FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Cathedral" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Cathedral
São Paulo Cathedral, a representative modern cathedral built in Neo-Gothic style.
Procession in St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Memphis, Tennessee.
This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral. For architecture, see Main article: Cathedral architecture of Western Europe

A cathedral (Lat. cathedra, "seat") also spelled cathedrale, is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop. It is a religious building for worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Orthodox and some Lutheran churches, which serves as a bishop's seat, and thus as the central church of a diocese. [1] The word Cathedral may refer to other things, besides its main meaning. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 566 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 1266 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 566 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 1266 pixel, file size: 757 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The term Orthodox Christian refers to two Christian traditions: Oriental Orthodoxy, which separated from the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church in the 5th century; Eastern Orthodoxy, which the Roman Catholic church separated from in 1054 was the church that was started by the apostles. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


In the Greek Orthodox Church, the terms "kathedrikos naos" (literally: "cathedral shrine") and "metropolis" (literally "mother city") are used interchangeably to describe the same thing. "Metropolis" is more common, but both terms are officially used.


There are certain variations on the use of the term "cathedral"; for example, some pre-Reformation cathedrals in Scotland now within the Church of Scotland still retain the term cathedral, despite the Church's Presbyterian polity which does not have bishops. As cathedrals are often particularly impressive edifices, the term is often used incorrectly as a designation for any large important church. Reformation redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...


Several cathedrals in Europe, such as Strasbourg, and in England at York, Lincoln and Southwell, are referred to as Minster (German: Münster) churches, from Latin monasterium, because the establishments were served by canons living in community or may have been an abbey, prior to the Reformation. The other kind of great church in Western Europe is the abbey. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... There are two Southwells in England: the Town of Southwell in Nottinghamshire, and the village of Southwell in Dorset. ... In English usage a Minster is a grand type of church; the term may be extended to apply to a cathedral, such as York Minster and Southwell Minster. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ...

Contents

Definition

The chair of Bishop Broughton, first Anglican Bishop of Sydney, Australia.

The word cathedral is derived from the Latin noun "cathedra" (seat or chair), and refers to the presence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne. In the ancient world, the chair was the symbol of a teacher and thus of the bishop's role as teacher, and also of an official presiding as a magistrate and thus of the bishop's role in governing a diocese. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (775x1164, 181 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (775x1164, 181 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): St. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


The word cathedral, though now grammatically used as a noun, is originally the adjective in the phrase "cathedral church", from the Latin "ecclesia cathedralis". The seat marks the place set aside in the prominent church of the diocese for the head of that diocese and is therefore a major symbol of authority.[2]


History and organization

Designation

In the Canon law of the Catholic Church the relationship of the bishop to his cathedral is often compared to the relationship of a pastor to the parochial church. Both are pastors over an area (the diocese for the bishop and the parish for the pastor) and both are rectors over a building (the cathedral for the bishop and the parish church for the pastor). In view of this, canon lawyers often extend the metaphor and speak of the cathedral church as the one church of the diocese, and all others are deemed chapels in their relation to it. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...

The Patriarchal Cathedral of San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome.
A service conducted by the Patriarch of Venice, Angelo Scola.

Cathedral churches may have different degrees of dignity: Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 694 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 950 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) de: Patriarch Angelo Scola bei einer Meßfeier am 16. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 694 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 950 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) de: Patriarch Angelo Scola bei einer Meßfeier am 16. ... Angelo Cardinal Scola, Patriarch of Venice. ...

  1. A parish church that was formerly' a cathedral is known as a "proto-cathedral".
  2. A parish church that is temporarily serving as the cathedral or co-cathedral of a diocese is known as a "pro-cathedral".
  3. A church that serves as an additional cathedral of a diocesan bishop is known as a "co-cathedral".
  4. The church of a diocesan bishop is known as a "cathedral".
  5. A church to which other diocesan cathedral churches of a province are suffragan is a "metropolitan cathedral".
  6. A church under which are ranged metropolitical churches and their provinces is a "primatial cathedral".
  7. A church to which primatial, metropolitical, and cathedral churches alike owe allegiance is a "patriarchal cathedral".

