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Encyclopedia > Catalan language
Catalan, Valencian
Català, Valencià
Spoken in: Spain,
France,
Italy,
Andorra
Region: In Spain:
Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in El Carxe).
In France:
Northern Catalonia.
In Italy:
The city of L'Alguer.
In Andorra.
Total speakers: 9.1 million 
Ranking: 93
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Occitano-Romance
        Catalan, Valencian 
Official status
Official language in: In Spain:
Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands.
In Italy:
L'Alguer.
In Andorra.
Regulated by: Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ca
ISO 639-2: cat
ISO 639-3: cat — Catalan 
The Catalan-speaking world
Language
Grammar
Phonology and orthography
Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
History
History of Catalonia · Counts of Barcelona
Crown of Aragon · Military history of Catalonia
Catalan constitutions · Furs of Valencia
Treaty of the Pyrenees · Nueva Planta decrees
Geography
Catalan Countries
Catalonia · Valencia · Balearic Islands
Northern Catalonia · Franja de Ponent
Andorra · L'Alguer · Carxe
Government and Politics
Generalitat de Catalunya
Generalitat Valenciana
Govern de les Illes Balears
Consell General de les Valls (Andorra)
Politics of Catalonia
Catalan nationalism
Traditions
Castells · Correfoc · Falles · Sardana · 
Moros i cristians · Caganer · Tió de Nadal
Myths and legends
Arts
Catalan literature · Antoni Gaudí · Modernisme
La Renaixença · Noucentisme
Salvador Dalí · Joan Miró · Antoni Tàpies
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Catalan IPA: [ˈkʰæ.təˌlæn] (català IPA: [kə.tə'la] or [ka.ta'la]) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of L'Alguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. It is also spoken, although with no official recognition, in the autonomous communities of Aragon (in La Franja) and Murcia (in El Carxe) in Spain, and in Northern Catalonia, a historical region of Catalonia in southern France, which is more or less equivalent to the département of the Pyrénées-Orientales. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Language distribution in Aragon Map of Catalan Countries with current political borders Franja de Ponent (IPA: ; Catalan for Western Strip), Francha de Lebán (Aragonese for Eastern Strip), Franja de Aragón, or simply La Franja, refers to four comarques in the east of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, which... This article is about the Spanish city. ... now. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Alghero (LAlguer in Catalan and SAlighera in Sardinian), is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish/Catalan Europa latina, French Europe latine, Romanian Europa latină) as... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... The Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in Southern France, Andorra and Eastern Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Alghero (LAlguer in Catalan and SAlighera in Sardinian), is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... The Institut dEstudis Catalans (IEC) is an academic institution. ... The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language) is an institution created on September 16, 1998, which depends on the Presidency of the Generalitat Valenciana. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1125, 102 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Catalan language ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Catalan grammar is the grammar of the Catalan language. ... // Diachronical Phonological Features in Relation to Latin Several characteristic features of Catalan as a Romance language: Like Occitan, loss of Latin final unstressed vowels, except -a; and then after some of the resulting consonantic groups a support vowel appears, e. ... The Institut dEstudis Catalans (IEC) is an academic institution. ... The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language) is an institution created on September 16, 1998, which depends on the Presidency of the Generalitat Valenciana. ... The territory that now constitutes the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, and the adjoining Catalan region of France, was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Transition to Democracy Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ... // The origins of the military force in Catalonia, soar to the 13th century, with the Sagramental, the fraternity among several villages to guarantee their own security, made through oath, due to this so called. ... // Origin: The Corts of Barcelona The Catalan constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of Barcelona (corts being the Catalan for courts). ... Furs of Valencia (Furs de València, in Catalan) were the laws of the Kingdom of Valencia during most of Middle Ages and Early modern Europe. ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... The Nueva Planta decrees (Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Grafitti at Belfast. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of... Language distribution in Aragon Map of Catalan Countries with current political borders Franja de Ponent (IPA: ; Catalan for Western Strip), Francha de Lebán (Aragonese for Eastern Strip), Franja de Aragón, or simply La Franja, refers to four comarques in the east of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, which... Alghero (lAlguer in Catalan and SAlighèra in Sardinian), is a town of about 42,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... Carxe is a city in Spain. ... The Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia ) is the institution in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organised. ... Capital Valencia Official languages Valencian (Catalan) and Spanish (Castilian) Area  – total  – % of Spain Ranked 8th  23 255 km²  4,6% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 4th  4 326 708  10,3%  186,05/km² Demonym  – English  – Valencian  – Spanish  Valencian  valenci... National motto: Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin: Virtue united is stronger) Official language: Catalan Capital:  - Population:  - Coordinates: Andorra la Vella 22,035 (1990 est. ... The General Council of the Valleys (in Catalan, Consell General de les Valls) is the unicameral parliament of Andorra. ... This is the main article about the politic activity in Catalonia. ... Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates for an increased political autonomy of Catalonia, if not independence itself, from Spain and France. ... For other uses, see Castell (disambiguation). ... Correfocs in Barcelona Catalonias festivals and traditions unify Catalan society and help to give it its particular character. ... Traditional Saragüells costume for the men. ... The sardana (Catalan plural sardanes) is a type of circle dance typical of Catalonia. ... Parade of a Christian filà of Moros i Cristians festival in Alcoi (Alacant). ... A traditional Catalan caganer from the back. ... The Tió de Nadal (roughly Christmas log), also known as Tió or Tronca (log), is a mythological character in Catalan mythology relating to a Christmas tradition widespread in Catalonia. ... Catalan myths and legends are the traditional myths and legends of the Catalan-speaking world, especially Catalonia itself, passed down for generations as part of that regions popular culture. ... Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Riudoms or Reus, 25 June 1852 – Barcelona, 10 June 1926) – sometimes referred to by the Spanish translation of his name, Antonio Gaudí – was a Spanish architect from Catalonia, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic... Modernisme in Catalan, (not to be confused with modernism) is the Catalan variant of Art Nouveau. ... The Renaixença was a late 19th century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture. ... Noucentisme (noucentista being its adjective) is a Catalan cultural movement of the early 20th century that originated largely as a reaction against Modernisme, both in art and ideology, and was, simultaneously, a perception of art almost opposite to that of avantgardists. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis of Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Spanish (Catalan) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a Goldsmith and Watchmaker. ... Antoni Tàpies (born in Barcelona, December 23, 1923) is a Catalan painter. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Alghero (LAlguer in Catalan and SAlighera in Sardinian), is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Language distribution in Aragon Map of Catalan Countries with current political borders Franja de Ponent (IPA: ; Catalan for Western Strip), Francha de Lebán (Aragonese for Eastern Strip), Franja de Aragón, or simply La Franja, refers to four comarques in the east of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, which... This article is about the Spanish city. ... now. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of... This article is about the historic territory. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Pyrénées-Orientales (English: , Catalan: , Occitan: ) is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Contents

