. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


The choice of Sophia as wife of the prospective tsarPeter of Holstein-Gottorp — resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq and Frederick II of Prussia took an active part. Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia in order to weaken the influence of Austria and to ruin the Russian chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Tsarina Elizabeth relied, and who acted as a known partisan of Russo-Austrian co-operation. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Count Jean Armand de LEstocq (German: Johann Hermann Lestocq, Russian: Иван Иванович Лесток, 29 April 1692, Luneburg — 12 June 1767, Saint Petersburg) was a French adventurer who wielded immense influence on the foreign policy of Russia during the early reign of Empress Elizabeth. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Count Aleksei Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (June 1, 1693 - April 21, 1768), Grand Chancellor of Russia, who was chiefly responsible for the Russian foreign policy during the reign of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ... A Tsarina, also spelled czarina, is an English arrangement of Russian and Bulgarian word цари́ца (tsaritsa or czaritsa), which was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ... Charles van Loo. ...


The diplomatic intrigue failed, largely due to the intervention of Sophie's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, a clever and ambitious woman. Historical accounts portray Catherine's mother as emotionally cold and physically abusive, as well as a social climber who loved gossip and court intrigues. Johanna's hunger for fame centered on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who eventually banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick of Prussia (reigned 1740–1786). Nonetheless, Elizabeth took a strong liking to the daughter, and the marriage finally took place in 1745. The empress knew the family well because she had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus (Karl August von Holstein), who had died of smallpox in 1727 before the wedding could take place. Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Child abuse is the physical, psychological or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... This article is about the disease. ...


Princess Sophia spared no effort to ingratiate herself not only with the Empress Elizabeth, but with her husband and with the Russian people. She applied herself to learning the Russian language with such zeal that she rose at night and walked about her bedroom barefoot repeating her lessons (though she mastered the language, she retained an accent). This resulted in a severe attack of pneumonia in March 1744. When she wrote her memoirs she represented herself as having made up her mind when she came to Russia to do whatever seemed necessary, and to profess to believe whatever required of her, in order to become qualified to wear the crown. The consistency of her character throughout life makes it highly probable that even at the age of fifteen she possessed sufficient maturity to adopt this worldly-wise line of conduct. Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , Russian pronunciation: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, and the largest native language in Europe. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...


Her father, a very devout Lutheran, strongly opposed his daughter's conversion. Despite his instructions, on June 28, 1744 the Russian Orthodox Church received her as a member with the name Catherine (Yekaterina or Ekaterina) and the (artificial) patronymic Алексеевна (Alekseyevna). On the following day the formal betrothal took place, and Catherine married the Grand Duke Peter on August 21, 1745 at Saint Petersburg. The newlyweds settled in the palace of Oranienbaum, which would remain the residence of the "young court" for 56 years. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Oranienbaum can refer to: The Russian royal residence of Oranienbaum The former name of the adjacent town of Lomonosov Oranienbaum, a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The coup d'état of 1762

The unlikely marriage proved unsuccessful — due to the Grand Duke Peter's impotence and immaturity, he may not have consummated it for 12 years. While Peter took a mistress (Elizabeth Vorontsova), Catherine carried on liaisons with Sergei Saltykov, Charles Hanbury Williams[citation needed] and Stanisław August Poniatowski. She became friends with Ekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, the sister of her husband's mistress, who introduced her to several powerful political groups that opposed her husband. Catherine read widely and kept up-to-date on current events in Russia and in the rest of Europe. She corresponded with many of the prominent minds of her era, including Voltaire and Diderot. Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... Sergei Saltykov (c. ... Sir Charles Hanbury Williams (1708 - 1759), diplomatist and satirist, son of John Hanbury, a Welsh ironmaster, assumed the name of Williams on succeeding to an estate, entered Parliament as a supporter of Walpole, held many diplomatic posts, and was a brilliant wit with a great contemporary reputation for lively and... // StanisÅ‚aw II August Poniatowski (born Count StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Poniatowski; January 17, 1732-February 12, 1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764-95). ... Portrait of Princess Dashkov from the Hermitage Museum. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ...


After the death of the Empress Elizabeth on 5 January 1762 [O.S. 25 December 1761], Peter succeeded to the throne as Peter III of Russia and moved into the new Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg; Catherine thus became Empress Consort of Russia. However, the new tsar's eccentricities and policies, including a great admiration for the Prussian king, Frederick II, alienated the same groups that Catherine had cultivated. Compounding matters, Peter intervened in a dispute between Holstein and Denmark over the province of Schleswig (see Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff). Peter's insistence on supporting his native Holstein in an unpopular war eroded much of his support among the nobility. is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count of Bernstorff (13 May 1712 – 18 February 1772), Danish statesman, who came of a very ancient Mecklenburg family, was the son of Joachim Engelke, Freiherr von Bernstorff, chamberlain to the elector of Hanover. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...

Equestrian portrait of Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alekseyevna.
Equestrian portrait of Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alekseyevna.

In July 1762, Peter committed the political error of retiring with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives to Oranienbaum, leaving his wife in Saint Petersburg. On July 13 and July 14 the Leib Guard revolted, deposed Peter, and proclaimed Catherine the ruler of Russia. The bloodless coup succeeded; Ekaterina Dashkova, a confidante of Catherine, remarked[citation needed] that Peter seemed rather glad to have rid himself of the throne, and requested only a quiet estate and his mistress. Six months after his accession to the throne and three days after his deposition, on July 17, 1762, Peter III died at Ropsha at the hands of Alexei Orlov (younger brother to Gregory Orlov, then a court favorite and a participant in the coup). Soviet-era historians assumed that Catherine had ordered the murder, as she also disposed of other potential claimants to the throne (Ivan VI and Princess Tarakanova) at about the same time, but many modern historians believe that she had no part in it.[citation needed] Image File history File links Georg Christoph Grooth (1716-49). ... Image File history File links Georg Christoph Grooth (1716-49). ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Leib Guard (Russian: ) collectively distinguished military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizen, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ... Portrait of Princess Dashkov from the Hermitage Museum. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ropsha (Russian: Ропша) is a townlet in the Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation, situated about 20 km south of Peterhof and 49 km west of Saint Petersburg, at an elevation of 80 metres above sea level. ... Aleksey Orlov, also transliterated as Aleksei Orlov or Alexei Orlov. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... A coup détat (pronounced kÅ« dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Ivan VI with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ascension to the throne Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna of Mecklenburg. ... An 1864 painting by Konstantin Flavitsky depicts the legend that Tarakanova was killed by a 1777 flood. ...


Catherine, although not descended from any previous Russian emperor, succeeded her husband, following the precedent established when Catherine I succeeded Peter I in 1725. Her accession-manifesto justified her succession by citing the "unanimous election" of the nation. However a great part of nobility regarded her reign as an usurpation, tolerable only during the minority of her son, Grand Duke Paul. In the 1770s a group of nobles connected with Paul (Nikita Panin and others) contemplated the possibility[1] of a new coup to depose Catherine and transfer the crown to Paul, whose power they envisaged restricting in a kind of constitutional monarchy. However, nothing came of this, and Catherine reigned until her death. Yekaterina (Catherine) I Alexeyevna (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (born Martha Scowronska, Latvian: , later Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727) (April 5, 1684–May 6, 1727 O.S.), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Look up Usurper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Никита Иванович Панин) (September 18, 1718 - March 31, 1783) was an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first eighteen years of her reign. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not...


