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Encyclopedia > Caterina Sforza
Caterina Sforza
Caterina Sforza

Caterina Sforza (1463May 10, 1509), countess of Forli, was an illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Image File history File links Caterina_Sforza. ... Image File history File links Caterina_Sforza. ... Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forlì (44°13′ N 12°02′ E)is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Galeazzo Maria Sforza (January 24, 1444 – December 26, 1476) was Duke of Milan. ...


In 1473 she was betrothed to Girolamo Riario, a nephew (though rumors persisted that he was a son) of Pope Sixtus IV, who was thus able to regain possession of Imola, that city being made a fief of the Riario family. After a triumphal entry into Imola in 1477 Caterina Sforza went to Rome with her husband, who, with the help of the pope, wrested the lordship of Forli from the Ordelaffi. Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Girolamo Riario (Savona 1443 - Forlí 1488), Lord of Imola and Forlì. The Pazzi conspiracy in Florence, 1478, had him as intended beneficiary, once Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici had been assassinated. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... Imola (1991 pop. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Forlì (44°13′ N 12°02′ E)is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Forlì, 44°13′ N 12°02′ E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, the seat of the province of Forlì. Its 110,209 inhabitants are Forlivesi, because in Antiquity it was called Forum Livii: the legend that would make its founder the consul Livius Salinator, who confronted...


Riario, by means of many crimes, for which his wife seems to have blamed him, succeeded in accumulating great wealth, and on the death of Sixtus in August 1484, he sent Caterina to Rome to occupy the castle of St Angelo, which she defended gallantly until, on October 25, she surrendered it by his order to the Sacred College. They then returned to their fiefs of Imola and Forli, where they tried to win the favour of the people by erecting magnificent public buildings and churches and by abolishing taxes; but want of money obliged them to levy the taxes once more, which caused dissatisfaction. ß Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ...


Riario's enemies conspired against him with a view to making Franceschetto Cybo, nephew of Pope Innocent VIII, lord of Imola and Forli in his stead. Riario thereupon instituted a system of persecution, in which Caterina was implicated, against all whom he suspected of treachery. In 1488 he was murdered by three conspirators, his palace was sacked, and his wife and children were taken prisoner. The chiefs of conspiration were the members of the Orsi, a noble family of Forlì. Innocent VIII, né Giovanni Battista Cibo (1432 – July 25, 1492), Pope from 1484 until his death, was born at Genoa, and was the son of Aran Cibo who under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58) had been a senator at Rome. ... Forlì, 44°13′N 12°02′E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (at Predappio). ...


The castle of Forli, however, held out in Caterina's interest, and every inducement and threat to make her order its surrender proved useless; having managed to escape from her captors she penetrated into the castle, whence she threatened to bombard the city, refusing to come to terms even when the besiegers threatened to murder her children. With the assistance of Lodovico il Moro she was able to defeat her enemies and to regain possession of all her dominions; she wreaked vengeance on those who had opposed her and re-established her power. Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, The Moor) (July 27, 1452–May 27, 1508), a member of the Sforza dynasty of Milan, Italy, was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists. ...


Being now a widow she had several lovers, and by one of them, Giacomo Feo, whom she afterwards married, she had a son. Feo, who made himself hated for his cruelty and insolence, was murdered before the eyes of his wife in August 1495; Caterina had all the conspirators and their families, including the women and children, massacred. She established friendly relations with the new pope, Alexander VI, and with the Florentines, whose ambassador, Giovanni de' Medici, she secretly married in 1496. Giovanni died in 1498, but Caterina managed with the aid of Lodovico il Moro and of the Florentines to save her dominions from the attacks of the Venetians. Alexander VI, (Roderic Borja; often referred to in English by the Italian form Rodrigo Borgia; January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503) Pope from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular Popes of the Renaissance, whose surname became a byword for low standards in the papacy of that... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... There were four Medici known as Giovanni de Medici: Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (1360-1429) (founder of the Medici dynasty) Giovanni di Cosimo de Medici (1421-1463) (second son of Cosimo the Elder) Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (1475-1521) (Pope Leo X) Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, son of... Venetian could mean of Venice of the venetia territory of the Republic of Venice of the venet nation the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ...


Pope Alexander VI, however, angered at her refusal to agree to a union between his daughter Lucrezia Borgia and her son Ottaviano, and coveting her territories as well as the rest of Romagna for his son Cesare, issued a bull on March 9, 1499, declaring that the house of Riario had forfeited the lordship of Imola and Forli and conferring those fiefs on Cesare Borgia. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cesare Borgia Cesare Borgia (September 18, 1475 – March 12, 1507), Duke of Valentinois, and Romagna, Prince of Andria and Venafri, Count of Dyois, Lord of Piombino, Camerino and Urbino, Gonfalonier and Captain-General of Holy Church the son of Rodrigo Borgia, the future Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattani. ...


