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Encyclopedia > Catalase
Catalase
Identifiers
Symbol cat
Pfam PF00199
InterPro IPR011614
PROSITE PDOC00395
SCOP 7cat
Catalase
PDB rendering based on 1dgb.
Available structures: 1dgb, 1dgf, 1dgg, 1dgh, 1f4j, 1qqw, 1tgu, 1th2, 1th3, 1th4, 4blc, 7cat, 8cat
Identifiers
Symbol(s) CAT; MGC138422; MGC138424
External IDs OMIM: 115500 MGI: 88271 Homologene: 55514
EC number 1.11.1.6
RNA expression pattern

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Pfam database stores protein sequence alignments and represents these by Hidden Markov Models. ... InterPro is a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to unknown protein sequences. ... The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a largely manual classification of proteins based on similarities which can be observed in their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Look up Hugo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) website is run by The Jackson Laboratory. ... HomoloGene[1], a tool of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[2], is a system for automated detection of homologs (similarity attributable to descent from a common ancestor) among the annotated genes of several completely sequenced eukaryotic genomes. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... The Gene Ontology, or GO, project can be broadly split into two parts. ...



More reference expression data

Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 847 12359
Ensembl ENSG00000121691 ENSMUSG00000027187
Uniprot P04040 Q3TVZ1
Refseq NM_001752 (mRNA)
NP_001743 (protein)
NM_009804 (mRNA)
NP_033934 (protein)
Location Chr 11: 34.42 - 34.45 Mb Chr 2: 103.25 - 103.29 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. Its functions include catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.[1] Catalase has one of the highest turnover rates of all enzymes; one molecule of catalase can convert millions of molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen per second.[2] The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Ensembl is a bioinformatics research project aiming to develop a software system which produces and maintains automatic annotation on selected eukaryotic genomes. It is run in a collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the European Bioinformatics Institute, an outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. ... UniProt is the universal protein database, a central repository of protein data created by combining Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and PIR. This makes it the worlds most comprehensive resource on protein information. ... Medline is a comprehensive literature database of life sciences and biomedical information. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Catalase is a tetramer of four polypeptide chains, each over 500 amino acids long.[3] It contains four porphyrin heme (iron) groups that allow the enzyme to react with the hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH for catalase is approximately (pH 7.0),[4] while the optimum temperature varies by species.[5] A tetramer is a protein with four subunits (tetrameric). ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Catalase was first noticed as a substance in 1811 when Louis Jacques Thénard, who discovered H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), suggested that its breakdown is caused by a substance. For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Louis Jacques Thénard. ...


In 1900 Oscar Loew was the first to give it the name catalase, and found its presence in many plants and animals[6]. In 1937 catalase from beef liver was crystallised by James B. Sumner [7] and the molecular weight worked out in 1938[8]. In 1969 the amino acid sequence of bovine catalase was worked out[9]. Then in 1981, the 3D structure of the protein was revealed[10]. Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Action of catalase

The reaction of catalase in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is:

2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2[11]

In microbiology, the catalase test is used to differentiate between bacterial species in the lab.[3] The test is done by placing a drop of hydrogen peroxide on a microscope slide. Using an applicator stick, a scientist touches the colony and then smears a sample into the hydrogen peroxide drop. If bubbles or froth forms, the organism is said to be catalase-positive; if not, the organism is catalase-negative.[4] This test is particularly useful in distinguishing staphylococci and micrococci, which are catalase-positive, from streptococci and enterococci, which are catalase-negative.[5] While the catalase test alone cannot identify a particular organism, combined with other tests, it can aid diagnosis. The presence of catalase in bacterial cells depends on both the growth condition and the medium used to grow the cells. An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks Transwiki has more about this subject: Microscope slide Microscope slides and cover slips. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. pettenkoferi S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Species E. faecalis etc. ...


Molecular mechanism

While the complete mechanism of catalase is not currently known, the reaction is believed to occur in two stages: For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...