Foreign affairs

Main article: Russian history, 1682–1796
The coronation coach of Catherine the Great as exhibited in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg

During her reign Catherine extended the borders of the Russian Empire southward and westward to absorb New Russia, Crimea, Right-Bank Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Courland at the expense of two powers — the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. All told, she added some 200,000 miles² (518,000 km²) to Russian territory. // Peter I, a child of the second marriage of Tsar Aleksey, was at first relegated to the political background, as various court factions struggled to control the throne. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a historical name of a part of Ukraine on the right bank of the Dnipro, consisting of the modern day Volyn, Rivne, Vinnitsa, Zhytomyr, Kirvohrad and Kyiv region as well as part of the Cherkaska and Ternopil region. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ...


Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin, exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. Though a shrewd statesman, Panin dedicated much effort and millions of rubles to setting up a "Northern Accord" between Russia, Prussia, Poland, and Sweden, to counter the power of the BourbonHabsburg League. When it became apparent that his plan could not succeed, Panin fell out of favor and, in 1781, Catherine had him replaced with a Ukrainian-born councillor, Alexander Bezborodko. Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Russian: ) (September 18, 1718–March 31, 1783) was an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first eighteen years of her reign. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Prince Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko (Russian: ) (1747–1799) was the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Greats foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin. ...


Russo-Turkish Wars

Catherine made Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after her first Russo-Turkish War against the Ottoman Empire (1768–1774), which saw some of the greatest defeats in Turkish history, including the Battle of Chesma (5 July7 July 1770) and the Battle of Kagul (21 July 1770). The Russian victories allowed Catherine's government to obtain access to the Black Sea and to incorporate the vast steppes of present-day southern Ukraine, where the Russians founded the new cities of Odessa, Nikolayev, Yekaterinoslav (literally: "the Glory of Catherine"; the future Dnepropetrovsk), and Kherson. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Count Orlov Kapudan Pasha Hüsameddin Strength 9 ships of the line, 3 frigates, 1 bomb, 4 fireships, 4 supply ships About 16 ships of the line, 6 frigates, 6 xebecs, 13 galleys, 32 smaller; about 1300 guns The naval Battle of Chesma took... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Khanate of Crimea Commanders Pyotr Rumyantsev Strength 17,000 100,000 cavalry, 15,000 infantry, 100,000 Crimean Tatar cavalry Casualties 1000 killed and wounded 20,000 killed and wounded, 363 guns, all major fortresses overrun The Battle of Kagul was the most important land... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Categories: Cities in Ukraine | Ukraine geography stubs ... REDIRECT Dnipropetrovsk ... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ...


Catherine annexed the Crimea in 1783, a mere nine years after the Crimean Khanate had gained independence from the Ottoman Empire as a result of her first war against the Turks. The Ottomans started a second Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) during Catherine's reign. This war proved catastrophic for the Ottomans and ended with the Treaty of Jassy (1792), which legitimized the Russian claim to Crimea. Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Relations with Western Europe

Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia

In the European political theater, Catherine remained ever conscious of her legacy and longed for recognition as an enlightened sovereign. She pioneered for Russia the role that Britain would later play throughout most of the nineteenth and early twentieth century — that of international mediator in disputes that could, or did, lead to war. Accordingly, she acted as mediator in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–1779) between Prussia and Austria. In 1780 she set up a League of Armed Neutrality designed to defend neutral shipping from the British Royal Navy during the American Revolution, and she refused to intervene in that revolution on the side of the British when asked[citation needed]. Image File history File links Katarina_den_stora. ... Image File history File links Katarina_den_stora. ... For statistical mediation, see Mediation (Statistics). ... The War of the Bavarian Succession was a war that occurred in 1778 and 1779. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


From 1767 to 1790, Russia fought the Russo-Swedish War against Sweden, instigated by Catherine's cousin, the King Gustav III of Sweden. Expecting to simply overtake the Russian armies still engaged in war against the Ottoman Turks and hoping to strike Saint Petersburg directly, the Swedes ultimately faced mounting human and territorial losses when opposed by Russia's Baltic Fleet. After Denmark declared war on Sweden in 1788, things looked bleak for the Swedes. After the Battle of Svensksund in 1790, the parties signed the Treaty of Värälä (August 14, 1790) returning all conquered territories to their respective nations, and peace ensued for 20 years. Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... The Theater War (Swedish: Teaterkriget, Norwegian: Tyttebærkrigen) was a brief war between Denmark-Norway and Sweden lasting between 1788 and 1789. ... Combatants Sweden Russia Commanders Gustav III of Sweden Lieutenant-Colonel Carl Olof Cronstedt Prince Charles of Nassau-Siegen Strength 6 larger ships 16 galleys 154 smaller vessels Ëœ1,000 guns 12,500 men 35 larger ships 23 galleys 77 smaller vessels Ëœ1,200 guns 14,000 men Casualties 1 large... This ended Gustav IIIs Russian adventure on the terms favorable to Russia ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The partitions of Poland

In 1764 Catherine placed Stanisław Poniatowski, her former lover, on the Polish throne. Although the idea of partitioning Poland came from the Prussian king Frederick the Great, Catherine took a leading role in carrying this out in the 1790s. In 1768 she became formally protectress of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which provoked an anti-Russian uprising in Poland (see Bar Confederation). After smashing the uprising she established in the Rzeczpospolita a system of government fully controlled by the Russian Empire through a Permanent Council under the supervision of her ambassadors and envoys. 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ... The Permanent Council (Polish Rada Nieustająca) was the highest administrative authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1775 and 1789 and the first modern government in Europe. ...


After the French Revolution of 1789, Catherine rejected many of the principles of the Enlightenment which she once viewed favorably. Afraid that the May Constitution of Poland (1791) might lead to a resurgence in the power of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and that the growing democratic movements inside the Commonwealth might become a threat to the European monarchies, Catherine decided to intervene in Poland. She provided support to a Polish anti-reform group known as the Targowica Confederation. After defeating Polish loyalist forces in the Polish War in Defense of the Constitution (1792) and in the Kosciuszko Uprising (1794), Russia completed the partitioning of Poland, dividing all of the Commonwealth territory with Prussia and Austria (1795). The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... This conflict took place in 1792 between Poland and her ally the Kingdom of Prussia, on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... The Kościuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Relations with Japan

In the Far East, Russians became active in fur-trapping in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. However, Russian settlements suffered from lack of supplies and constrained by the need to import goods over long distances across Siberia from Europe. This spurred interest in opening trade with Japan to the south for supplies and food. In 1783 storms drove a Japanese sea-captain, Daikokuya Kōdayū, ashore in the Aleutian Islands, at that time Russian territory. Russian local authorities helped his party, and the Russian government decided to use him as a trade envoy. On June 28, 1791, Catherine granted Kōdayū an audience at Tsarskoye Selo. Subsequently, in 1792, the Russian government dispatched a trade-mission led by Adam Laxman to Japan. The Tokugawa government received the mission, but negotiations failed and formal trade relations between the two countries did not come about until 1858. This article is about the Asian regions. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Daikokuya KōdayÅ« ) (1751 - May 28, 1828) was a Japanese castaway who spent eleven years in Russia. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 versts (km) south from the center of St. ... Adam Laxman was one of the first Russians to set foot in Japan. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ...