Classification

The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists. According to the Ethnologue, its specific classification is as follows:[1] The Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in Southern France, Andorra and Eastern Spain. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

  • Indo-European languages

Catalan is very similar to Occitan. (See also Occitan language: Differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages.) For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish/Catalan Europa latina, French Europe latine, Romanian Europa latină) as... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ...


Like many modern languages, Catalan contains numerous words originally borrowed from other languages: Germanic (Ramon:[2] Raymond, espia: spy,[3] ganivet: knife, guerra: war... and place names ending in -reny, such as Gliscareny), French (brioix: brioche, garatge: garage, fitxa: card...), Italian (piano: piano, macarró: macaroni, pantà: marsh, finestra: window, porta: gate...), Occitan (espasa: sword, beutat: beauty, daurar: to gild, suffixal -aire...), Arabic and Mozarabic (alcohol: spirit, sucre: sugar, alcova: bedroom... and most of toponymy like Benicàssim, Albocàsser...), from Spanish (senzill: easy, xoriço: kind of salami, amo: owner, burro: donkey...), from Basque (esquerra: left, isard: surly, estalviar: to save money... and toponymy as Aran, Benavarri or Algerri...) and from English (bar, web, revòlver...) Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Benicàssim (Spanish: Benicasim) is a port town located in Castelló, on the east coast of Spain. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The placename Aran may refer to: The Aran Islands or the largest island in that group Aran, a historical region that is a part of modern Republic of Azerbaijan (Caucasia) The Isle of Arran in Scotland. ... Benabarre (Catalan Benavarri) is a town of the comarca of Baja Ribagorza (Catalan Baixa Ribagorça) in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Geographic distribution

Main article: Catalan countries

Catalan is spoken in: Grafitti at Belfast. ...

All these areas may be known as Catalan Countries (Catalan: Països Catalans), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that have also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Language distribution in Aragon Map of Catalan Countries with current political borders Franja de Ponent (IPA: ; Catalan for Western Strip), Francha de Lebán (Aragonese for Eastern Strip), Franja de Aragón, or simply La Franja, refers to four comarques in the east of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, which... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Here is a list of the comarcas (counties) in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. ... Ribagorza is one of the historical Aragonese counties of Spain, corresponding to the present-day counties of Sobrarbe and Pallars. ... La Litera (Catalan: La Llitera, Aragonese: A Litera) is a aragonese comarca in the south-east of the province of Huesca. ... Baix Cinca is an Aragonese comarca in the southeast extreme of the Huesca province in Spain. ... Matarraña (Catalan: Matarranya) is a comarca in eastern Aragon, bordering the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Valencia. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of... Alghero (lAlguer in Catalan and SAlighèra in Sardinian), is a town of about 42,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Capital Murcia Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 9th  11 313 km²  2,2% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 10th  1 226 993  2,9%  108,46/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Murcian  murciano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 ISO 3166-2 MU Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Carxe is a city in Spain. ... Grafitti at Belfast. ...


Number of Catalan speakers

Territories where Catalan is official

Region Understands Can speak
Catalonia (Spain) 6,949,195 6,043,088
Balearic Islands (Spain) 931,989 746,792
Valencian Community (as Valencian) (Spain) 3,648,443 2,547,661
Andorra 75,407 61,975
TOTAL 11,605,034 9,399,516

This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ...

Other territories

Region Understands Can speak
Alghero (Sardinia, Italy) 20,000 17,625
Northern Catalonia (France) 203,121 125,622
Franja de Ponent (Spain) 47,250 45,000
Carxe (Murcia, Spain) No data No data
Rest of World No data 350,000
TOTAL 270,371 538,247

Alghero (lAlguer in Catalan and SAlighèra in Sardinian), is a town of about 42,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of... The Franja de Ponent (Catalan for Western Strip) refers to four comarques in the east of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, which are historically and linguistically Catalan, in contrast to the Castillian- (and historically Aragonese-) speaking areas of western Aragon. ... Carxe is a city in Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ...