The title of "primate" was occasionally conferred on metropolitan bishops of sees of great dignity or importance, such as Canterbury, York and Rouen, whose cathedral churches remained simply metropolitical. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... St. ... A co-cathedral is a cathedral church which shares the honor of being a bishops seat, or cathedra, with another cathedral. ... A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


Lyon, where the cathedral church is still known as La Primatiale, and Lund in Sweden, may be cited as instances of churches which were really primatial. Lyon had the archbishops of Sens and Paris and their provincial dioceses subject to it until the French Revolution, and Lund had the archbishop of Uppsala and his province subject to it. This article is about the French city. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... For other uses, see Sens (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ...


As with the title of primate, so also that of "patriarch" has been conferred on sees such as Venice and Lisbon, the cathedral churches of which are patriarchal in name alone. The Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, the cathedral church of Rome, is the only one in Western Europe which possesses a patriarchal character among Roman Catholics, since the Pope is the Patriarch of the Latin Rite church. However, in February of 2006, Pope Benedict XVI ceased the use of the title "Patriarch of the West". For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


The removal of a bishop's cathedra from a church deprives that church of its cathedral dignity, although often the name clings in common speech, as for example at Antwerp, which was deprived of its bishop at the French Revolution. Technically, such a church is a proto-cathedral. For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


Rule of the clergy

Aachen Cathedral, Germany, founded by Charlemagne in 800 AD, coronation place of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The Romanesque Cathedral of Parma, Italy, with its monastery to the right and free-standing bapistry.
The cloisters of Lipari Cathedral, Sicily.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) is a Roman catholic church in Aachen, western Germany. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1066 KB) Parma, Italia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1066 KB) Parma, Italia. ... Aerial view of the Duomo of Parma with its belfry. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 747 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 747 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

Early Middle Ages- religious communities

The history of the body of clergy attached to the cathedral church is obscure, and in each case local considerations affected its development, however the main features which were more or less common to all.


Originally the bishop and cathedral clergy formed a kind of religious community, which, while not in the true sense a monastery, was nevertheless often called a monasterium, the word not having the restricted meaning which it afterwards acquired. In this lies the reason for the apparent anomaly that churches like York Minster and Lincoln Cathedral, which never had any monks attached to them, have inherited the name of minster or monastery. In these early communities the clergy often lived apart in their own dwellings, and were not infrequently married. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... In English usage a Minster is a grand type of church; the term may be extended to apply to a cathedral, such as York Minster and Southwell Minster. ...


In the 8th century Chrodegang, bishop of Metz (743-766), compiled a code of rules for the clergy of the cathedral churches, which, though widely accepted in Germany and other parts of the continent, gained little acceptance in England. Saint Chrodegang, bishop of Metz, was born in the early eighth century at Hasbania (now Belgian Limburg) of a noble Frankish family, and died at Metz, March 6, 766. ... The (Roman Catholic) Diocese of Metz is an territorial subdivision of the catholic church in France. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


According to Chrodegang's rule, the cathedral clergy were to live under a common roof, occupy a common dormitory and submit to the authority of a special officer. The rule of Chrodegang was, in fact, a modification of the Benedictine rule. Gisa, a native of Lorraine, who was bishop of Wells from 1061 to 1088, introduced it into England, and imposed its observance on the clergy of his cathedral church, but it was not followed for long there, or elsewhere in England. For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Gisa may refer to: People: Gisa (Bishop), Gisa, Bishop of Wells from 1060 to 1088 Schools: GISA (schools), the Georgia Independent School Association Sotware Gisa (software), Integrated Management of Archive Systems (Gestão Integrada de Sistemas de Arquivo) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... For other uses, see Wells (disambiguation). ...