Arts and culture

Main article: Russian Enlightenment
Marble statue of Catherine II in the guise of Minerva (1789–1790), by Fedot Shubin.

Catherine's patronage furthered the evolution of the arts in Russia more than that of any Russian sovereign before or after her. She subscribed to the ideals of the Enlightenment and considered herself a "philosopher on the throne". She showed great awareness of her image abroad, and ever desired that Europe should perceive her as a civilized and enlightened monarch, despite the fact that in Russia she often played the part of the tyrant. Even as she proclaimed her love for the ideals of liberty and freedom, she did more to tie the Russian serf to his land and to his lord than any sovereign since Boris Godunov (reigned 1598–1605). Mikeshins Monument to Catherine the Great in front of the Alexandrine Theatre in St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x700, 29 KB)Fedot Shubin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x700, 29 KB)Fedot Shubin. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Marble statue of Catherine II (1789-90). ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ...


Catherine had a reputation as a patron of the arts, literature and education. The Hermitage Museum, which now occupies the whole of the Winter Palace, began as Catherine's personal collection. At the instigation of her factotum, Ivan Betskoi, she wrote a manual for the education of young children, drawing from the ideas of John Locke, and founded the famous Smolny Institute for noble young ladies. This school would become one of the best of its kind in Europe, and even went so far as to admit young girls born to wealthy merchants alongside the daughters of the nobility. She wrote comedies, fiction and memoirs, while cultivating Voltaire, Diderot and D'Alembert — all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings. The leading economists of her day, such as Arthur Young and Jacques Necker, became foreign members of the Free Economic Society, established on her suggestion in Saint Petersburg. She lured the scientists Leonhard Euler and Peter Simon Pallas from Berlin to the Russian capital. The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... Arthur Young (September 11, 1741 - April 12, 1820) was an English writer on agriculture, economics and social statistics. ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... this entire page is full of crap, actually i dont know but hey i can try right? ... Euler redirects here. ... Peter Simon Pallas (September 22, 1741 - September 8, 1811) was a German-born Russian zoologist. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Catherine enlisted Voltaire to her cause, and corresponded with him for 15 years, from her accession to his death in 1778. He lauded her with epithets, calling her "The Star of the North" and the "Semiramis of Russia" (in reference to the legendary Queen of Babylon). Though she never met him face-to-face, she mourned him bitterly when he died, acquired his collection of books from his heirs, and placed them in the Imperial Public Library. Semiramis is depicted as an armed Amazon in this eighteenth century Italian illustration. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Visit of Alexander I to the library in 1812. ...


Within a few months of her accession, having heard that the French government threatened to stop the publication of the famous French Encyclopédie on account of its irreligious spirit, she proposed to Diderot that he should complete his great work in Russia under her protection. Four years later she endeavoured to embody in a legislative form the principles of Enlightenment which she had imbibed from the study of the French philosophers. She called together at Moscow a Grand Commission — almost a consultative parliament — composed of 652 members of all classes (officials, nobles, burghers and peasants) and of various nationalities. The Commission had to consider the needs of the Russian Empire and the means of satisfying them. The Empress herself prepared the "Instructions for the Guidance of the Assembly", pillaging (as she frankly admitted) the philosophers of Western Europe, especially Montesquieu and Cesare Beccaria. As many of the democratic principles frightened her more moderate and experienced advisers, she refrained from immediately putting them into execution. After holding more than 200 sittings the so-called Commission dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory. This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legislative institution. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... The title page of the Nakaz. ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ...

Portrait of Catherine in an advanced age, with the Chesme Column in the background.
Portrait of Catherine in an advanced age, with the Chesme Column in the background.

During Catherine's reign, Russians imported and studied the classical and European influences which inspired the Russian Enlightenement. Gavrila Derzhavin, Denis Fonvizin and Ippolit Bogdanovich laid the groundwork for the great writers of the nineteenth century, especially for Aleksandr Pushkin. Catherine became a great patron of Russian opera (see Catherine II and opera for details). However, her reign also featured omnipresent censorship and state control of publications. When Radishchev published his Journey from Saint Petersburg to Moscow in 1790, warning of uprisings because of the deplorable social conditions of the peasants held as serfs, Catherine exiled him to Siberia. Image File history File links Vladimir Borovikovsky. ... Image File history File links Vladimir Borovikovsky. ... Chesme Column in Tsarskoe Selo. ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Denis Fonvizin (1744?–92). ... Ippolit Fyodorovich Bogdanovich (December 23, 1743, Perevolochna – January 18, 1803, Kursk) was a Russian classicist author of light poetry, best known for his long poem Dushenka (1778). ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... Catherine II of Russia (1729–1796), not only patroness, but also opera librettist Catherine II the Great (1729 -1796), Empress of Russia was not only an opera fan, a patroness of the arts, music and theatre, but also an opera librettist. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (1749 – 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. ... The Journey From St. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Religious affairs

The circumstances of Catherine's whole-hearted adoption of things Russian (including Orthodoxy) may have prompted her personal indifference to religion.[2] She did not allow dissenters to build chapels, and she suppressed religious dissent after the onset of the French Revolution.[2] Politically, she exploited Christianity in her anti-Ottoman policy, promoting the protection and fostering of Christians under Turkish rule.[2] She placed strictures on Roman Catholics (ukaz of February 23, 1769), and attempted to assert and extend state control over them in the wake of the partitions of Poland.[3] Nevertheless, Catherine's Russia provided an asylum and a basis for re-grouping to the Society of Jesus following the suppression of the Jesuits in most of Europe in 1773.[3] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Look up refuge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ...


Personal life

Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions for as long as they held her interest, and then pensioning them off with large estates and gifts of serfs. After her affair with Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin, he would select a candidate-lover for her who had both the physical beauty as well as the mental faculties to hold Catherine's interest (such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov). Some of these men loved her in return, and she always showed generosity towards her lovers, even after the end of an affair. The last of her lovers, Prince Zubov, 40 years her junior, proved the most capricious and extravagant of them all. His Serene Highness Prince Potemkin of Tauride Knyaz Grigori Alexandrovich Potyomkin (Potemkin) (Russian: Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian general-field marshal, statesman, and favorite of Catherine II the Great. ... Alexander M. Mamonov (1780). ... Coat of arms of the Zubov family Zubov was a Russian noble family which rised to the highest offices of state in the 1790s, when Platon Zubov succeeded Count Orlov and Prince Potemkin as the official favourite of Catherine II of Russia. ...