World

Region Understands Can speak
Catalan-speaking territories (Europe) 10,416,328 7,317,648
Rest of World No data 350,000
TOTAL 10,416,328 7,667,648

Notes: The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it. The terms Catalan Countries (Catalan: Països Catalans) or Catalanofonia (quite similar, in the liguistic sense, to the French Francophonie, the Portuguese Lusofonia or the Spanish Hispanidad) includes all territories where the Catalan language is spoken. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Sources: Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya [1]. Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana [2]. Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Balear d'Estadística, Govern de les Illes Balears [3]. Northern Catalonia: Media Pluriel Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998 [4]. Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [5]. Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [6]. Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the Federació d'Entitats Catalanes outside the Catalan Countries.


Dialects

Dialectal Map of Catalan Language

In 1861, Manuel Milà i Fontanals proposed a division of Catalan into two major dialect blocks: Eastern Catalan and Western Catalan. Each dialect also encompasses several regional varieties. Educated Central Catalan is an Eastern Catalan dialect, which can be considered the standard pronunciation of the language. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x1368, 407 KB) Summary Dialectal Map of Catalan Language Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Catalan language Catalan phonology and orthography ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x1368, 407 KB) Summary Dialectal Map of Catalan Language Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Catalan language Catalan phonology and orthography ... Manuel Milà i Fontanals (May 4, 1818 - July 16, 1884), Spanish scholar, born at Vilafranca del Penedès, near Barcelona, was educated first at Barcelona, and afterwards at the university of Cervera. ... Dialectal map of Catalan Language Eastern Catalan is a set of Catalan language dialects spoken in lAlguer, Balearic Islands, Eastern Catalonia and Northern Catalonia. ... Dialectal map of Catalan Language Western Catalan is a set of Catalan language dialects spoken in western Catalonia, La Franja, part of Andorra and Valencian Country. ... Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there...


There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically separated dialects (except for dialects specific to an island). The main difference between the two blocks is their treatment of unstressed vowels, in addition to a few other features:

  • Western Catalan (Bloc o Branca del Català Occidental):
    • Unstressed vowels: [a] [e] [i] [o] [u]. Distinctions between e and a and o and u.
    • Initial or post-consonantal x is affricate /tʃ/ (there are exceptions in Xàtiva, xarxa, Xavier, xenofòbia... these are pronounced /ʃ/). Between vowels or when final and preceded by i, it is /jʃ/.
    • 1st person present indicative is -e or -o.
    • Latin tonical vowels Ē (long "e") and Ǐ (short "i") are pronounced [e].
    • Inchoative in -ix, -ixen, -isca
    • Maintenance of medieval nasal plural in proparoxytone words: hòmens, jóvens
    • Specific vocabulary: espill, xiquet, granera, melic...
  • Eastern Catalan (Bloc o Branca del Català Oriental):
    • The vowels e and a become /ə/ when unstressed and o and u become /u/.
    • Initial or post-consonantal x is the fricative /ʃ/. Between vowels or final preceded by i it is also /ʃ/.
    • 1st person present indicative is -o, -i or ø.
    • Latin tonical vowels Ē (long "e") and Ǐ (short "i") are pronounced [ɛ] (In most of Balearic they are pronounced [ə] and in Alguerese [e]).
    • Inchoative in -eix, -eixen, -eixi.
    • The -n- of medieval nasal plural is dropped in proparoxytone words: homes, joves.
    • Specific Vocabulary: mirall, noi, escombra, llombrígol...

In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several sub-dialects. Catalan can be subdivided in two major dialect blocks and those blocks into individual dialects: A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...

Western Catalan Dialectal map of Catalan Language Western Catalan is a set of Catalan language dialects spoken in western Catalonia, La Franja, part of Andorra and Valencian Country. ...

  • North-Western Catalan (colour: light blue)
  • Transitional Valencian or Ebrenc (colour: blue)
    • Ampostí (from Amposta)
    • Tortosí (from Tortosa)
    • Catalan from Matarranya
    • Vinarossenc (from Vinaròs)
    • Valencian from Maestrat (a region of Valencia)
  • Valencian (colour: dark blue)
    • Castellonenc (from region of Plana)
    • Apitxat, or Central Valencian
    • Southern Valencian
    • Alacantí (from the Alicante's metropolitan area and most of Vinalopó valley)
    • Majorcan from Tàrbena and la Vall de Gallinera Valencian municipalities

Eastern Catalan Dialectal map of Catalan Language North-Western Catalan is the Western Catalan dialect spoken in the western part of Catalonia (around Ebre basin) and La Franja. ... Ribagorçan dialect is a western variant of the Catalan language, which has some transitional traits to Aragonese: Palatalization of L in PL, CL, FL groups, e. ... Ribagorza is one of the historical Aragonese counties of Spain, corresponding to the present-day counties of Sobrarbe and Pallars. ... Pallars is one of the historical Catalan counties, collindant with the county of Ribagorça and the county of Urgell. ... Lleida province Lleida is a province of eastern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. ... Amposta is the capital of the comarca of Montsià, in the province of Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. ... A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ... Matarraña (Catalan: Matarranya) is a comarca in eastern Aragon, bordering the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Valencia. ... Vinaròs is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Castellón, in the Autonomous region of Valencia (population 23,807 [2002]). The town, on the shore of the Mediterranean sea, is an important fishing port. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Castellón de la Plana (in Valencian Castelló de la Plana) is the capital city of the province of Castellón, in the Land of Valencia, Spain, in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, on the Costa del Azahar by the Mediterranean Sea (40°N 0°W). ... Dialectal map of Catalan Language Eastern Catalan is a set of Catalan language dialects spoken in lAlguer, Balearic Islands, Eastern Catalonia and Northern Catalonia. ...