Late Middle Ages- monastic and secular cathedrals

During the 10th and 11th centuries, the cathedral clergy became more definitely organized, and were divided into two classes. One was that of a monastic establishment of some recognized order of monks, often the Benedictines, while the other class was that of a college of clergy, bound by no vows except those of their ordination, but governed by a code of statutes or canons. Hence the name of canon. In this way arose the distinction between the monastic and secular cathedral churches. A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


In Germany and England many of the cathedral churches were monastic. In Denmark all seem to have been Benedictine at first, except Børglum, which was Premonstratensian till the Reformation. The others were changed to churches of secular canons. In Sweden, Uppsala was originally Benedictine, but was secularized about 1250, and it was ordered that each of the cathedral churches of Sweden should have a chapter of at least fifteen secular canons. Børglum or Börglum, sometimes simply spelled Borglum, is a town in Denmark. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem) and in England, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... Reformation redirects here. ...


In Medieval France monastic chapters were very common, but nearly all the monastic cathedral churches were changed to churches of secular canons before the 17th century. One of the latest to be so changed was that of Seez, in Normandy, which was Augustinian till 1547, when Pope Paul III dispensed the members from their vows, and constituted them a chapter of secular canons. The chapter of Senez was monastic till 1647, and others perhaps even later, but the majority were secularized about the time of the Reformation. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ...


In the case of monastic cathedral churches, the internal government was that of the religious order to which the chapter belonged, and all the members kept perpetual residence.


The alternative of this was the cathedral ruled by a secular chapter; the dignities of provost, dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, etc., came into being for the regulation and good order of the church and its services, while the non-residence of the canons, rather than their perpetual residence, became the rule, and led to their duties being performed by a body of "vicars", who officiated for them at the services of the church.


History of Cathedrals in Britain

Durham Cathedral was under Benedictine rule.
The ruins of the medieval Bishop's Palace at Lincoln, which was ruled by secular canons
Wells, a rare example in England of management (briefly) by a Provost.
The Chapter House at Lincoln Cathedral.
Main article: Historical development of Church of England dioceses

The history of the cathedrals in Britain differs somewhat from that on the European continent. Cathedrals have always been fewer than in Italy, France and other parts of Europe, while the buildings themselves tend to be very large. While France, at the time of the French Revolution had 136 cathedrals, England had 27. Because of a ruling that no cathedral could be built in a village, any town in which a cathedral was located was elevated to city status, regardless of its size. To this day several large English Cathedrals are located in small "cathedral cities", notably Wells and Ely Cathedrals, both of which rank among the greatest works of English Medieval Architecture. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1552 × 1164 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Durham Cathedral (Durham, England) own work; photo taken on 28 May 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1552 × 1164 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Durham Cathedral (Durham, England) own work; photo taken on 28 May 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 382 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The west front, completed c. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... This page traces the history of the dioceses and cathedrals of the Church of England. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The west front, completed c. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ...


Early organisation

In earlier times, populations were sparsely spread and towns were few. The total population of Britain in the 11th century is estimated at between 1 and 2 million, with Lincolnshire, East Anglia and East Kent the most densely populated areas with more than 10 people per square mile, while northern England, Dartmoor and the Welsh Marches had less than three people per square mile. This is because many villages had been razed by the conquest armies.[3] Instead of exercising jurisdiction over definite areas, many of the bishops were bishops of tribes or peoples, as the bishops of the south Saxons, the West Saxons, the Somersætas, etc. The cathedra of such a bishop was often migratory. For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...