Mikhail Mikeshin's monument to Catherine in Saint Petersburg.

Catherine behaved harshly to her son Paul. In her memoirs, Catherine indicated that her first lover, Sergei Saltykov, had fathered Paul, but Paul physically resembled her husband, Peter. She sequestered from the court her illegitimate son by Grigori Orlov, Alexis Bobrinskoy (later created Count Bobrinskoy by Paul).[4] It seems highly probable that she intended to exclude Paul from the succession, and to leave the crown to her eldest grandson Alexander (whom she greatly favored), afterwards the emperor Alexander I. Her harshness to Paul stemmed probably as much from political distrust as from what she saw of his character. Whatever Catherine's other activities, she emphatically functioned as a sovereign and as a politician, guided in the last resort by interests of state. Keeping Paul in a state of semi-captivity in Gatchina and Pavlovsk, she resolved not to allow her son to dispute or to share in her authority. The monument to Catherine II on the Nevsky Prospect. ... The monument to Catherine II on the Nevsky Prospect. ... Mikeshins monument to the Millennium of Russia, in Veliky Novgorod. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Sergei Vasilievich Saltykov (c. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov (Орлов) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... First Count Bobrinsky in infancy (1760s). ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Pavlovsk (Russian: Павловск) is a town situated in the Leningrad oblast, Russia, 30 km from St. ...


One source[citation needed] once quoted Catherine the Great as saying, “Assuredly men of worth are never lacking, for it is affairs which make men and men which make affairs; I have never tried to look for them, and I have always found close at hand the men who have served me, and I have for the most part been well served.”


Several commentators[who?] have criticized Catherine's tactics in handling men and power. According to Brenda Meehan-Waters, "The Empress thinks it a sufficient happiness to be permitted to serve her... and when she has made what use she wanted of anyone or of which she thought him capable, she does with him as we do with an orange, after sucking out the juice we throw the peel out of a window." Others[who?], however, portray Catherine as a good ruler who successfully kept her private life out of her political activity. Chamberlain says[citation needed], "Catherine, among female rulers, seems to have broken all records in the number of her lovers. But she attended to affairs of state diligently, unlike her pleasure-loving predecessor Elizabeth, and took pride in her interest in legislation and in her role as a colonizer and founder of cities." This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The private sphere is the complement or opposite of the public sphere. ...


Catherine and Peter III did not get along; she called him childish, without judgment, and "not enamoured of the nation over which he was destined to reign."[citation needed] He had a "belief in all things German"[citation needed] and he especially favored Prussia. Peter spent much of his time, before and during their marriage, playing with toy soldiers and military dolls. By the mid 1750s they had omitted to consummate their marriage. Given the requirement to have a indisputable heir to the throne, the Empress Elizabeth expected the couple to have children and that Catherine would remain faithful to her husband. But the pair found themselves in an unhappy marriage, and Catherine found herself tempted by the good-looking men at court. Catherine, despite her unhappiness, tried to have some sort of relationship with her husband. She wrote in her memoirs[citation needed], "I resolved to show great consideration for the Grand Duke's confidence so that he would at least view me as someone he could trust, to whom he could say everything without any consequences. I succeeded in this for a long time."


Poniatowski

Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams, the English ambassador to Russia, offered Stanislaus Poniatowksi a place in the embassy in return for gaining Catherine as an ally. She needed money and a new lover,[citation needed] and he sent Poniatowski of the Czartoryski family, the pro-Russian faction in Poland. Catherine received the story that Poniatowski's family had sent him to Russia to learn of its greatness. The Czartoryski faction really hoped[citation needed] that one day he could rule Russia. Catherine met him in 1755, and they began a love affair. A twenty-two-year-old virgin, though he claimed he loved Catherine, he had to be persuaded to sleep with her. They initiated a romantic relationship, but two years later in 1757 when Poniatowski had to serve in the English forces during the Seven Years’ War, he had to leave Catherine. She bore his child, Anna Petrovna, born in December 1757. Sir Charles Hanbury Williams (1708 - 1759), diplomatist and satirist, son of John Hanbury, a Welsh ironmaster, assumed the name of Williams on succeeding to an estate, entered Parliament as a supporter of Walpole, held many diplomatic posts, and was a brilliant wit with a great contemporary reputation for lively and... // StanisÅ‚aw II August Poniatowski (born Count StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Poniatowski; January 17, 1732-February 12, 1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764-95). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754...


Catherine, in considering Russia’s expansion, made a plan for Poland. She believed "Poland was destined"[citation needed] to join Russia. She planned to make use of Poland's relative weakness to annex part of the country. She knew she could gain enough influence if she had a candidate for for election to the Polish throne when the very ill Augustus III of Poland died. Poniatowski, previously exiled from St. Petersburg, knew nothing of this plan — Catherine knew he would want to return to her. Augustus III died in 1763, and Poland lacked a ruler. Catherine supported Poniatowski as a candidate to become the next king. Poniatowski suspected, and perhaps not incorrectly, that she would never marry him if he had no power, because that put her at the risk of losing hers. She wanted to rule more than she wanted marriage, and knew that Poniatowski would prove a weak ruler. Rumors spread[citation needed] that Catherine’s support formed part of a plan to unite Poland and Russia. Catherine told her ambassador to Poland, Count Kayserling, that she wanted Poniatowski to rule, but she would settle for Adam Czartoryski, his uncle[citation needed]. She sent the Russian army into Poland right away, but she hoped to avoid fighting. On August 26, 1764 Russia invaded Poland, threatening to fight and forcing Poniatowski to become king. Poniatowski accepted the throne, and thereby put himself under Catherine’s control. News of Catherine’s plan spread and Frederick II warned her that if she tried to conquer Poland by marrying Poniatowski, all of Europe would oppose her strongly. She had no intention of marrying him, and she ordered Poniatowski to marry someone else, in order to remove all suspicion. Poniatowski refused: he never married. Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... Noble Family Czartoryski Coat of Arms Czartoryski Parents August Aleksander Czartoryski Maria Zofia Sieniawska Consorts Izabela Fleming Children with Izabela Fleming Teresa Czartoryska Maria Anna Czartoryski Adam Jerzy Czartoryski Konstanty Adam Czartoryski Gabriela Czartoryska Zofia Czartoryska Date of Birth December 1, 1734 Place of Birth Gdańsk (German:Danzig), Poland Date... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Catherine quickly lost interest in Poland after the crowning of her candidate as king. Poniatowski did not enjoy his position, and Poland remained in chaos throughout his rule.