See Catalan dialect examples for examples of each dialect. Catalan dialectal map Northern Catalan is an Eastern Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northest part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan. ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there... Lloret de Mar, the largest resort in the Costa Brava The Costa Brava is a coastal region of northeastern Catalonia, Spain, in the comarques of Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà and La Selva, in the province of Girona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Majorca (Spanish and Catalan: Mallorca) is the largest island of Spain. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... Alguerese or Algherese is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero, in the northwest of Sardinia. ... Alghero (lAlguer in Catalan and SAlighèra in Sardinian), is a town of about 42,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ...


Standards of Catalan language

Pompeu Fabra, Father of modern standard Catalan

There are two main standards for Catalan language, one regulated by Institut d'Estudis Catalans, general standard, with Pompeu Fabra's orthography as axis keeping features from Central Catalan, and other regulated by Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, restricted scale standard, focused on Valencian standardization on the basis of Normes de Castelló, that is, Pompeu Fabra's orthography but more adapted to Western Catalan pronunciation and features of Valencian dialects. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 241 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 1122 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Imatge escanejada dun recopilatori de carbons den w:ca:Ramon Casas i Carbó, autor tant temps mort que els drets dautor de les... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 241 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 1122 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Imatge escanejada dun recopilatori de carbons den w:ca:Ramon Casas i Carbó, autor tant temps mort que els drets dautor de les... The Institut dEstudis Catalans (IEC) is an academic institution. ... Pompeu Fabra i Poch, (Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948) was a Catalan grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language. ... The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language) is an institution created on September 16, 1998, which depends on the Presidency of the Generalitat Valenciana. ... Normes Ortogràfiques de Castelló (Castelló Orthographic Norms), also simply known as Normes de Castelló or Normes del 32 after the city (Castelló de la Plana) and year (1932) when they were signed, are an elementary orthographic guidelines which follow Pompeu Fabra Catalan language norms for its Valencian variety. ... Pompeu Fabra i Poch, (Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948) was a Catalan grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language. ... Dialectal map of Catalan Language Western Catalan is a set of Catalan language dialects spoken in western Catalonia, La Franja, part of Andorra and Valencian Country. ...


IEC's Standard, apart from the basis of Central Catalan features, takes also other dialects features considering as standard. Despite this, the most notable difference between both standards is some tonical "e" accentuation, for instance: francès or anglès (IEC) - francés (French) or anglés(English) (AVL), cafè (IEC) - café (AVL) (coffee), conèixer (IEC) - conéixer (to know), comprèn (IEC) - comprén (AVL) (he understands). This is because of the different pronunciation of some tonical "e", specially tonical Ē (long "e") and Ǐ (breves "i") from Latin, in both Catalan blocks ([ɛ] in Eastern Catalan and [e] in Western Catalan). Despite this, AVL's standard keeps grave accent "è", without pronouncing this "e" [ɛ], in some words like: què (what), València, èter (ether), sèsam (sesame), sèrie (series) i època (age).


There are also some other divergences like the tl use by AVL in some words instead of tll like in ametla/ametlla (almond), espatla/espatlla (back) or butla/butlla (bull), the use of elided demonstratives (este this, eixe that (near)) in the same level as reinforced ones (aquest, aqueix) or the use of lots of verbal forms common in valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the same level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st singular person in indicative present (-ar verbs): "jo compre" (I buy) instead of "jo compro".


In Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted into Balearic dialect by University of the Balearic Islands's philological section, Govern de les Illes Balears's consultative organ. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing "cantam" as much as "cantem" (we sing) and University says that priority form in Balearic Islands must be "cantam" in all fields. Another feature of Balearic standard is the non-ending in 1st singular person in indicative present: "jo cant" (I sing), "jo tem" (I fear), jo "dorm" (I sleep). Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... The University of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Universitat de les Illes Balears; Spanish: Universidad de las Islas Baleares) or UIB for short, is a Spanish university, founded in 1978 and located in Palma on the island of Mallorca. ... National motto: Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin: Virtue united is stronger) Official language: Catalan Capital:  - Population:  - Coordinates: Andorra la Vella 22,035 (1990 est. ...


In L'Alguer, IEC has adapted his standard into Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among all features: the lo article instead of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia (my), lo sou/la sua (his/her), lo tou/la tua (your), and so on, the use of -v- at imperfect tense in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of lots of archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: manco instead of menys (less), calqui u instead of algú (someone), qual/quala instead of quin/quina (which), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns. Alghero (LAlguer in Catalan and SAlighera in Sardinian), is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... Alguerese or Algherese is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero, in the northwest of Sardinia. ... The weak pronouns in Catalan (known in Catalan as clítics or pronoms febles) are pronouns that, as the name indicates, are never emphasized vocally. ...