H2O2 + Fe(III)-E → H2O + O=Fe(IV)-E(.+)
H2O2 + O=Fe(IV)-E(.+) → H2O + Fe(III)-E + O2[12]
Here Fe()-E represents the iron centre of the heme group attached to the enzyme. Fe(IV)-E(.+) ís a mesomeric form of Fe(V)-E, meaning that iron is not completely oxidized to +V but receives some "supporting electron" from the heme ligand. This heme has to be drawn then als radical cation (.+).

As hydrogen peroxide enters the active site, it interacts with the amino acids Asn147 (asparagine at position 147) and His74, causing a proton (hydrogen ion) to transfer between the oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atom coordinates, freeing the newly-formed water molecule and Fe(IV)=O. Fe(IV)=O reacts with a second hydrogen peroxide molecule to reform Fe(III)-E and produce water and oxygen.[12] The reactivity of the iron center may be improved by the presence of the phenolate ligand of Tyr357 in the fifth iron ligand, which can assist in the oxidation of the Fe(III) to Fe(IV). The efficiency of the reaction may also be improved by the interactions of His74 and Asn147 with reaction intermediates.[12] In general, the rate of the reaction can be determined by the Michaelis-Menten equation.[6] General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... The active site of an enzyme is the binding site where catalysis occurs. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For other articles using the abbreviation or acronym asn see ASN. Asparagine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The IUPAC Gold Book[1] defines a reaction intermediate or an intermediate a molecular entity (atom, ion, molecule. ... Michaelis-Menten kinetics describe the rate of enzyme mediated reactions for many enzymes. ...


Catalase can also oxidize different toxins, such as formaldehyde, formic acid, and alcohols. In doing so, it uses hydrogen peroxide according to the following reaction: R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in...

H2O2 + H2R → 2H2O + R

Again, the exact mechanism of this reaction is not known.


Any heavy metal ion (such as copper cations in copper(II) sulfate) will act as a noncompetitive inhibitor on catalase. Also, the poison cyanide is a competitive inhibitor of catalase, strongly binding to the heme of catalase and stopping the enzyme's action. Flash point non flammable Related Compounds Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate Zinc sulfate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Copper(II) sulfate (sulphate in most Commonwealth nations) is the chemical compound with the formula... In biochemistry one distinguishes two ways in which a molecule may block the action of an enzymes: competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... In biochemistry there are three ways in which certain chemical substances may reduce or prevent the activities of enzymes: competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ...


Three-dimensional protein structures of the peroxidated catalase intermediates are available at the Protein Data Bank. This enzyme is commonly used in laboratories as a tool for learning the effect of enzymes upon reaction rates. Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ...


Cellular role

Hydrogen peroxide is a harmful by-product of many normal metabolic processes: To prevent damage, it must be quickly converted into other, less dangerous substances. To this end, catalase is frequently used by cells to rapidly catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into less reactive gaseous oxygen and water molecules.[13] Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


The true biological significance of catalase is not always straightforward to assess: Mice genetically engineered to lack catalase are phenotypically normal, indicating that this enzyme is dispensable in animals under some conditions.[14]


Some human beings have very low levels of catalase (acatalesimia), yet show few ill effects. It is likely that the predominant scavengers of H2O2 in normal mammalian cells are preoxiredoxins rather than catalase.


Catalase works at an optimum temperature of 37 °C, which is approximately the temperature of the human body.