Prussia through the agency of Prince Henry, Russia under Catherine, and Austria under Maria Theresa began preparing the ground for the Partitions of Poland. In the first partition the three powers split 20,000 square miles between them. In the second, Russia received the most land. After this, uprisings in Poland led to the third partition, not leaving much of the country, and forcing Poniatowski out of power. This page refers to Prince Henry of Prussia (1726-1802); for Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929), see Albert Wilhelm Heinrich of Prussia. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


Orlov

Grigory Orlov, the grandson of a rebel in the Streltsy Uprising (1698) against Peter the Great, distinguished himself in the battle of Zorndorf (25 August 1758), receiving three wounds. He represented an opposite to Peter’s pro-Prussian sentiment, with which Catherine disagreed. By 1759, he and Catherine had become secret lovers. Many guardsmen knew of their relationship, but nobody told Catherine's husband, the Grand Duke Peter. Catherine saw Orlov as very useful, and he became instrumental in the coup d’état against her husband. Streltsy Uprising of 1698 - an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Battle of Zorndorf was a battle fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years War. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grigory Orlov and his brothers remained disappointed with their rewards for helping Catherine obtain the throne. Grigory expected to marry Catherine, but she named all the brothers counts, and they received money, swords, and other gifts. Orlov, though inept at politics and useless when asked for advice, received a palace in St. Petersburg when Catherine became Empress. She consulted him on affairs, but he mainly functioned as her servant. Some[who?] believe Catherine only kept Orlov to prevent Potemkin from gaining any power.


Potemkin

Grigory Potemkin had had involvement in Catherine's coup d'état. In 1772, Catherine’s close friends informed her of Orlov’s affairs with other women, and she dismissed him, leaving herself[citation needed] in a vulnerable position. By the winter of 1773 the Pugachev revolt had started to grow threatening. Catherine's son Paul had also started gaining support; both of these trends threatened her power. She called Potemkin for help — mostly military — and he became devoted to her. (Orlov died in 1783.) His Serene Highness Prince Potemkin of Tauride Knyaz Grigori Alexandrovich Potyomkin (Potemkin) (Russian: Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian general-field marshal, statesman, and favorite of Catherine II the Great. ... It has been suggested that Yemelyan Pugachev be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1772, Catherine wrote to Potemkin. Days earlier, she had found out about an uprising in the Volga region. She appointed General Alexander Bibikov to put down the uprising, but she needed Potemkin’s advice on military strategy. Their affair began in 1773 and ended in 1776, but he remained at the court even when Catherine met other men. He helped her command the armies, and he had advantages also. He could ask the Treasury for help, private and public, and he could sway Catherine’s decisions because she loved him. "Potemkin was wildly promiscuous; Catherine ... was a serial monogamist who was usually in love with her favourite of the moment."[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Potemkin quickly gained positions and awards. Russian poets wrote about his virtues, the court praised him, foreign ambassadors fought for his favor, and his family moved into the palace. He later became governor of New Russia. The court paid his expenses, and he had servants and carriages always available to him. Some historians[who?] suspect that Catherine and Potemkin secretly married: there existed supposedly two copies, both destroyed, of a marriage license,[citation needed] and letters sent between Potemkin and Catherine use terms like "my dearest husband", "my tender spouse", "your devoted wife". They both became involved in affairs with others, so this would be unusual if they weren’t married.[clarify] She suspected that Potemkin felt jealous of her power. He teased her often; he avoided contact with her when she expected him, and locked his doors when he knew she would come for him. He displayed jealousy of other men at the court. She complained to him about this, but she still gave him gifts. Sir James Harris of the British embassy said, "There is now no hope of her being reclaimed ... Prince Potemkin rules her with an absolute sway; thoroughly acquainted with her weaknesses, her desires, and her passions, he operates on them and makes them operate as he pleases." One source[who?] quotes Potemkin on the subject of his influence over Catherine: “Flatter her...and you will get everything you want". Contemporary literature also portrayed Catherine and the man with whom she fell in love. The 1794 German novel Pansalvin depicted Catherine as "Miranda" (in Latin: "she who must be admired"), and Potemkin as the Prince of Darkness. "Miranda was a praiseworthy princess and in her land there was perhaps only one major weakness — that the Prince of Darkness was allowed to have too much power... This flaw in Miranda was viewed as a traditional, feminine weakness — the natural submission of a woman to her lover." Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury (April 21, 1746 - November 21, 1820), English diplomatist, was born at Salisbury, being the son of James Harris, the author of Hermes. ... Prince of Darkness may refer to: Satan, viewed as the embodiment of evil // A nickname for Miles Davis, jazz trumpeter, bandleader and composer A nickname for Joseph Lucas, British electrical-equipment manufacturer A nickname for Peter Mandelson, British Euro-politician and confidante of Tony Blair A nickname for Robert Novak...


When their sexual relationship began to wane, Potemkin decided that he would choose the next man for Catherine. This way, he remained in control and they still maintained other aspects of their relationship. He chose Peter Alexeyevich Zavadovsky, whom he paid for his time with Catherine during his own absence; she could not choose men on her own.[citation needed] Potemkin told Zavadovsky, "You must agree, my friend, that it's not a bad line of work to be in here." Potemkin had previously had suspicions of Zavadovsky in the court. His good looks and his relation with Catherine helped promote him to major general in a month. She called him "little Petussia", and he moved into the Winter Palace. He felt jealous of Potemkin’s relationship with Catherine. When Potemkin returned in 1777 he had Zavadovsky removed from the palace. Catherine tried to contact him soon after he left.


After the death of Lanskoy, another lover chosen by Potemkin, came Ermolov. Ermolov learned from Potemkin's enemies that the Prince of Taurida (Potemkin) had started taking funds from those set aside for colonizing White Russia[citation needed]. Potemkin told her that he had borrowed the money and would return it when he sold an estate. Ermolov also brought Catherine a letter from the former Khan of Crimea. It claimed that Potemkin had diverted payments of his pension. Catherine warned Potemkin that his power might end, but this did not concern him. He said[citation needed], "I am not to be overthrown by a mere boy. Besides, who would dare try?" Apparently, Potemkin planned to decide when he would lose his power. "Potemkin was forever threatening resignation – Catherine must have been used to it." Soon Potemkin expressed his jealousy because he knew Ermolov had passed information to Catherine about him; and Catherine dismissed Ermolov. Potemkin’s enemies tried unsuccessfully to find Catherine another lover to make her lose interest. Vassilchikov became another lover. "Vassilchikov was a disappointing companion for Catherine, who found him corrosively dull... ‘his caresses only made me cry,’ she told Potemkin afterwards." The banner of White Ruthenia White Russia is a name that was historically applied to different regions in Eastern Europe, most often to the region that roughly corresponds to the present-day Belarus. ... The following is the chronological table of reigns of khans of Crimean Khanate: External links Hansaray. ...


In 1780 Joseph II of Austria, determining whether or not to enter an alliance with Russia, asked to meet Catherine. He and his family wanted to ensure that Catherine could abandon all the Prussian ways adopted in Russia. She assured him they had. Catherine led him through the country as he inspected everything. "Russia had few of the flea-bitten taverns the Emperor expected, so Potemkin dressed up manor houses to look like inns."[citation needed] In preparing for the trip, Potemkin had gone to great lengths. He rapidly changed the land that had only recently become part of Russia. New villages, farms, and landscapes already existed; and people had already started to migrate and live there. He planted forests, and built towns with manufacturers, theaters, and cathedrals. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 - February 20, 1790) was a Holy Roman Emperor (1765 - 1790). ...