In 1075 a council was held in London, under the presidency of Archbishop Lanfranc, which, reciting the decrees of the council of Sardica held in 347 and that of Laodicea held in 360 on this matter, ordered the bishop of the south Saxons to remove his see from Selsey to Chichester; the Wiltshire and Dorset bishop to remove his cathedra from Sherborne to Old Sarum, and the Mercian bishop, whose cathedral was then at Lichfield, to transfer it to Chester. Traces of the tribal and migratory system may still be noted in the designations of the Irish see of Meath (where the result has been that there is now no cathedral church) and Ossory, the cathedral church of which is at Kilkenny. Some of the Scottish sees were also migratory. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Lanfranc (d. ... The history of Sofia, Bulgarias capital and largest city, spans thousands of years from Antiquity to modern times, in which the city has always been a commercial, industrial, cultural and economic centre of its region and the Balkans. ... The Council of Laodicea was a regional synod of approximately 30 clerics from Anatolia, (now modern Turkey). ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Selsey is an English seaside town, about 7 miles (11 kilometres) south of Chichester, West Sussex. ... For the larger local government district, see Chichester (district). ... Not to be confused with Wilshire. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Woodcut of Old Sarum as it was during its height Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, England, with evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. It sits on a hill about two miles (3km) north of modern Salisbury on the west side of... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... This article is about Chester in England. ... Meath (An Mhí in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, the county is often informally called The Royal County. ... Ossory, also spelt Osraighe, is an ancient kingdom of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ...


Late Middle Ages

Between 1075 and the 15th century, the cathedrals of England were almost evenly divided between those ruled by secular canons headed by a dean and those ruled by monastic orders headed by a prior, all of which were Benedictine except Carlisle. Two cathedrals, Bath and Coventry, shared their sees with Wells and Lichfield, respectively.


Reformation

The entire structure of the monastic and cathedral system was overthrown and reconstituted during the Reformation. Cathedrals which were once Roman Catholic came under the governance of the Church of England. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


All the English monastic cathedral chapters were dissolved by Henry VIII and, with the exceptions of Bath and Coventry, were refounded by him as churches of secular chapters, with a dean as the head, and a certain number of canons ranging from twelve at Canterbury and Durham to four at Carlisle, and with certain subordinate officers as minor canons, gospellers, epistolers, etc. The precentorship in these churches of the "New Foundation", as they are called, is not, as in the secular churches of the "Old Foundation", a dignity, but is merely an office held by one of the minor canons. For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... The roofless ruins of the old cathedral. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Henry VIII also created six new cathedrals from old monastic establishments, in each case governed by secular canons. Of these, Westminster did not retain its cathedral status. Four more of England's large historic churches were later to become cathedrals, Southwell, Southwark, Ripon and St. Albans Abbey.


Roles within the cathedral

Provost

In most of Europe, the earliest head of a secular church seems to have been the provost (praepositus, Probst, etc.), who was charged not only with the internal regulation of the church, and oversight of the members of the chapter and control of the services, but was also the steward or seneschal of the lands and possessions of the church. The latter often mainly engaged his attention, to the neglect of his domestic and ecclesiastical duties, and complaints were soon raised that the provost was too much mixed in worldly affairs, and was too frequently absent from his spiritual duties. This led, in many cases, to the institution of a new officer called the "dean", who had charge of that portion of the provost's duties which related to the internal discipline of the chapter and the services of the church. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In some cases, the office of provost was abolished, but in others it was continued: the provost, who was occasionally archdeacon as well, remaining head of the chapter. This arrangement was most commonly followed in Germany. In England the provost was almost unknown. Bishop Gisa introduced a provost as head of the chapter of Wells, but the office was afterwards subordinated to the other dignities, and the provost became simply the steward of certain of the prebendal lands. The provost of the collegiate church of Beverley was the most notable instance of such an officer in England, but at Beverley he was an external officer with authority in the government of the church, no stall in the choir and no vote in chapter. The west front, completed c. ...


In Germany and in Scandinavia, and in a few of the cathedral churches in the south of France, the provost was the ordinary head of the cathedral chapter, but the office was not common elsewhere. As regards France, of one hundred and thirty six cathedral churches existing at the Revolution, thirty-eight only, and those either on the borders of Germany or in the extreme south, had a provost as the head of the chapter. In others the provost existed as a subordinate officer. There were two provosts at Autun, and Lyons and Chartres had four each, all as subordinate officers. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ...


