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Encyclopedia > Castle
Windsor Castle is an official residence of the monarch of the United Kingdom and is over 1000 years old.
Windsor Castle is an official residence of the monarch of the United Kingdom and is over 1000 years old.

A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. The term has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning, but it is usually regarded as being distinct from the general terms fort or fortress in that it describes a building which serves as a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific territory. A castle is a fort and a camp. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in Carolingian France. The advent of cannon and gunpowder changed the needs of warfare in Europe, limiting the effectiveness of the castle and leading to the rise of the fort. Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Late medieval bronze culverins and demi-cannon. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


Similar constructions in Russia (Kremlin) and feudal Japan (Shiro) are also considered castles. This article is about Russian citadels. ... Himeji Castle in Hyōgo Prefecture is the most visited castle in Japan. ...

Contents

Definition

Castle comes from the Latin word castellum. This is a diminutive of the word castrum, which means "fortified place". The word "castle" (castel) was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of fortress, then new to England, brought in by the Norman knights. In Spain, a fortified dwelling on a height for the administering authority retains its Moorish name of alcázar, whilst shiro also figure prominently in Japanese history, where the feudal daimyō inhabited them. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... An alcázar is a Spanish castle, from the Arabic word القصر al qasr meaning palace or fortress, from the Latin castellum fortress (ultimately from castrum watchpost). Many cities in Spain have an alcázar. ... Himeji Castle in Hyōgo Prefecture is the most visited castle in Japan. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


A French castle is a château-fort, for in French a simple château connotes a grand country house at the heart of an estate, with non-military, purely residential function. When European castles were opened up and expanded into pleasure dwellings and power houses from the late 15th century, their "castle" designations, relics of the feudal age, often remained attached to the dwelling, resulting in many non-military castles and châteaux. A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A château (French for castle; plural châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of gentry, usually French, with or without fortifications. ...


In Germany there are two names for what would be called a castle in English, Burg and Schloss. A Burg is a medieval structure of military significance, while a Schloss was built after the Middle Ages as a palace and not for defensive purposes. However, these are not usually palaces in the French style, but instead are styled on medieval mountain castles and fairytale notions, and from all appearances are often castles to an English speaker.


In Celtic countries, Caer or castell (Welsh), dún and caisleán (Irish), dùn and caisteal (Scots Gaelic) are used. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Dun comes from the Brythonic Din and Gaelic Dun, meaning fort, and is now used as a general term for small stone built strongholds, enclosures or roundhouses in Scotland, as a sub-group of hill forts. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


In spite of the generally accepted definition, the word "castle" is sometimes used to mean a citadel (such as the castles of Badajoz and Burgos) or small detached forts d'arrêt in modern times and, traditionally, in Britain it has also been used to refer to prehistoric earthworks (e.g. Maiden Castle). The use of the Spanish equivalent castillo can be equally misleading, as it can refer to true castles and forts (eg. Castillo de San Marcos); terms such as Fortaleza ("fortress") are in similar situations. This article is about a type of fortification. ... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Maiden Castle is a hill fort, mostly dating from the Iron Age, situated 2 miles south of Dorchester, in Dorset, England. ... The Castillo de San Marcos is a Spanish built fort located in the city of St. ...

The Norman "White Tower", the keep of the Tower of London, exemplifies all uses of a castle: city defence, a residence, and a place of refuge in times of crisis.

Download high resolution version (1417x1296, 233 KB)Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of Traitors Gate, created by Viki Male 17/09/03 16:38  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (1417x1296, 233 KB)Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of Traitors Gate, created by Viki Male 17/09/03 16:38  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... For other uses, see Keep (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

Defining features

The chief distinguishing features of castles, as opposed to other defensive structures, can be defined as follows:

  • Castles were places of protection from an invading enemy, a place of retreat. This is the purpose behind such stereotypical castle features as portcullises, battlements and drawbridges.
  • Castles were also offensive weapons, built in otherwise hostile territories from which to control surrounding lands, as forward camps. In particular, during the High Middle Ages, castles were often built for territorial expansion and regional control. A castle was a stronghold from which a lord could control surrounding territory.
  • Castles were either built as, or evolved into, residences for the monarch or lord who built them.

