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Encyclopedia > Categorization

For Wikipedia's categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization.

Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognised, differentiated and understood. Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in decision making and in all kinds of interaction with the environment. There are, however, different ways of approaching categorization. As Thought Process During the process of thinking, recognition occurs when some event, process, pattern, or object recurs. ... Difference is the contrary of equality, in particular of objects. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, a finitary relation is defined by one of the formal definitions given below. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with epistemology. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ...

## The Classical View GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

Main article: Categories (Aristotle)

The classical Aristotelian view claims that categories are discrete entities characterized by a set of properties which are shared by their members. These are assumed to establish the conditions which are both necessary and sufficient to capture meaning. Categories (or Categoriae) is a text from Aristotles Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of thing which can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... A property of an object is some intrinsic or extrinsic quality of that object, where the nature of the object in question will depend on the field, as, for example, indicated below. ... In logic, the words necessary and sufficient describe relations that hold between propositions or states of affairs, if one is conditional on the other. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

According to the classical view, categories should be clearly defined, mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. This way, any entity of the given classification universe belongs unequivocally to one, and only one, of the proposed categories.

## Cognitive science: Prototype Theory

Main article: Prototype Theory

Since the research by Eleanor Rosch and George Lakoff in the 1970s, categorization can also be viewed as the process of grouping things based on prototypes - the idea of necessary and sufficient conditions is almost never met in categories of naturally occurring things. It has also been suggested that categorisation based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment. Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where all members of a category do not have equal status. ... Eleanor Rosch is a professor of psychology at The University of California, Berkeley. ... George P. Lakoff (, born 1941) is a professor of linguistics (in particular, cognitive linguistics) at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1972. ... In education and psychology, learning theories help us understand the process of learning. ... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ...

A cognitive approach accepts that natural categories are graded (they tend to be fuzzy at their boundaries) and inconsistent in the status of their constituent members. Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ...

Systems of categories are not objectively "out there" in the world but are rooted in people's experience. Conceptual categories are not identical for different cultures, or indeed, for every individual in the same culture.

Categories form part of a hierarchical structure when applied to such subjects as taxonomy in biological classification: higher level: life-form level, middle level: generic or genus level, and lower level: the species level. These can be distinguished by certain traits that put an item in its distinctive category. But even these can be arbitrary and are subject to revision. Taxonomy (from Greek verb tassein = to classify and nomos = law, science, cf economy) may refer to: the science of classifying living things (see alpha taxonomy) a system of classification in some other field Taxonomy was once only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ...

Categories at the middle level are perceptually and conceptually the more salient. The generic level of a category tends to elicit the most responses and richest images and seems to be the psychologically basic level. Typical taxonomies in zoology for example exhibit categorisation at the embodied level, with similarities leading to formulation of "higher" categories, and differences leading to differentiation within categories. Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ...

In the main, semantics (from the Greek and in greek letters ÏƒÎ·Î¼Î±Î½Ï„Î¹ÎºÏŒÏ‚ or in latin letters semantikÃ³s, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... The Symbol Grounding Problem is related to the problem of how words get their meanings, and of what meanings are. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Categorization - Meta (623 words) There are several proposals for how to do categorization in Wikimedia sites (and, by extension, for other MediaWiki sites). See Categorization requirements for some abstract requirements for categorization in MediaWiki. Magnus Manske did an automated categorization tool using a "Category:" pseudo-namespace.
 Test Categorization Techniques with TestNG (747 words) TestNG is an annotation-based testing framework, which draws on some of the shortcomings of JUnit by adding features such as flexible fixtures, test categorization, parametric testing, and dependent methods, to name a few. Plus, the aggregate time to execute a test suite has the tendency to lengthen when there are extensive set-up steps, such as configuring a database or deploying an EAR file, to name a few. Categorizing tests, however, requires that we define specific categories, which means refining the generic term unit tests.
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