The Secular Chapter

Tourists visiting the interior of St. Stephen's, Vienna.
The Norman crypt at Canterbury.
Evensong at York Minster.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Chihuahua, Mexico, in the Spanish Baroque style.
After a service at Ss. Peter and Paul Cathedral, Sri Lanka.

The normal constitution of the chapter of a secular cathedral church comprised four dignitaries (there might be more), in addition to the canons. These are the Dean, the Precentor, the Chancellor and the Treasurer. These four dignitaries, occupying the four corner stalls in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the quatuor majores personae of the church. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Much of the original Byzantine interior remains intact. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 691 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 691 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (981 × 682 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by me in 1992 with Canon T80 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (981 × 682 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by me in 1992 with Canon T80 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 722 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Dean

The dean (decanus) seems to have derived his designation from the Benedictine "dean" who had ten monks under his charge. The dean came into existence to supply the place of the provost in the internal management of the church and chapter. In England every secular cathedral church was headed by a dean who was originally elected by the chapter and confirmed in office by the bishop. The dean is president of the chapter, and with the in cathedral has charge of the performance of the services, taking specified portions of them by statute on the principal festivals. He sits in the chief stall in the choir, which is usually the first on the right hand on entering the choir at the west. The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ...


Precentor

Next to the dean (as a rule) is the precentor (primicerius, cantor, etc.), whose special duty is that of regulating the musical portion of the services. He presides in the dean's absence, and occupies the corresponding stall on the left side, although there are exceptions to this rule, where, as at St Paul's, the archdeacon of the cathedral city ranks second and occupies what is usually the precentor's stall. St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


Chancellor

The third dignitary is the chancellor (scholasticus, écoldtre, capiscol, magistral, etc.), who must not be confounded with the chancellor of the diocese. The chancellor of the cathedral church is charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read divinity lectures, and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly readers. He is often the secretary and librarian of the chapter. In the absence of the dean and precentor he is president of the chapter. The easternmost stall, on the dean's side of the choir, is usually assigned to him.


Treasurer

The fourth dignitary is the treasurer (custos, sacrisla, cheficier). He is guardian of the fabric, and of all the furniture and ornaments of the church, and his duty was to provide bread and wine for the Eucharist, and candles and incense, and he regulated such matters as the ringing of the bells. The treasurer's stall is opposite to that of the chancellor. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Additional clergy

In many cathedral churches are additional dignitaries, as the praelector, subdean, vice-chancellor, succentor-canonicorum, and others, whose roles came into existence to supply the places of the other absent dignitaries, for non-residence was the fatal blot of the secular churches, and in this they contrasted very badly with the monastic churches, where all the members were in continuous residence. Besides the dignitaries there were the ordinary canons, each of whom, as a rule, held a separate prebend or endowment, besides receiving his share of the common funds of the church.


For the most part the canons also speedily became non-resident, and this led to the distinction of residentiary and non-residentiary canons, till in most churches the number of resident canons became definitely limited in number, and the non-residentiary canons, who no longer shared in the common funds, became generally known as prebendaries only, although by their non-residence they did not forfeit their position as canons, and retained their votes in chapter like the others.


This system of non-residence led also to the institution of vicars choral, each canon having his own vicar, who sat in his stall in his absence, and when the canon was present, in the stall immediately below, on the second form. The vicars had no place or vote in chapter, and, though irremovable except for offences, were the servants of their absent canons whose stalls they occupied, and whose duties they performed. Outside Britain they were often called demi-prebendaries, and they formed the bachcrur of the French churches. As time went on the vicars were themselves often incorporated as a kind of lesser chapter, or college, under the supervision of the dean and chapter.