These three purposes distinguish the castle from other fortresses — which are usually purely defensive (like citadels and city walls) or purely offensive (a military camp) — or edifices that are entirely residential in nature, like palaces. Castles such as the Tower of London served as prisons.[1] Counterweights for the sliding portcullis A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... It has been suggested that crenellation, crenel and merlon be merged into this article or section. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

The Moorish Alhambra demonstrates an impregnable fortress evolving into a Royal palace after the Reconquista.
The Moorish Alhambra demonstrates an impregnable fortress evolving into a Royal palace after the Reconquista.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1458 KB) Summary La alhambra de Granada vista desde el jardín del Generalife. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1458 KB) Summary La alhambra de Granada vista desde el jardín del Generalife. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red fortress) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. ... The Palace of Charles V: exterior view The Palace of Charles V, in Granada, Spain, is a Renacentist construction, located on the top of the hill of the Assabica, inside the Nasrid fortification of the Alhambra. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...

Evolution

A castle was not only a bastion and place for detention of prisoners but also a social place where a knight or lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design increased in importance, as the appearance and size began to reflect the prestige and power of the occupant.


Castles were built as defensive measures and offensive weapons, but often over time comfortable homes evolved within the fortified walls. An example is the Windsor Castle, first built as a Norman Conquest fortress; today a home to the Queen of the United Kingdom. The Alhambra in Al-Andalus incorporated both defensive and residential features, but after the Reconquista unified Spain, its importance shifted and it became a palace under Charles V. This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red fortress) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... The Palace of Charles V: exterior view The Palace of Charles V, in Granada, Spain, is a Renacentist construction, located on the top of the hill of the Assabica, inside the Nasrid fortification of the Alhambra. ...


Architecture and development

Early castles

wwwaaazzz up my name is ???????? Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x702, 143 KB) Ambleside Roman Fort - Project Gutenberg eText 19115 Ambleside Fort. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x702, 143 KB) Ambleside Roman Fort - Project Gutenberg eText 19115 Ambleside Fort. ... , Ambleside is a town in Cumbria, in north-west England. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ...


Antecedents

From as early as Neolithic times (between 8500 BC-2500 BC), people built hill forts to protect themselves. Many earthworks survive today, along with evidence of palisades to accompany the ditches. The Romans commonly encountered hill forts (called oppida) built by their enemies. Though primitive, they were often effective and required extensive siege engines and other siege warfare techniques to overcome, such as at the Battle of Alesia. The Romans own fortifications (castra) varied from simple temporary earthworks thrown up by armies on the move, to elaborate permanent stone constructions, notably the milecastles of Hadrian's Wall. Roman forts were generally rectangular with rounded corners. The Roman engineer Vitruvius was the first to note the three main advantages of round corner towers: more efficient use of stone, improved defence against battering rams and improved field of fire. It was not until the 13th century that these advantages were rediscovered. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ... Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... A milecastle was a fortified structure that stood along Hadrians Wall in Great Britain. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... Fields of Fire, for the 1978 book by James H. Webb. ...


The first castles

The earliest recorded structures universally acknowledged by historians as 'castles' were built in the late 9th century, and included wood, earth and stone structures.[1] Roman fortifications, or, when possible or needed, other edifices, were often turned into castles or similar structures during the early Middle Ages. A famous example is that of the Hadrian's Mausoleum in Rome, which is known to have been used as a fortress as early as 537, during the Gothic War.[2] Other late Antiquity-early Medieval castles survive in Brescia and Trento in Italy For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila See also Gothic War (377–382) for the war on the Danube. ... The Capitoline Temple. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ...

One of the earliest representations of a castle from the Bayeux Tapestry.
One of the earliest representations of a castle from the Bayeux Tapestry.

