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Encyclopedia > Catecholamine
tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines
Synthesis

Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. Some of them are biogenic amines. Catecholamines are water soluble and are 50% bound to plasma proteins, so they circulate in the bloodstream. The most abundant catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine, all of which are produced by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Tyrosine is created from phenylalanine by hydroxylation thanks to the enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase (tyrosine is also ingested directly from dietary protein). Tyrosine is then sent to catecholamine secreting neurons. Here many kinds of reactions convert it to dopamine, to norepinephrine and epinephrine eventually.[1] Catecholamines as hormones are released by the adrenal glands in situations of stress such as psychological stress or low blood sugar levels[2]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1643, 30 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Amino acid Tyrosine User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1643, 30 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Amino acid Tyrosine User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Image File history File links Adrenaline. ... Image File history File links Adrenaline. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Image File history File links Norepinephrine_structure. ... Image File history File links Norepinephrine_structure. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Dopamine structural diagram Created by Maxim Iorsh with xymtex documentclass{letter} usepackage{epic,carom,hetarom} pagestyle{empty} begin{document} begin{picture}(1200,1500) put(0,0){bzdrv{5==HO;6==HO}} put(340,0){sixunitv{}{2==NH$_2$}{bcde}} end{picture} end{document} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Dopamine structural diagram Created by Maxim Iorsh with xymtex documentclass{letter} usepackage{epic,carom,hetarom} pagestyle{empty} begin{document} begin{picture}(1200,1500) put(0,0){bzdrv{5==HO;6==HO}} put(340,0){sixunitv{}{2==NH$_2$}{bcde}} end{picture} end{document} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Biosynthese_Adrenalin. ... Image File history File links Biosynthese_Adrenalin. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Catechol, also benzene-1,2-diol, is a phenol, with formula C6H4(OH)2. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with an amine group. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | EC 1. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1929. ... Hypoglycemia is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced and usually defined by a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ...

Contents

Production

Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. Dopamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is largely produced in neuronal cell bodies in two areas of the brainstem: the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Epinephrine Norepinephrine Adrenal gland. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... In vertebrate anatomy, a ganglion is a tissue mass that contains the dendrites and cell bodies (or somas) of nerve cells, in most case ones belonging to the peripheral nervous system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... The ventral tegmentum or the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is part of the midbrain, lying close to the substantia nigra and the red nucleus. ...


Function

Modality

Two catecholamines, norepinephrine and dopamine, act as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system and as hormones in the blood circulation. The catecholamine norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system but is also present in the blood (mostly through "spillover" from the synapses of the sympathetic system). Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ...


High catecholamine levels in blood are associated with stress, which can be induced from psychological reactions or environmental stressors such as elevated sound levels, intense light, or low blood sugar levels. In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ...


Extremely high levels of catecholamine (also known as catecholamine toxicity) can occur in CNS trauma due to stimulation and/or damage of nuclei in the brainstem, particularly those nuclei affecting the sympathetic nervous system. In emergency medicine, this occurrence is widely known as catecholamine dump. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... In neuroanatomy, a nucleus is a central nervous system structure that is composed mainly of gray matter, and which acts as a hub or transit point for electrical signals in a single neural subsystem. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Effects

Catecholamines cause general physiological changes that prepare the body for physical activity (fight-or-flight response). Some typical effects are increases in heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and a general reaction of the sympathetic nervous system. Some drugs, like tolcapone (a central COMT-inhibitor), raise the levels of all the catecholamines. The fight-or-flight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1929. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Tolcapone, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy. ... Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (EC 2. ...


Structure

Catecholamines have the distinct structure of a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups, an intermediate ethyl chain and a terminal amine group. Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Ethyl is a two-carbon substituent in organic chemistry. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ...


Degradation

They have a half-life of approximately a few minutes when circulating in the blood.


Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is the main enzyme responsible for degradation of catecholamines. Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ...


Methamphetamine and MAOIs bind to MAOs to inhibit their action of breaking down catecholamines. This is primarily the reason why the effects of amphetamines last longer than cocaine and other substances. Amphetamines not only causes a release of dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the blood stream, but also keeps it working there for a long time. This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


See also

Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (EC 2. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Julius Axelrod won a Nobel Prize in 1970 Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an influential American biochemist. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. ... Vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) is a chemical end product of catecholamine metabolism. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Hypoglycemia" by Ronald Hoffman, M.D., July 1999, The Holistic M.D.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Catecholamines: Test Sample (771 words)
Catecholamines are a group of similar hormones produced in the medulla (central portion) of the adrenal glands.
The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine.
Normally, catecholamines and their metabolites are present in the body in small, fluctuating amounts that only increase appreciably during and shortly after a bout of stress.
Catecholamine Synthesis is Mediated by Tyrosinase in the Absence of Tyrosine Hydroxylase -- Rios et al. 19 (9): 3519 -- ... (5342 words)
Catecholamine Synthesis is Mediated by Tyrosinase in the Absence of Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Catecholamine neurotransmitters are synthesized by hydroxylation of tyrosine to
Catecholamine histofluorescence in the peripheral and CNS of pigmented postnatal TH-null mice
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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