Relationship of chapter and bishop

There was no distinction between the monastic cathedral chapters and those of the secular canons, in their relation to the bishop or diocese. In both cases the chapter was the bishop's consilium which he was bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could not act. Thus, a judicial decision of a bishop needed the confirmation of the chapter before it could be enforced. He could not change the service books, or "use" of the church or diocese, without capitular consent, and there are episcopal acts, such as the appointment of a diocesan chancellor, or vicar general, which still need confirmation by the chapter, but the older theory of the chapter as the bishop's council in ruling the diocese has become a thing of the past, in Europe.


In its corporate capacity the chapter takes charge sede vacante of a diocese. In England, however (except as regards Salisbury and Durham), this custom has never obtained, the two archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant dioceses in their respective provinces. When, however, either of the sees of Canterbury or York is vacant the chapters of those churches take charge, not only of the diocese, but of the province as well, and incidentally, therefore, of any of the dioceses of the province which may be vacant at the same time. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city...


Functions of cathedral

Stavanger Cathedral (Lutheran), Norway, surrounded by a garden.
Stavanger Cathedral (Lutheran), Norway, surrounded by a garden.
Cobh Cathedral, Ireland, rises up above the town.
Cobh Cathedral, Ireland, rises up above the town.
Santiago de Compostela, a pilgrimage destination.
Santiago de Compostela, a pilgrimage destination.
The cathedral at Pisa, a major tourist destination.
The cathedral at Pisa, a major tourist destination.
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, with the Sagrario Metropolitano slightly to the right.
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, with the Sagrario Metropolitano slightly to the right.

The role of the cathedral is chiefly to serve God in the community, through its hierarchical and organisational position in the church structure. A cathedral, its bishop and dignatories have traditional functions which are mostly religious in nature, but may also be closely associated with the civil and communal life of the city and region. The formal cathedral services are linked to the cycle of the year and respond to the seasons of the Northern Hemisphere. The cathedral marks times of national and local civic celebration and sadness with special services. The funerals of those famous within the community are invariably held at cathedrals. Some cathedrals, such as Aachen and Rheims are the traditional coronation places of monarchs. The bells of a cathedral are traditionally used signal the outbreak and the ending of war. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Stavanger Cathedral The Stavanger Cathedral (Stavanger domkirke) is Norways oldest cathedral. ... Image File history File links Sancristobalcathedral. ... Image File history File links Sancristobalcathedral. ... The Catedral de San Cristóbal de La Habana (Cathedral of Saint Christopher of Havana) is the seat of Jaime Cardinal Ortega, the Archbishop of Havana, Cuba. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cathedral of St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 2. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) par Elisabeth Naldera de Cassar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) par Elisabeth Naldera de Cassar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy ( ), recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Catedral_de_México. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Catedral_de_México. ... The Catedral Metropolitana, is the oldest in the American continent. ...


The Cathedral building

Although a cathedral may be amongst the grandest of churches in the diocese (and country), especially those dating from Medieval and Renaissance times, size and grandeur have never been requirements and (especially in modern times, where functionality is the foremost consideration) a cathedral church may be a modest structure. Early Celtic and Saxon cathedrals, for example, tended to be of diminutive size, as is the Byzantine so-called Little Metropole Cathedral of Athens. Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... This article is about the European people. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


The plan of a cathedral generally takes the form of a cross which has both symbolic meaning and is functional in terms of church worship, allowing space for clergy, choir, chapels, processions a pipe organ and other activities and objects associated with cathedral tradition.