Construction of new castles in Europe is attested from the Carolingian era, but their construction seems to have been related mainly to the defence of frontiers and state properties, and the right to fortify was a royal privilege. As early as 864, Charles the Bald issued an edict ordering the destruction of private fortifications erected without his permission. However, changes took place from the late 9th century, probably under the pressure of raids by the Vikings and Magyars, and due to the general decline of the Carolingian Empire, and the consequent loss of centralized authority, which resulted in a proliferation of castles.[1] There was also frequent fortification of cities, monasteries, ports and rural settlements in this period. In 906, a deacon in Verona asked Berengar I of Italy for permission to build a castle in Nogara "due to the heathens ravages". Download high resolution version (1024x768, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 274 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Berengar of Friuli (? - 16 April 924) was a Margrave of Friuli, King of Italy (from 888 on) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 915 on. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Province of Verona (VR) Mayor Elevation 18 m Area 38. ...


As the Carolingian Empire broke up into duchies and counties, factions struggling for power created a military infrastructure, to protect their rights, their domains, and their followers. It is within this historical context that feudalism began to emerge. The early castle formed an integral part of feudalism: it provided a residence for the lord; provided protection for his followers as guaranteed by their feudal oaths of loyalty and allegiance, while the garrison of the castle was made up of the lord's followers, as per their feudal obligations. Many examples of defensive programs as part of feudalism exist. In the 10th century for example, in the Loire Valley, Fulk Nerra embarked on a massive castle-building program to control his county of Anjou, and neighbouring Touraine. In Normandy at around the same time, a military state emerged with a dense network of castles and feudal allegiances. Similar arrangements with regards to defensive and holding of territory also occurred in other parts of Europe around this time.[citation needed]. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... For the wine region, see Loire Valley (wine). ... Fulk III (972 – 21 June 1040), called Nerra (that is, le Noir, the Black) after his death, was Count of Anjou from 21 July 987 to his death. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... The Touraine is a former province of France. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


Castles were introduced to the British Isles around the early 11th century, by Norman-French followers of King Edward the Confessor.[1] When William the Conqueror executed the Norman Conquest of England, he brought with him the practice of building a castle to protect and hold the land, by then quite familiar on the mainland of Western Europe Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ...


Construction

When an army wanted to defend important territory from enemies, their focus was to build a permanent stronghold that could defend a large area around its site and be self supporting, and most of the time castles were the first choice for an army with resources and a workforce. One problem with castle construction though, was how long they took to build, which could be well over ten to fifteen years.


The three main materials used to construct a castle were bricks, wood, and stone. The construction called for a large workforce consisting of ditch diggers, masons, engineers, masons, stone cutters, and carpenters. This was not including the actual labor force (peasants, slaves, etc.). The time to build a castle also depended on location, type, time period, and climate. Medieval machines like cranes and scaffolding were invented later on, which greatly decreased the time to construct a castle.

Mandawa Castle in Shekhawati, India

Stone was the most important material in the building of castles. It is heavy and impractical to transport over long distances, so many castles were built right on a stone quarry, which made it a lot easier for the workers and cut the cost of transportation. During the crusades, invading forces discovered the way Middle East castles were built. These methods used round towers and much more symmetrical design. These methods were used by Europeans combined with their old ways to make a more “hybrid” castle. The choosing of a castle’s location was a decision full of strategy. Castles have been found on the edge of cliffs, rivers, oceans, and on top of hills. Once the location was found, weak points and sides of this position were addressed, often having moats, spear pits, and other defences added that were not found at the location naturally. Finding a location that had natural barriers was a huge advantage to the economy of castle building. Finding natural barriers was also better than man made barriers, cheaper, and sped the construction of castle building up considerably. Once the castle was constructed, it was time to supply it. Oftentimes the castle was built around a well, so under siege a castle would always have a supply of water. Large castles had surrounding farmland and livestock so a large pantry of food was always available. With the larders filled and a well, sieges of a castle could last years before they ran out of provisions. Shekhawati (शेखावाटी) is a semi-arid region located in the northeast part of Rajasthan, India. ...


Residential Towers

Some of the earliest recognizable castles were essentially fortified residential halls, enclosed by a defensive wall. Halls which functioned as habitation for an important person, chieftain or lord, and his followers, had existed since the earliest times all over Europe. During the times of uncertainty which followed the collapse of Carolingian authority, it became necessary to more strongly fortify the habitation and possessions. As a result the wooden halls were replaced by much stronger stone buildings as early as the 10th century. Examples include Langeais and Doué-la-Fontaine. Langeais is a French commune in the département of Indre-et-Loire in the region of Centre. ... Doué-la-Fontaine, Maine-et-Loire, France, is a small town and commune of less than 8,000 residents located in the heart of Anjou, a few kilometers from the great châteaux of the Loire River. ...