The status of Valencian

Main article: Valencian

The official language academy of the Valencian Community (the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua) considers Catalan and Valencian simply to be two names for the same language[4]. There is a roughly continuous set of dialects covering the various regional forms of Catalan/Valencian, with no break at the border between Catalonia and the Valencian Community (i.e. villages contiguous to both sides of the border speak exactly the same), and the various forms of Catalan language, among them, the Valencian ones, are mutually intelligible. All universities teaching Romance languages, and virtually all linguists, consider these all to be linguistic variants of the same language (similar to Canadian French versus Metropolitan French). Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language) is an institution created on September 16, 1998, which depends on the Presidency of the Generalitat Valenciana. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Canadian French is an umbrella term for the dialects or varieties of French found in Canada [1] and areas of French Canadian settlement in the United States. ...


Nevertheless, differences do exist: Valencian accent is recognisable, there are differences in subjunctive terminations, and there are a large number of words unique to Valencian varieties; but those differences are not any wider than among North-Western Catalan and Eastern Catalan. In fact, Northern Valencian (spoken in the Castelló province and Matarranya valley, a strip of Aragon) is more similar to the Catalan of the lower Ebro basin (spoken in southern half of Tarragona province and another strip of Aragon) than to apitxat Valencian (spoken in the area of L'Horta, in the province of Valencia). Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Categories: Spain geography stubs | Catalonia | Provinces of Spain ...


The Valencian language has often been seen as a dialect of Catalan due to their mutual intelligibility. However, the issue of language versus dialect is as much a matter of politics as of linguistics. By the criterion of mutual intelligibility, Valencian and other varieties of Catalan are dialects of a single language; but according to this criterion, Galician and Portuguese are also dialects of a single language, as are Norwegian and Swedish, a contentious conclusion in either case. Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ...


What gets called a language is defined in part by mutual comprehensibility, but also by political and cultural factors. In this case, the perceived status of Valencian as a "dialect of Catalan" has historically had important political implications including Catalan nationalism and the idea of the Països Catalans or "Catalan countries." Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates for an increased political autonomy of Catalonia, if not independence itself, from Spain and France. ... Grafitti at Belfast. ...


Catalonia and the Valencian Community are two separate autonomous regions of Spain, but were the feeling of a common Catalan identity to become strong enough, some believe, or fear, that there could develop into a a political will for a single large Catalan region which might wish to become independent of Spain. The language(s) debate is part of this. Some Valencians who advocate distinguishing two Catalan languages do so to resist a perceived Catalan nationalist agenda aimed at absorbing Valencian language and identity, and incorporating Valencians into what they feel is a "constructed" nationality centered on Barcelona. This idea is certainly promoted by right-wing organisations who traditionally wish Spain to remain united, and who would wish to reduce the likelihood of a possible future union between Catalonia and Valencia. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ...


Similarly to Serbian and Croatian, the issue of whether Catalan and Valencian constitute different languages or merely dialects has been the subject of political agitation several times since the end of the Franco era. The latest political controversy regarding Valencian occurred on the occasion of the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004. The Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the Catalan and Valencian versions were identical. While professing the unity of the Catalan language, the Spanish government claimed to be constitutionally bound to produce distinct Catalan and Valencian versions because the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community refers to the language as "Valencian". In practice, the Catalan, Valencian, and Balearic versions of the EU constitution are identical: the government of Catalonia accepted the Valencian translation without any changes under the premise that the Valencian standard is accepted by the norms set forth by the IEC. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...


Valencian and Central Catalan have fewer differences from one another than do American English and English English (that is, the English of England), although this is partially because the English phonetic system is much more complex than that of Catalan. The differences between English English and American English can roughly be compared to those between Valencian and Catalan. For example, English English and American English have a different vowel system, as do Valencian and Catalan. In Valencia, as in America, the language is generally rhotic (that is, final "r" is pronounced); in Catalonia, as in England, it generally is not. There are pairs of words similar to "truck"/"lorry" or "cookie"/"biscuit", for example "mirall"/"espill" (meaning "mirror") or "rentar"/"llavar" ("to wash"). There are different spellings for the same word à la "color"/"colour", for example "seva"/"seua" ("his"); although in this case the pronunciation is not the same, it is a common feature in dialectal and not-so-old Catalan to turn intervocalic "u" into "v", so "seva" and "seua" are phonologically identical (/'seua/), although phonetically different (['sevɘ] vs. ['sewa].) There are differences in conjugation just like "lit"/"lighted", for example, "acomplix"/"acompleix" ("accomplishes"). There are verbal forms which are not frequently used in either dialect - "aní"/"vaig anar", just like "I advise that he come"/"I advise him to come". In short, much like English, Catalan is a multi-centric language - there exist two standards, one for Oriental Catalan, regulated by the IEC, which is centered around Central Catalan (with slight variations to include Balearic verb flexion) and one for Occidental, regulated by the AVL, centered around Valencian. Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The AVL accepts the conventions set forth in the Normes de Castelló as the normative spelling, shared with the IEC that allows for the diverse idiosyncrasies of the different language dialects and varieties. As the normative spelling, these conventions are used in education, and most contemporary Valencian writers make use of them. Nonetheless, a small minority mainly of those who advocate for the recognition of Valencian as a separate language, use in a non-normative manner an alternative spelling convention known as the Normes del Puig. Normes Ortogràfiques de Castelló (Castelló Orthographic Norms), also simply known as Normes de Castelló or Normes del 32 after the city (Castelló de la Plana) and year (1932) when they were signed, are an elementary orthographic guidelines which follow Pompeu Fabra Catalan language norms for its Valencian variety. ...