A cathedral, in common with other Christian churches has an altar or table upon which the Eucharist is laid, a lectern for reading the Bible and a pulpit from which the sermon is traditionally preached. Cathedrals also have a baptismal font for the traditional rite of washing that marks the acceptance of a new Christian, (most usually an infant) into the Church. Particularly in Italy, baptism may take place in a separate building for that purpose. Within the church, an area, usually to the eastern end, is set aside for the ceremonial seats of the dignatories of the church, as well as the choir. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Lectern in Seattle First Methodist Church. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Cathedrals of monastic foundation, and some of secular clergy have square cloisters which traditionally provided an open area where secular activities took place protected from wind and rain. Some cathedrals also have a chapter house where the chapter could meet. In England, where these buildings have survived, they are often octagonal. A cathedral may front onto the main square of a town, as in Florence, or it may be set in a walled close as at Canterbury. There may be a number of associated monastic or clergy buildings, a bishop's palace and often a school to educate the choristers. For the Princeton University eating club, see Cloister Inn. ... A chapter house is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...


Artworks, treasures and tourism

Many cathedral buildings are very famous for their architecture and have local and national significance, both artistically and historically. Many are listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Cathedrals, because of their large size and the fact that they often have towers, spires or domes, have until the 20th century, been the major landmarks in cities or in views across the countryside. With highrise building, civil action has been taken in some cases, such as the Cologne Cathedral to prevent the vista of the cathedral from being spoiled. The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ...


Because many cathedrals took centuries to build and decorate, they constitute a major artistic investment for the city in which they stand. Not only may the building itself be architecturally significant, but the church often houses treasures such as stained glass, stone and wood statues, historic tombs, richly carved furniture and object of both artistic and religious significance such as reliquaries. Moreover, the cathedral often plays a major role in telling the story of the town, through its plaques, inscriptions, tombs, stained glass and paintings.


For these reason, tourists have travelled to cathedrals for hundred of years. Many cathedrals cater for tourists by charging a fee to any visitors outside service times or requesting a donation or making a charge to take photos. Cathedrals that are particularly popular tourist venues sometimes provide guides, leaflets, souvenirs and cafes.


See also

This is a list of cathedrals around the world, including both actual cathedrals (seats of bishops in episcopal denominations, such as Catholicism, Anglicanism, and Orthodoxy) and a few prominent churches from non-episcopal denominations that have the word cathedral in their names. ... Cologne Cathedral, Germany, bearing the tallest paired spires in the world. ... Durham Cathedral, above the River Wear. ... This page traces the history of the dioceses and cathedrals of the Church of England. ... Amiens floorplan: massive piers support the west end towers; transepts are abbreviated; seven radiating chapels form the chevet reached from the ambulatory This article discusses cathedral diagrams. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The duomo of Milan. ... In English usage a Minster is a grand type of church; the term may be extended to apply to a cathedral, such as York Minster and Southwell Minster. ... There are a number of factors to be considered in determining which churches are the largest - total square footage, cubic footage, seating capacity, surface area, height, and others. ... Until the advent of the skyscraper, Christian churches were some of the tallest buildings in the world. ... St Peters nave. ... Lichfield Cathedral Lichfield Cathedral is situated in the cathedral city of Lichfield. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ New Standard Encyclopedia, 1992 by Standard Educational Corporation, Chicago, Illinois; page B-262c
  2. ^ New Standard Encyclopedia, 1992 by Standard Educational Corporation, Chicago, Illinois; page C-172/3
  3. ^ http://www.domesdaybook.co.uk/life.html#6 The Doomsday Book

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winchester Cathedral - Welcome - # (183 words)
Winchester Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Diocese of Winchester, which is part of the Church of England.
All are welcome to come to the Cathedral as visitors or pilgrims, which is normally open from 8.30am to 6.00pm every day (5.30pm on Sundays).
Services and Events may cause certain areas to be closed at times, so you are encouraged to enquire if you are making a special visit.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cathedral (2835 words)
cathedral are assessed proportionately to the amount of their income; an assessment may then be levied upon the diocesan clergy, and finally an ecclesiastical tax may be imposed upon the faithful.
cathedral is held to be property of the State or city, in which case, if either has pledged itself to care for the building, the responsibility of the bishop or clergy ensues only in default of the former (Permaneder-Riedl, Die kirchliche Baulast, Munich, 1890).
cathedral belongs conjointly to the bishop and the
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m