Motte-and-bailey

The wooden palisades surmounting mottes were often later replaced in stone, as in this example at Gisors.
The wooden palisades surmounting mottes were often later replaced in stone, as in this example at Gisors.
Main articles: Encastellation and Motte-and-bailey

The motte-and-bailey is a plan common to many early castles. An essential feature of this type was a circular mound of earth surrounded by a dry ditch and flattened at the top. Around the crest of its summit was placed a timber palisade, a tower, possibly residential.[1] This moated mound was styled in Old French motte (Latin mota), a word still common in French place-names. In addition to the mound, a bailey or basse court of horseshoe shape was usually appended to it, so that the mound stood on the line of the enceinte. The latter housed the domestic quarters, stables, stores, a forge and a water well. These earthworks were dug from the perimeter area, leaving a defensive ditch.[1] In many cases the motte seems to be a later addition to an already existing wooden settlement, surrounded by a wood palisade. Lewes Castle, built by Gulielmus de Warenne, is an unusual example, as it featured two mottes.[1] Wooden castles were built up until the 12th century. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 82 KB) (All user names refer to fr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 82 KB) (All user names refer to fr. ... Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... Encastellation (sometimes castellation, which can also mean crenellation) is the process whereby the feudal kingdoms of Europe became dotted with castles; from which local lords could dominate the countryside of their fiefs and their neighbours and from which kings could command even the far-off corners of their realms. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... For other uses, see Horseshoe (disambiguation). ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... For the process of shaping metal by localized compressive forces, see Forging. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Lewes Castle stands at the highest point of Lewes (England, Sussex), on an artificial mound built originally of chalk blocks. ... William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, (died 1088) was one of the Norman aristocrats who fought at the Battle of Hastings and became great landowners in England. ...


A description of this earlier castle is given in the life of St John, Bishop of Terouanne: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...

The rich and the noble of that region being much given to feuds and bloodshed, fortify themselves ... and by these strongholds subdue their equals and oppress their inferiors. They heap up a mound as high as they are able, and dig round it as broad a ditch as they can ... Round the summit of the mound they construct a palisade of timber to act as a wall. Inside the palisade they erect a house, or rather a citadel, which looks down on the whole neighbourhood.[3]

This article is about a type of fortification. ...

Defensive features

Keep

Most castles, even from the earliest times, followed certain standards of design and construction. Generally, the central feature of the castle was the keep, or donjon, the main commanding tower.[1] The primary function of the keep varied, but usually it was a residential structure functioning as a redoubt in times of trouble, but could also be used as a secure storage area, or, later, as a prison. In motte and bailey castles, the keep typically surmounted the motte. Many early castles and certain later ones were nothing more than simple towers. The tower houses of Britain and Ireland, as well as peel towers, are examples of this type. Most, however, required outer walls of some sort. The keep was contained within the walls or attached to the walls. The area delineated by the walls was known as the bailey or the court, and the enclosure known as the enceinte. For other uses, see Keep (disambiguation). ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... Clononey castle in Co. ... Smailholm Tower. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ...


Enceinte

The enceinte of the castle is another recognizable feature. Essentially the enceinte is the entire fortified enclosure of the castle precincts. In some cases this area was demarcated by a simple defensive wall or barrier. More often the wall was surmounted by a walkway to defend the castle. As with Roman and earlier architecture, projecting flanking towers were usually added to the wall to improve defence. Later castles were built on a concentric plan, where enceinte walls (also called curtain walls) and towers formed two rings around the keep, resulting in an inner and an outer court, pushing the enemy further from the core walls and keep. Enceinte (Lat. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and, in cases, no central keep. ... Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ...

Carcassonne, France, showing the classic features of the enceinte walls, defensive ditch, cylindrical flanking towers, a gatehouse, and wooden defensive structures
Carcassonne, France, showing the classic features of the enceinte walls, defensive ditch, cylindrical flanking towers, a gatehouse, and wooden defensive structures

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 661 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From DE-Wikipedia Carcassonne (Cité)(France) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 661 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From DE-Wikipedia Carcassonne (Cité)(France) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... For other uses, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ...