Sounds and writing system

The Catalan alphabet comes from the Roman alphabet. ... // Diachronical Phonological Features in Relation to Latin Several characteristic features of Catalan as a Romance language: Like Occitan, loss of Latin final unstressed vowels, except -a; and then after some of the resulting consonantic groups a support vowel appears, e. ...

Grammar

Main article: Catalan grammar

The first descriptive and normative grammar book of modern Catalan was written by Pompeu Fabra in 1918. In 1995 a new grammar by Antoni M. Badía i Margarit was published, it also documents the Valencian and Balearic varieties. Catalan grammar is the grammar of the Catalan language. ... Pompeu Fabra i Poch, (Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948) was a Catalan grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language. ...


The grammar of Catalan mostly follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages.


Substantives and adjectives are not declined by case, as in Classical Latin. There are two grammatical genders - masculine and feminine. In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


Grammatical articles originally developed from Latin demonstratives. The actual form of the article depends on the gender and the number and the first sounds of the word and can be combined with prepositions that precede them. A unique feature of Catalan is a definite article that may precede personal names in certain contexts. Its basic form is en and it can change according to its environment (the word "en" has also other lexical meanings). One of the common usages of this article is in the word can, a combination of ca (house) and en, which means "The house of", for example "Can Sergi" means "Sergi's house". An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ... A given name is a word which specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ...


Verbs are conjugated according to tense and mood similarly to other Western Romance languages - present and simple preterit are based on Classical Latin, future is formed from infinitive followed by the present form of the auxiliary verb haver (written together and not considered periphrastic), and periphrastic tenses are formed from the conjugated auxiliary verbs haver and ésser followed by the past participle. A unique tense in Catalan is the periphrastic simple preterit, which is formed from the conjugated present form of the verb anar (to go) which is followed by the infinitive of the verb.


Nominative pronouns are often omitted, as the person can be usually derived from the conjugated verb. The Catalan rules for combination of the object pronoun clitics with verbs, articles and other pronouns are significantly more complex than in most other Romance languages; see Weak pronouns in Catalan. In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... The weak pronouns in Catalan (known in Catalan as clítics or pronoms febles) are pronouns that, as the name indicates, are never emphasized vocally. ...


Catalan names

Catalan naming customs are similar to those of Spain. Although it is not mandatory, according to tradition a person often receives two last names - his father's and his mother's. The two last names are usually separated by the particle "i", meaning "and". (In Spanish the last names are sometimes separated by the equivalent word "y", but usually they are not separated at all.) In Spanish-speaking countries (exception made of Argentina), people normally have at least two surnames. ...


For example, the architect's Gaudí's full name is Antoni Gaudí i Cornet after his parents: Francesc Gaudí Serra and Antònia Cornet Bertran. Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Riudoms or Reus, 25 June 1852 – Barcelona, 10 June 1926) – sometimes referred to by the Spanish translation of his name, Antonio Gaudí – was a Spanish architect from Catalonia, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic...


History

Catalan language developed by the 9th century from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern part of Pyrenees mountains (counties of Roussillon, Empuries, Besalú, Cerdanya, Urgell, Pallars and Ribagorça). It shares features with Gallo-romance and Ibero-romance, and it could be said to be in its beginnings no more than an eccentric dialect of Occitan (or of Western Romance). It is said by language experts that Catalan was originally spoken by peasants, but was picked up by all other people in the social heirachy. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Empúries is a town in the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Empordà. It was founded by the ancient Greeks with the name of Emporion (that is market). ... Besalú in 2004 Besalú is a medieval town in the Catalan comarca of Garrotxa, in Catalonia. ... Map of Baixa Cerdanya in Catalonia Cerdanya (French Cerdagne) is one of the historical Catalan counties in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering the county of Alt Urgell. ... Urgell (Spanish: Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ... Pallars is one of the historical Catalan counties, collindant with the county of Ribagorça and the county of Urgell. ... Ribagorza is one of the historical Aragonese counties of Spain, corresponding to the present-day counties of Sobrarbe and Pallars. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


As a consequence of the Catalan conquests from Al-Andalus to the south and to the west, it spread to all present-day Catalonia, Balearic Islands and most of Valencia. Combatants Asturias Castile Galicia Portugal León Aragon Navarre Umayyad Caliphate Caliphate of Cordoba Almoravids For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ...


During the 15th century, during Valencian Golden Age, the Catalan language reached its highest cultural splendor, which was not matched again until La Renaixença, 4 centuries later. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Renaixença was a late 19th century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture. ...