The latter began his campaign of conquest with Caterina Sforza's dominions and attacked her with his whole army, reinforced by 14,000 French troops and by Louis XII. Caterina placed her children in safety and took strenuous measures for defense. The castle of Imola was held by her henchman Dionigi Naldi of Brisighella, until resistance being no longer possible he surrendered (December 1499) with the honours of war. Caterina absolved the citizens of Forli from their oath of fealty, and defended herself in the citadel. She repeatedly beat back the Borgia's onslaughts and refused all his offers of peace. Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515) was King of France 1498 – January 1, 1515. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Finally when the situation had become untenable and having in vain given orders for the magazine to be blown up, she surrendered, after a battle in which large numbers were killed on both sides, to Antoine Bissey, bailli of Dijon, entrusting herself to the honour of France (January 12, 1500). Thus her life was spared, but she was not saved from the outrages of the treacherous Cesare; she was afterwards taken to Rome and held a prisoner for a year in the castle of St Angelo, whence she was liberated by the same bailli of Dijon to whom she had surrendered at Forli. A Bailiff in a United States courtroom Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian; cf. ... Location within France Street in the centre of Dijon Arc de triomphe known as the Porte Guillaume, on Place Darcy in the centre of Dijon Dijon and suburbs Dijon ( ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ...


She took refuge in Florence to escape from persecution from the Borgias, and the power of that sinister family having collapsed on the death of Alexander VI in 1503, she attempted to regain possession of her dominions. In this she failed owing to the hostility of her brothers-in-law, Pierfrancesco and Lorenzo de' Medici, and as they wished to get her son Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Giovanni dalle Bande Nere) into their hands, she took refuge with him in the convent of Annalena, where she remained till her death. Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... It has been suggested that List of Borgias be merged into this article or section. ... Lorenzo de Medici Lorenzo di Piero de Medici (January 1, 1449, Florence – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. ... There were four Medici known as Giovanni de Medici: Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (1360-1429) (founder of the Medici dynasty) Giovanni di Cosimo de Medici (1421-1463) (second son of Cosimo the Elder) Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (1475-1521) (Pope Leo X) Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, son of... Portrait of Giovanni by Gian Paolo Pace, now housed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. ...


Her portrait by Lorenzo di Credi is now in the Museum of Forlì, in Italy and is known also as "La dama dei gelsomini". [1] Lorenzo di Credi (1459-1537) was a Florentine painter and sculptor. ... Forlì, 44°13′N 12°02′E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (at Predappio). ...


In her book The Warrior Queens: Boadicea's Chariot, British historian Antonia Fraser presents Caterina Sforza as a contrasting figure to her contemporary Isabella of Castile. Fraser points out that whilst the murders ordered by Caterina were no worse than the massacres ordered by Isabella, historians have been much harsher in their judgement of the former. Fraser accounts for this fact by pointing out that Isabella's actions were spiritually sanctioned, carried out in the name of Catholicism, whilst Caterina's were motivated by the personal, secular desire to preserve her property and rights. Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was queen of Castile and Aragon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholic Church. ...


A fictionalised version of Caterina Sforza appears in the 2006 film Los Borgia, played by Paz Vega. Vega on the poster for Lucía y el sexo Paz Vega, real name Paz Campos Trigo (born January 2, 1976, in Seville, Andalucía), is a Spanish actress. ...


Sources

  • Buriel, Vita di Caterina Sforza-Riario (Bologna, 1785)
  • F Oliva, Vita di C. Sforza, signora di Forli (Forli, 1821)
  • Pietro Desiderio Pesolini Dall' Onda, Caterina Sforza (Rome, 1893), English translation by P Sylvester (1898). This is the best and most complete work on the subject
  • EM de Vogue, Histoire et poesie (Paris, 1898)
  • Ernesto Masi, "C. Sforza," in the Nuova Antologia for May 1 and May 15, 1893.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caterina Sforza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (929 words)
Caterina Sforza (1463–May 10, 1509), countess of Forli, was an illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza.
The latter began his campaign of conquest with Caterina Sforza's dominions and attacked her with his whole army, reinforced by 14,000 French troops and by Louis XII.
Caterina absolved the citizens of Forli from their oath of fealty, and defended herself in the citadel.
House of Sforza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (338 words)
Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.
The dynasty was founded by Muzio Attendolo, called Sforza ("Strong") (Cotignola, 1369 - near Pescara, 1424) a condottiere from the Romagna serving the Angevin kings of Naples.
His son Francesco Sforza ruled Milan for the first half of the Renaissance era, acquiring the title of Duke of Milan from the extinct Visconti family in 1447.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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