Catalase is usually located in a cellular organelle called the peroxisome.[15] Peroxisomes in plant cells are involved in photorespiration (the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide) and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (the breaking apart of diatomic nitrogen (N2) to reactive nitrogen atoms). Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Basic structure of a peroxisome Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. ... Photorespiration refers to the alternate pathway for production of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) by Rubisco, the main enzyme of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin cycle or the Primary Carbon Reduction (PCR) cycle). ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... A computer rendering of the Nitrogen Molecule, which is a diatomic molecule. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Hydrogen peroxide is used as a potent antimicrobial agent when cells are infected with a pathogen. Pathogens that are catalase-positive, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Campylobacter jejuni, make catalase in order to deactivate the peroxide radicals, thus allowing them to survive unharmed within the host .[7] Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Legionella pneumophila Brenner DJ, Steigerwalt AG, McDade JE 1979 Legionella pneumophila is a thin, pleomorphic, flagellated Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. ... Binomial name Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter jejuni is a species of curved, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found in animal faeces. ...


Distribution among organisms

All known animals use catalase in every organ, with particularly high concentrations occurring in the liver. One unique use of catalase occurs in bombardier beetle. The beetle has two sets of chemicals ordinarily stored separately in its paired glands. The larger of the pair, the storage chamber or reservoir, contains hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide, whereas the smaller of the pair, the reaction chamber, contains catalases and peroxidases. To activate the spray, the beetle mixes the contents of the two compartments, causing oxygen to be liberated from hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen oxidizes the hydroquinones and also acts as the propellant. [16] The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Tribes Brachinini Paussini Ozaenini Metriini Wikispecies has information related to: Brachinini Bombardier Beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—that are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: They can fire a mixture of chemicals... Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol, is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ...


Catalase is also universal among plants, but not among fungi, although some species have been found to produce the enzyme when growing in an environment with a low pH and warm temperatures.[17] u fuck in ua ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Very few aerobic microorganisms are known that do not use catalase. [8]. Streptococcus species are an example of aerobic bacteria that do not possess catalase. Catalase has also been observed in some anaerobic microorganisms, such as Methanosarcina barkeri.[18] An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... Look up Anaerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


Human applications

Hydrogen peroxide

Catalase is used in the food industry for removing hydrogen peroxide from milk prior to cheese production.[9] Another use is in food wrappers, where it prevents food from oxidizing.[10] Catalase is also used in the textile industry, removing hydrogen peroxide from fabrics to make sure the material is peroxide-free.[11] A minor use is in contact lens hygiene - a few lens-cleaning products disinfect the lens using a hydrogen peroxide solution; a solution containing catalase is then used to decompose the hydrogen peroxide before the lens is used again.[19] Recently, catalase has also begun to be used in the aesthetics industry. Several mask treatments combine the enzyme with hydrogen peroxide on the face with the intent of increasing cellular oxygenation in the upper layers of the epidermis.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x639, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrogen peroxide Carbamide peroxide ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x639, 24 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hydrogen peroxide Carbamide peroxide ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... A glass of cows milk. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ...


Pathology

The peroxisomal disorder acatalasia is due to a deficiency in the function of catalase. Peroxisomal disorders are a class of conditions which lead to disorders of lipid metabolism. ... Acatalasia (or Takaharas disease) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by a catalase deficiency. ...