See also History of Catalonia

After the Treaty of the Pyrenees, a royal decree by Louis XIV of France on April 2, 1700 prohibited the usage of Catalan language in present-day Northern Catalonia in all official documents under the threat of being invalidated[5]. Since then, Catalan language has lacked official status in that Catalan-speaking region in France. The territory that now constitutes the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, and the adjoining Catalan region of France, was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic. ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and certain Commonwealth countries which is formally made in the name of the Queen (or the Governor-General acting on her behalf) by the Privy Council or the Executive Council the Queen-in-Council or the Governor... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Nord; Spanish: Cataluña del Norte o Cataluña Transpirenaica; French: Catalogne Nord or Pays Catalan) is the name mainly used by the Catalan-speaking community to refer to the part of the historic Principality of Catalonia that came under French governance through the signing of...

See also Language policy in France

After Nueva Planta Decrees, administrative usage and education in Catalan was also banned in the territories of the Spanish Kingdom. It was not until Renaixença period, that Catalan language started to recover. This is an article about language policy in France. ... The Nueva Planta decrees (Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... The Renaixença was a late 19th century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture. ...


In Francoist Spain (1939-1975), the usage of Castilian over Catalan was promoted, and public use of Catalan was discouraged and repressed. In spite of this, several thousand books were published in Catalan. Franco's effort to portray Catalan as an archaic dialect still allowed the publication of, for example, older poetry. Some modern works were sneaked under censorship by pretending that they were older. History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Spanish Civil War officially ended... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...

See also Language politics in Spain under Franco

Following the death of Franco in 1975 and the restoration of democracy, the usage of Catalan increased partly because of new affirmative action and subsidy policies and the Catalan language is now used in politics, education and the Catalan media, including the newspapers Avui ("Today"), El Punt ("The Point") and El Periódico de Catalunya (sharing content with its Spanish release and with El Periòdic d'Andorra, printed in Andorra; and the television channels of Televisió de Catalunya (TVC): TV3, the main channel, and Canal 33/K3 (culture and cartoons channel) as well as a 24-hour news channel 3/24 and the TV series channel 300; there are also many local channels available in region in Catalan, such as BTV and Td8 (in the metropolitan area of Barcelona), Canal L'Hospitalet (L'Hospitalet de Llobregat), Canal Terrassa (Terrassa), Televisió de Sant Cugat TDSC (Sant Cugat del Vallès), Televisió de Mataró TVM (Mataró). Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Castilian language over the other languages of Spain. ...


Examples

Some common Catalan phrases (pronounced as in the Central dialect -Barcelona and outskirts-): Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there...

  • Catalan: Català /kətəˈlɑ/
  • Hello: hola /ˈɔlə/
  • Good-bye: adéu /əˈðew/; adéu siau /əˈðew siˈaw/
  • Please: si us plau /sisˈplaw/
  • Thank you: gràcies /ˈgɾɑsiəs/; mercès /məɾˈsɛs/
  • Sorry: perdó /pəɾˈðo/, ho sento /u ˈsentu/
  • This one: aquest /əˈkɛt/ (masc.); aquesta /əˈkɛstə/ (fem.)
  • How much?: quant val? /ˈkwɑmˈbɑl/; quant és? /ˈkwɑnˈes/
  • Yes: /ˈsi/
  • No: no /ˈno/
  • I don't understand: No ho entenc /ˈno wənˈteŋ/
  • where's the bathroom?: on és el bany? /ˈonˈezəlˈβaɲ/; on és el lavabo? /ˈonˈezəlˈləˈβɑβu/
  • Generic toast: salut! /səˈlut/;
  • Do you speak English?: Que parla (l')anglès? /kə ˈpaɾlə lənˈglɛs/
  • Do you speak Catalan?: Que parla (el) català? /kə ˈpaɾləl kətəˈlɑ/

Some useful Valencian phrases (pronounced as in the standard Valencian): The word standard has several meanings: Originally, standard referred to a conspicuous object used as a rallying point in battle. ...

  • Valencian: valencià /valensi'a/
  • Hello: hola /'ɔla/
  • Good-bye: adéu /a'ðew/
  • Please: per favor /peɾ fa'voɾ/
  • Thank you: gràcies /'gɾasies/
  • Sorry: perdó /peɾ'ðo/; ho sent /u'sent/ or /u'senk/; ho lamente /'u la'mente/
  • This one: este /'este/ (masc.); esta /'esta/ (fem.)
  • That one (near): eixe /'ejʃe/ (masc.); eixa /'ejʃa/ (fem.)
  • That one (far): aquell /a'keʎ/ (masc.); aquella /a'keʎa/ (fem.)
  • How much?: quant val? /'kwan'val/; quant és? /'kwan'tes/; quant costa? /'kuant 'kɔstɔ/
  • Yes: /'si/
  • No: no /'no/
  • I don't understand: no ho entenc /'nowan'teŋ/; no ho comprenc /'now kom'preŋ/
  • Where's the bathroom?: on està el bany? /'on es'tal'βaɲ/; on està el servici? /'on es'tal ser'visi/
  • Generic toast: Jesús /dʒe'zus/; salut /sa'lut/
  • Do you speak English?: parla anglés? /'parlan'gles/; sap parlar en anglés? /'sap paɾ'laɾ'enan'gles/
  • Do you speak Valencian?: parla valencià? /'paɾla valensi'a/; sap parlar en valencià? /'sap paɾ'laɾ'envalensi'a/

Learning Catalan

  • Digui, digui... Curs de català per a estrangers. A Catalan Handbook. — Alan Yates and Toni Ibarz. — Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, 1993. -- ISBN 84-393-2579-7.
  • Teach Yourself Catalan. — McGraw-Hill, 1993. — ISBN 0-8442-3755-8.
  • Colloquial Catalan. — Toni Ibarz and Alexander Ibarz. — Routledge, 2005. — ISBN 0-415-23412-3.
  • speakcat On-line basic course http://intercat.cesca.es/speakcat/

Catalan courses are given at many universities both in Europe and in North America such as New York University. New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ...