Laveaux, a secret agent of Louis XV to the court of St. Petersburg, believed that Potemkin truly held the reins of power, and that he tricked Catherine and others into believing that she really made the decisions. He said that Potemkin convinced Catherine that all of her old lovers kept contact with her in order to steal her power. "He never fell from power; he was treated like a member of the imperial family and had absolute access to the Treasury as well as the ability to make independent decisions."[citation needed] Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...


Potemkin, a Russian, did not object to the independence of Poland as Catherine did. He would not have agreed with the partitioning of Poland,[citation needed] and he wanted to become king.[citation needed] "As for Catherine, she was subjugated by her companion. She consulted him on all important political decisions and sometimes bowed to his opinions."[citation needed] Potemkin convinced Catherine of the need to gain the Crimea, otherwise a perpetual obstacle. In November 1783 he told her that Russia needed the Crimea. "Believe me, that doing this will win you immortal glory greater than any other Russian Sovereign ever... Russia needs paradise."[citation needed] Mere weeks later, she sent him secret permission to take the actions necessary to obtain the Crimea. Catherine had arranged for a pro-Russian, Khan Shagin Girey, to come to power in the Crimea (1777). Potemkin negotiated with him and he agreed to cede the Crimea to Russia. Only months after negotiations began, Russia controlled the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Potemkin also convinced Catherine to expand the universities in Russia to increase the number of successful scientists.


Potemkin fell very ill in August 1783. Catherine worried that he would not finish his work developing the south as he had planned. "Know that I am committed to you for a century."[citation needed] At this point she gave him 100,000 rubles to fund his palace on the Tauric peninsula. A taur (metanalyzed from centaur), also called a centauroid, is a modern creature of science fiction and fantasy literature. ...


"Potemkin was not, as Orlov had been, a respected but subordinate companion, reduced to carrying out the orders of his imperial mistress. In a very short time he became the real master of Russia. Catherine decided nothing without him, bowed to his opinion and let him act for her."[citation needed] Potemkin died at the age of fifty-two in 1791. The devastated Catherine said, "Now I have no one left on whom I can rely." On source[who?] quotes her: "Prince Potemkin has played me a cruel turn by dying! It is me on whom all the burden now falls."


After Potemkin died, Catherine continued to have affairs, but with far younger, far less useful and far less important men. "With the exception of Potemkin... Catherine did not treat any man as a world’s wonder, an all-important being with whom she could forget herself." Catherine the Great used her relationships with men for her benefit and the benefit of her country.[citation needed] Some critics condemn Catherine for this, while others praise her methods. However, her private and public lives clearly[citation needed] intertwined.


Death

Catherine suffered a stroke on 16 November [O.S. 5 November] 1796 and subsequently died in her bed at 9:45[5] the following evening without having regained consciousness. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Catherine lies buried at the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Ancestors

Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (22 November 1610 – 24 October 1684) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Duke Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp (3 February 1641, Gottorp – 6 January 1695, Gottorp) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and bishop of Lübeck. ... Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (22 November 1610 – 24 October 1684) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Prince Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp (1673 - 1726) was Duke of Slesvig-Holstein, prince regent of Eutin, prince-bishop of Lubeck and regent of the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. ... King Frederick III Frederick III (March 28, 1609 – February 19, 1670) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. ... Frederika Amalia of Denmark (11 April 1649 – 30 October 1704) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Queen Sophie Amalie. ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (22 November 1610 – 24 October 1684) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp. ...

Criticisms

  • In spite of her image as an "enlightened despot", Catherine abandoned attempts to lighten the burden of peasant serfs after the Pugachev Rebellion of 1773–1775. The degree of her growing intolerance became evident in her treatment of Radishchev.
  • Catherine's devotion to her favorites, particularly Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin, often blinded her to the corruption that surrounded her rule, hence the force of the metaphor of the Potemkin villages.
  • Catherine played a part in the death of another pretender to the throne, Princess Tarakanova, who represented herself as Elizabeth's daughter by Alexis Razumovsky. The Empress dispatched Alexey Orlov to Italy, where he managed to seduce and capture Tarakanova. When brought to Russia, Tarakanova went to prison in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where she died of tuberculosis.
  • While Catherine probably had no direct role in the murder of her own husband, Peter III, she did nothing to punish those responsible for the crime and even promoted them.

Emelyan Pugachov Pugachevs Rebellion (or the Cossack Rebellion) was the largest peasant revolt in Russias history. ... His Serene Highness Prince Potemkin of Tauride Knyaz Grigori Alexandrovich Potyomkin (Potemkin) (Russian: Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian general-field marshal, statesman, and favorite of Catherine II the Great. ... Potemkin villages were, purportedly, fake settlements erected at the direction of Russian minister Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin to fool Empress Catherine II during her visit to Crimea in 1787. ... An 1864 painting by Konstantin Flavitsky depicts the legend that Tarakanova was killed by a 1777 flood. ... Charles van Loo. ... Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and, probably, a secret spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov (Орлов) is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

Trivia and cultural references

1910 100-ruble banknote
1910 100-ruble banknote
  • Catherine commissioned the famous "Bronze Horseman" statue, which stands in Saint Petersburg on the banks of the Neva River, and had the large boulder upon which it stands transported from several leagues away. She had it inscribed with the Latin phrase "Petro Primo Catharina Secunda MDCCLXXXII", meaning "Catherine the Second to Peter the First, 1782", in order to lend herself legitimacy by connecting herself with the "Founder of Modern Russia". This statue later inspired Pushkin's famous poem The Bronze Horseman (1833).
  • Catherine figures as a leader of the Russian civilization in the video game Civilization IV. In diplomatic talks, perhaps alluding to her penchant for taking lovers, a "Pleased" or "Friendly" Catherine will wink at the player and make innuendoes such as "Is that a treaty in your pocket or are you just happy to see me?".
  • Numerous dramatizations based on the biography of Catherine II have appeared. The 1934 film Catherine the Great (based on the play The Czarina by Lajos Biro and Melchior Lengyel) stars Elisabeth Bergner as Catherine. Also in 1934 appeared the film The Scarlet Empress directed by Josef von Sternberg and starring Marlene Dietrich. A 1991 TV miniseries Young Catherine features Julia Ormond in the role. Catherine Zeta-Jones portrayed Catherine in the 1995 television movie Catherine the Great.
  • One of Serbia's most famed New Wave bands, Ekatarina Velika (which translates as "Catherine the Great") (1982–1994) took its name from Catherine II of Russia.
  • Folk-rock songwriter Freddy Blohm's "Catherine, You're Great!" relates Catherine's most infamous urban myth from an equine point-of-view.
  • German chancellor Angela Merkel reportedly has a picture of Catherine II in her office, and characterises her as a "strong woman".
  • The Russian slang word for money "babki" (literally: "old women") refers to the picture of Catherine II printed on pre-Revolution 100-ruble banknotes.