See also

Dihydrofolate reductase from with its two substrates, dihydrofolate (right) and NADPH (left), bound in the active site. ... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ... Structure of the monomeric unit of human superoxide dismutase 2 The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Catalase: An Enzyme at Work. Science Education Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  2. ^ Catalase. Molecule of the Month. RCSB Protein Data Bank (2004-09-01). Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  3. ^ Boon EM, Downs A, Marcey D. Catalase: H2O2: H2O2 Oxidoreductase. Catalase Structural Tutorial Text. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  4. ^ (1954) The Assay of Catalases and Peroxidases in Methods of Biochemical Analysis, 357. ISBN. 
  5. ^ A Quantitative Enzyme Study; CATALASE. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  6. ^ Loew, Oscar (May 1900). "A New Enzyme of General Occurrence in Organisms". Science 11 (279): 701-2. 
  7. ^ Sumner, J.B.; Dounce, A. L. (1938). "Cystalline Catalase". Science 87 (18). 
  8. ^ Sumner, James B.; Gralen, Nils (Mar fart 1938). "The Molecular Weight of Crystalline Catalase". Science 87 (2256): 284. 
  9. ^ Schroeder WA; Shelton JR; Shelton JB; Robberson B; Apell G. (May 1969). "The amino acid sequence of bovine liver catalase: a preliminary report.". Arch Biochem Biophys 131 (2): 653-5. PMID 4892021. 
  10. ^ Murthy MR; Reid TJ 3rd; Sicignano A; Tanaka N; Rossmann MG. (Oct 1981). "Structure of beef liver catalase.". J Mol Biol 152 (2): 465-99. PMID 7328661. 
  11. ^ Catalase: A Closer Look. Science Education Outreach. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  12. ^ a b c Boon EM, Downs A, Marcey D. Proposed Mechanism of Catalase in Catalase: H2O2: H2O2 Oxidoreductase. Catalase Structural Tutorial Text. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  13. ^ Gaetani G, Ferraris A, Rolfo M, Mangerini R, Arena S, Kirkman H (1996). "Predominant role of catalase in the disposal of hydrogen peroxide within human erythrocytes.". Blood 87 (4): 1595-9. PMID 8608252. 
  14. ^ Ho YS, Xiong Y, Ma W, Spector A, Ho D (2004). "Mice Lacking Catalase Develop Normally but Show Differential Sensitivity to Oxidant Tissue Injury.". J Biol Chem 279 (31): 32804-812. PMID 15178682. 
  15. ^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Peroxisomes, in Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed., Garland. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0815332181. 
  16. ^ T Eisner and DJ Aneshansley (1999 Aug). "Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: photographic evidence.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 (17): 9705-9. PMID 10449758. 
  17. ^ K. Isobe, et al. (2006 Jan). "Production of catalase by fungi growing at low pH and high temperature.". J Biosci Bioeng 101 (1): 73-6. PMID 16503295. 
  18. ^ Andrei Brioukhanov, Alexander Netrusov, and Rik Eggen. (2006). "The catalase and superoxide dismutase genes are transcriptionally up-regulated upon oxidative stress in the strictly anaerobic archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri.". Microbiology 152: 1671 - 1677. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28542-0. 
  19. ^ U.S. Patent 5,521,091 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

for systematic sequence analysis of catalases AND peroxidases see http://peroxibase.isb-sib.ch/ In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the oxidant, also called the hydrogen donor or electron donor) to another (the reductant, also called the hydrogen acceptor or electron acceptor). ... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ... The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Cytochrome c peroxidase, or CCP,( PDB 2CYP, EC 1. ... Eosinophil peroxidase is a peroxidase which is cytotoxic to bacteria. ... Glutathione peroxidase (PDB 1GP1, EC 1. ... The enzyme horseradish peroxidase, found in horseradish, is used extensively in molecular biology in antibody amplification and detection, among other things[1]. For example, In recent years the technique of marking neurons with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has become a major tool. ... Lactoperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme found in milk. ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme (EC 1. ... Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Deiodinase (eg. ... Tetraiodothyronine 5 deiodinase is an enzyme. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oxford Biomedical Research (800) 692-4633 (334 words)
Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) is present in the peroxisomes of nearly all aerobic cells and serves to protect the cell from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide by catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 (1,2).
Catalases are tetramers of four identical subunits (220,000 to 350,000 kD), each with a heme prosthetic group at the catalytic center.
Catalase activity can be directly monitored in the ultraviolet region (7), however the UV assay is subject to interference due to absorption by protein and other components in biological samples.
Catalase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (618 words)
Catalase is a tetramer of 4 polypeptide chains which are at least 500 amino acids in length.
The reaction of catalase in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is:
Recently, catalase has begun to be used in the aesthetics industry in mask treatments combining the enzyme with hydrogen peroxide on the face to increase cellular oxygenation of cells in the upper layers of the epidermis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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