English words of Catalan origin

Aioli of garlic, salt, egg, and olive oil in a mortar Aioli with olives Aioli (Provençal Occitan alhòli[1], Catalan allioli) is a sauce made of garlic, egg, lemon juice (or vinegar), and olive oil, basically a garlic-flavoured mayonnaise. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix substances. ... A barracks housing conscripts of Norrbottens regemente in Boden, Sweden. ... A hut is a small and crude shelter used for dwelling. ... A hut is a small and crude shelter used for dwelling. ...

In popular culture

In the Aubrey–Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian, the character of the naval surgeon Stephen Maturin speaks Catalan natively, being of Irish-Catalan heritage. O'Brian himself was also fluent in Catalan. The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad,[1] consists of a sequence of 20 completed and one unfinished historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen... Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish... Information Occupation Doctor/Ships Surgeon/Intelligence Agent Title Doctor Relationships Diana Villiers, Christine Hatherleigh Children Brigid Maturin Relatives Several Episode count 20/21 Portrayed by Paul Bettany Created by Patrick OBrian Stephen Maturin is a fictional character in the Aubrey–Maturin series of novels by Patrick OBrian. ...


In the 2002 film L'Auberge espagnole by Cédric Klapisch, the character of Isabelle asks a professor if he can speak in Spanish instead of Catalan to help accommodate the ERASMUS programme students (who don't understand Catalan). LAuberge espagnole is a 2002 French film directed and written by Cédric Klapisch. ... Cédric Klapisch (born 1961) is a French film director. ... The ERASMUS programme was established in 1987 and forms a major part of the European Union Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. ...


In one notorious episode (The Girl Who Breaks Down) in the seventh cycle of America's Next Top Model, the models had to learn the Catalan language for a commercial for Secret deodorant. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ANTM redirects here. ... A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising. ... Look up Commercial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

The Institut dEstudis Catalans (IEC) is an academic institution. ... The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language) is an institution created on September 16, 1998, which depends on the Presidency of the Generalitat Valenciana. ... Pompeu Fabra i Poch, (Barcelona 1868 - Prada de Conflent 1948) was a Catalan grammarian, the main author of the normative reform of contemporary Catalan language. ... Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... There are a number of languages of France. ... In Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan speaking regions of the world, people have at least two surnames. ... .cat is a top-level domain submitted to ICANN for approval as a sponsored TLD. It would be used to highlight Catalan language and culture. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ...

References

  1. ^ Ethnologue Report
  2. ^ Ramon in Diccionari Català Anglès, Salvador Oliva i Angela Buxton, et al., Enciclopèdia Catalana, Barcelona, 2001, ISBN 84-85194-39-X.
  3. ^ Ramon in Diccionari Anglès Català, Salvador Oliva i Angela Buxton, et al., Enciclopèdia Catalana, Barcelona, 2001, ISBN 84-85194-78-0.
  4. ^ Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià - Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian.
  5. ^ http://www.crdp-montpellier.fr/cd66/artscult/fichesVauban/cdvauban/PERIODES/moyenagetempsmodernes/chateaucollioureinterdictioncatalan.pdf
  6. ^ a b (1991) Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-433286-5. 

Angela Buxton (born August 16, 1934, Liverpool, England) is an English tennis player. ... Angela Buxton (born August 16, 1934, Liverpool, England) is an English tennis player. ...

External links

Institutions

About the Catalan language

Dictionaries and phrasebooks

Catalan-language media

  • Televisió de Catalunya
  • Radiotelevisió valenciana
  • Catalunya Ràdio
  • RNE Ràdio 4 Catalunya
  • El Periódico
  • Diari El Punt — Catalan-language daily newspaper
  • VilaWeb The main Catalan online newspaper
  • Catalan Wikibooks

Catalan-language web searching

  • Yahoo! Català Searching in Catalan
  • Nosaltres.com
  • Google (Catalan language)

Catalan-language online encyclopedia

  • (Catalan) Enciclopèdia Catalana

  Results from FactBites:
 
Catalan Language - ninemsn Encarta (472 words)
Catalan Language, language that originated in Catalonia and Valencia, regions in eastern and north-eastern Spain.
Catalan is spoken by around 6,667,000 people as a first language, in Spain, in the provinces of Aragón, Catalonia, Murcia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands; in Andorra (where it is an official language); in Italy, in Alghero, Sardinia; in France, in nearly the whole of the Pyrénées-Orientales; and in parts of South America.
The Catalan language is a Romance language and was the official language of the Kingdom of Aragón in the 12th century.
Catalan language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2397 words)
Catalan IPA: /ˈkʰætəˌlæn/ (català /kətə'la/ or /kata'la/) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia.
The language was spread to the south by the Reconquista in several phases: Barcelona and Tarragona, Lleida and Tortosa, the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, and transplanted to the Balearic Islands and l'Alguer (Alghero).
During the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the Catalan language was important in the Mediterranean region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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