H.I.M. Ekaterina II Aleksejevna the Great, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias The flamboyant and central character of Russian Empress Catherine II of Russia, as well as the dramatic changes the country underwent during her long rule, gave rise to many urban legends, most putting Her Imperial... Image File history File links Russian_Empire-1910-Bill-100-Reverse. ... Image File history File links Russian_Empire-1910-Bill-100-Reverse. ... The Bronze Horseman is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin which is widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. ... River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from the Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро - Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Carelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек - Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург - Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив - Finskii Zaliv). ... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ... Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... MAE-West is a major Internet peering point located in San Jose, California. ... Lajos Biró (born Lajos Blau) (August 22, 1880 - September 9, 1948) was a Hungarian novelist, playwright, and screenwriter who wrote many films from the early 1920s through the late 1940s. ... Melchior(Menyhért) Lengyel (January 12, 1880 - October 23, 1974 Budapest) was Hungarian playwright and film scriptwriter. ... Elisabeth Bergner was born Elisabeth Ettel on August 22, 1897, in Drohobycz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Drogobych, Ukraine). ... Josef von Sternberg (29 May 1894 – 22 December 1969) was an Austrian-American film director. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Young Catherine is a 1991 American TV miniseries based on the early life of Catherine II of Russia. ... Julia Ormond (born on 4 January 1965 in Epsom, Surrey, England) is a British actress with many stage and screen credits to her name. ... Catherine Zeta-Jones (born 25 September 1969) is an Academy Award-winning Welsh actress based in the United States. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... Catherine the Great is a 1995 television movie based on the early life of Catherine II of Russia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Ekatarina Velika (Catherine the Great, also called EKV for short) was a rock group from Belgrade, Serbia, and one of the most successful and influential music acts coming out of former Yugoslavia. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...

Gallery

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 508 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 1086 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait by D. G. Levitsky of the Empress Catherine II of Russia/Catherine the Great. ... Dmitry Levitzky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Russian: Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий, 1735-1822) was a Russian portrait painter. ... Image File history File links Cath2russia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 469 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1052 × 1344 pixel, file size: 673 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait by Mikhail Shibanov of the Empress Catherine II of Russia/Catherine the Great. ... Mikhail Shibanov was a Russian painter active during the 1780s; a portrait of Count Alexander Dmitriyev-Mamonov of which he is known to be the author dates to about this time. ...

See also

H.I.M. Ekaterina II Aleksejevna the Great, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias The flamboyant and central character of Russian Empress Catherine II of Russia, as well as the dramatic changes the country underwent during her long rule, gave rise to many urban legends, most putting Her Imperial... Potemkin villages were, purportedly, fake settlements erected at the direction of Russian minister Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin to fool Empress Catherine II during her visit to Crimea in 1787. ...

List of prominent Catherinians

Pre-eminent figures in Catherinian Russia include:

Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... Prince Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko (Russian: ) (1747–1799) was the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Greats foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin. ... Yakov Bulgakov Yakov Ivanovich Bulgakov (15 October 1743 — 7 July 1809) was a Russian diplomat best remembered as Catherine IIs emissary in Istanbul in the 1780s. ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Dmitry Levitzky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Russian: Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий, 1735-1822) was a Russian portrait painter. ... Aleksey Orlov, also transliterated as Aleksei Orlov or Alexei Orlov. ... Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Никита Иванович Панин) (September 18, 1718 - March 31, 1783) was an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first eighteen years of her reign. ... Prince Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (Russian: Григорий Александрович Потемкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian general-field marshal, statesman, and favorite of Catherine II the Great. ... Prince Nicholas Repnin Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (March 11, 1734 N.S. — May 12, 1801 N.S.) was a Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the downfall of Polish statehood. ... The Rumyantsev family were the Russian counts prominent in the imperial politics of the 18th and early 19th century. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (1744 – October 2, 1817) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century. ... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... John Paul Jones (July 11, 1747–July 18, 1792) was Americas first well-known naval hero in the American Revolutionary War. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Memoirs of Decembrist Michael Fonvizin (nephew of writer Denis Fonvizin who belonged to the constitutionalists' circle in the 1770s); see: Фонвизин М.А. Сочинения и письма: Т. 2. – Иркутск, 1982. С. 123 [Fonvizin, M.A.: Works and letters, volume 2. Irkutsk:1982, page 123]
  2. ^ a b c Encyclopedia Britannica of 1911. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  3. ^ a b The Religion of Russia. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  4. ^ According to Genealogy.euweb.cz Catherine and Orlov had another child, a daughter, called Elizabeth Alexandrovna Alexeeva (born in Saint Petersburg, 1761 - died 1844), born one year before Alexis. She married Frederic Maximilien de Klinger and from this marriage she had one son, Alexander, who apparently died young in 1812.
  5. ^ Rounding, Virginia. (2008). "Catherine the Great: Love, Sex, and Power", page 501. New York: St. Martin's Press.

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External links

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Further reading

  • Alexander, John T. Catherine the Great: Life and Legend. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 1988 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-505236-6); 1989 (paperback, ISBN 0-19-506162-4).
  • Cronin, Vincent. Catherine, Empress of All the Russias. London: Collins, 1978 (hardcover, ISBN 0-00-216119-2); 1996 (paperback, ISBN 1-86046-091-7).
  • Dixon, Simon. Catherine the Great (Profiles in Power). Harlow, UK: Longman, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-582-09803-3).
  • Herman, Eleanor. Sex With the Queen. New York: HarperCollins, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-06-084673-9).
  • Madariaga, Isabel de. Catherine the Great: A Short History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-04845-9); 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-09722-0).
  • The Memoirs of Catherine the Great by Markus Cruse and Hilde Hoogenboom (translators). New York: Modern Library, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-679-64299-4); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 0-8129-6987-1).
  • Montefiore, Simon Sebag. Potemkin: Catherine the Great's Imperial Partner. New York: Vintage, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-4000-7717-6).
  • Rounding, Virginia (2006). Catherine the Great: Love, Sex and Power. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-179992-9. 
  • Smith, Douglas, ed. and trans. Love and Conquest: Personal Correspondence of Catherine the Great and Prince Grigory Potemkin. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois UP, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-87580-324-5); 2005 (paperback ISBN 0-87580-607-4).
  • Troyat, Henri. Catherine the Great. New York: Dorset Press, 1991 (hardcover, ISBN 0-88029-688-7); London: Orion, 2000 (paperback, ISBN 1-84212-029-8).
  • Troyat, Henri. Terrible Tsarinas. New York: Algora, 2001 (ISBN 1-892941-54-6).
Empress Catherine II of Russia
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Peter III
Empress of Russia
28 June 1762 – 6 November 1796
Succeeded by
Paul I
Russian royalty
Preceded by
Catherine Dolgorukova
Empress-Consort of Russia
25 December 1761 – 28 June 1762
Succeeded by
Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Persondata
NAME Catherine the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Frederica, Sophie Augusta; Catherine II of Russia; von Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophie Friederike Auguste
SHORT DESCRIPTION Empress of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH May 2, 1729
PLACE OF BIRTH Stettin
DATE OF DEATH 17 November 1796
PLACE OF DEATH Saint Petersburg
Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Troyat (born Levon Aslan Torossian (or Lev Aslanovich Tarasov), November 1, 1911 - March 4, 2007) is a French author, biographer, historian and novelist of Armenian descent. ... Henri Troyat (born Levon Aslan Torossian (or Lev Aslanovich Tarasov), November 1, 1911 - March 4, 2007) is a French author, biographer, historian and novelist of Armenian descent. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... The Royal Consorts of Russia are the wifes of the Russian Monarchs. ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase the Great, or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. ... Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng Ramkhamhaeng the Great (c. ... King Naresuan the Great (1555 - April 25, 1605, also sometimes called Naret or the Black Prince, Thai สมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช) was king of Siam (today Thailand) from 1590 until his death in 1605. ... King Narai the Great (Son of Prasat Thong) (Thai: ; 1629 - July 11, 1688) became king of the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam, todays Thailand, in 1656. ... This article is about a Siamese king. ... His Majesty King Rama I of Siam (portrait in the National History Museum, Bangkok) Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke or Rama I the Great, was king of Thailand from 1782 to 1809. ... King Chulalongkorn the Great or Rama V (royal name: Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua; Thai: ) (September 20, 1853 – October 23, 1910) was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty of Thailand. ... Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ; IPA: ; Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;  ) (born Saturday,December 5, 1927 in the Year of the Rabbit), is the current King of Thailand. ... Birth name Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... King Mengrai (or Mangrai) (1239-1317) was the founder of the Lao kingdom Lannathai. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... Parâkramabâhu I (Sinhala: Maha Parâkramabâhu: Parâkramabâhu the Great; 1123–1186) was a medieval king of Sri Lanka, who ruled from the Polonnaruwa Kingdom from 1153–1186. ... Rajaraja Chola I (Tamil: ) is one of the greatest kings of the Chola Empire, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. He laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an empire, by conquering the kingdoms of southern India and the Chola Empire expanded as far as... King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ... Anawrahta (Burmese: ; IPA: ; reigned 1044-1077), also spelled Aniruddha or Anoarahtâ or Anoa-ra-htá-soa, was a ruler of the kingdom of Bagan and the first ruler of a unified Burma. ... Bayinnaung (Burmese: ; IPA: ; lit. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Alfonso III (c. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Herod the Great. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Joao I KG (Portugues: João, IPA pron. ... For the Association football club based in Portsmouth, England also known as Pompey, see Portsmouth F.C.. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store, Polish: Kanut Wielki) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and... Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the king of Castile from his fathers death in 1035 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his father-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. ... Hugh the Great (d. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Louis the Great. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... William V of Aquitaine (969-January 30, 1030), nicknamed the Great, was Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers as William II of Poitiers. ... BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled... Sancho III (c. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Cyrus redirects here. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-DÄ«n Muhammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Imam-i-Adil, Sultan ul-Islam Kaffatt ul-Anam, Amir ul-Muminin, Khalifat ul-Mutaali Abul-Fath Jalal... Darius I the Great (c. ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... “Kamehameha” redirects here. ... At different times, a ruler in Ruthenia/Kievan Rus/Muscovy/early Russia/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Ivan the Terrible redirects here. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Feodor II of Russia (Russian: Фёдор II Борисович) (1589 - July 20, 1605) was a tsar of Russia (1605) during the Time of Troubles. ... False Dimitriy I (Cyrillic Лжедмитрий; other transliterations: Dimitry, Dimitri, Dimitrii) was the Tsar of Russia from July 21, 1605 until his death on May 17, 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ioannovich (Cyrillic Димитрий Иоаннович). He was one of three impostors who claimed during the Time of Troubles to be the youngest son... Vasili IV of Russia (1552 – September 12, 1612) was the last Rurikid tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610. ... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid_17th century. ... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... Ivan V Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, September 6 [O.S. August 27] 1666 — February 8 [O.S. January 29] 1696) was a joint tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Image File history File links Russian_imperiam. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Yekaterina (Catherine) I Alexeyevna (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (born Martha Scowronska, Latvian: , later Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727) (April 5, 1684–May 6, 1727 O.S.), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Pyotr (Peter) II Alekseyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 30, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Anna Ivanovna (Russian: ) (February 7, 1693, Moscow – October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... H.I.M. 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János Batsányi by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1808 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapes) Batsányi János (May 11, 1763 - May 12, 1845) was a Hungarian poet, born in Tapolca. ... Mihály Fazekas (1766-1828) is a famous Hungarian writer from Debrecen. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Franciscus van den Enden (Antwerp ca. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (Georgian: ) (November 4, 1658 in Tandzia, Georgia; † January 26, 1725 in Moskow) was a famous Georgian prince, writer, monk and religious zealot. ... David Bagrationi (Georgian: დავით ბაგრატიონი, Davit Bagrationi) also known as David the Regent (Georgian: დავით გამგებელი, Davit Gamgebeli) (1 July 1767, Tbilisi, Georgia, - 13 May 1819, St Petersburg, Russia), a Georgia prince (batonishvili), writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18... Solomon Dodashvili (May 17, 1805-August 20, 1836) was a famous Georgian scientist and public benefactor, founder of the Georgian scientific school of Logic, founder of the Georgian professional journalistic, philosopher, historian and linguist. ... Adamantios Korais (April 27, 1748 - April 6, 1833) was a graduate of the University of Montpellier in 1788 and he spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. ... Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757—June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... // StanisÅ‚aw II August Poniatowski (born Count StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Poniatowski; January 17, 1732-February 12, 1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764-95). ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna Count Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki (generally known as... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under... Dositej Obradović Dositej (Dositheus) Dimitrije Obradović (Доситеј Обрадовић) (February 17, 1742 - 1811) was a Serbian author, writer and translator. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Rt Rev Beilby Porteus, DD, Bishop of London (May 8, 1731 _ May 13, 1809) was a leading evangelical churchman and abolitionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other persons named Robert Burns, see Robert Burns (disambiguation). ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment. ... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748 – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista Castilian and Leonese rule First County of Portugal County of Coimbra Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... For the current in the 19th century German idealism, see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...

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Catherine II - LoveToKnow 1911 (3202 words)
In 1744 she was taken to Russia, to be affianced to the grandduke Peter, the nephew of the empress Elizabeth (q.v.), and her recognized heir.
The mere fact that Catherine II., a small German princess without hereditary claim to the throne, ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 amid the loyalty of the great mass of the people, and the respect and admiration of her neighbours, is sufficient proof of the force of her character.
When Catherine found herself opposed by the policy of France and England, and threatened by the jealousy of Prussia and Austria, she dropped the Greek design, observing to Voltaire that the descendants of the Spartans were much degenerated.
Catherine the Great - MSN Encarta (2069 words)
In July 1762 Catherine and the imperial guard led by her lover Count Grigory Orlov overthrew Peter in a palace coup, and Catherine was declared empress as Catherine II.
Catherine II made her considerable mark in history by her extremely successful and expansive foreign policy as well as by her energetic and fruitful continuation of the process of Westernization in the footsteps of Peter the Great.
Catherine II was succeeded by her son, Emperor Paul I, whom she had managed to keep away from the throne for decades.
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