Gatehouse

The gates were a weak point in the defenses of castles, so gatehouses could be strengthened with flanking towers, a turning or removable bridge, doors, and a heavy portcullis. There would often be multiple portcullises, with arrow slits in the sides of the gate passage, allowing the defenders to trap the enemy and kill them within the gate. Additionally, gates were often placed in such a manner as to channel attacking forces against a series of perilous defensive fortifications, enabling the defenders to defend on their terms. Many gatehouses had a second body. archers in the second body could shoot down at their enemies while they were defenseless. A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ... A gatehouse is a feature of European castles and mansions. ... Counterweights for the sliding portcullis A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... An arrow slit within an embrasure at Corfe Castle An arrow slit (often referred to more formally as an arrow loop) is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows largely free from personal danger. ...


Additional features

Castles featured an array of defences to delay the attackers' progress towards the keep. Moats and ditches formed the most obvious, as these would have to be filled in before heavy siege engines could be moved towards the walls.[4] Overhanging wooden hoardings could be constructed if a castle was under threat. These covered walkways would allow several lines of fire.[1] Later, permanent fixtures known as "machicolation" were built in stone. Perhaps the most notable features of castle defence were the crenellations and merlons, which offered relative cover for archers.[1] "Murder holes" and embrasures might be built into the walls and gatehouse so projectiles could be launched at the attackers... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... A hoarding was a temporary wooden (shed-like) construction that was placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege. ... Parapets at Newark Castle, Inverclyde, Scotland, supported on decorative machicolation. ... Crenellation (or crenelation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that framed the tops of the walls of many medieval castles, often called battlements. ... A merlon, in architecture, forms the solid part of an embattled parapet between the embrasures, sometimes pierced by loopholes. ... A murder-hole is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders can fire, throw or pour dangerous or noxious substances at attackers. ... Categories: Fortification | Architectural elements | Stub ...


Construction

See also: Medieval technology and Stonemasonry
Construction of a large tower, with scaffolding and masons at work.
Construction of a large tower, with scaffolding and masons at work.

Castles were constructed of wood, stone and also brick. A large number of contemporary accounts have survived that explain how castles were built. A large skilled workforce was needed to construct castles, including ditch diggers, stonecutters, masons, carpenters, and engineers. Medieval machines and inventions, such as the treadwheel crane, became indispensable during construction, and techniques of building wooden scaffolding were improved upon from Antiquity.[5] Nevertheless, castles could take many years to complete, although the time needed depended greatly from type, location, resources, time period, construction materials, etc. Medieval treadwheel crane Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466) During the 12th and 13th centuries, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. ... The craft of the stonemason has existed since the dawn of civilization - creating buildings, structures and sculpture using stone from the earth. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 522 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (624 × 716 pixel, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/png) ...Au moyen de chevrons engagés dans les trous A supérieurs et soulagés par des liens portant dans les trous B inférieurs, le... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 522 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (624 × 716 pixel, file size: 174 KB, MIME type: image/png) ...Au moyen de chevrons engagés dans les trous A supérieurs et soulagés par des liens portant dans les trous B inférieurs, le... Medieval treadwheel crane Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466) During the 12th and 13th centuries, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... This article is about the temporary framework. ...


Finding stone was the first concern of medieval builders, and a major preoccupation was to have quarries close at hand.[6] There are famous examples of some castles where stone was quarried on site, such as Chinon, Château de Coucy and Château Gaillard.[6] Yet even without the usual costs of transport, it is estimated that as many as 800 stonemasons would have been used in building Château de Coucy in the early 13th century, as well as perhaps 800 other craftsmen.[7] Beaumaris Castle in Wales, has surviving records from 1295–96 which describe 200 quarrymen, 400 stonemasons and as many as 2000 minor workmen.[8] Castles, not surprisingly were expensive to build, considering workers and materials. For example, costs for Beaumaris, which was in and of itself part of a bigger castle program, was £14,500 (roughly $20–30 million in today's money). Chateau of Coucy, watercolor, ca 1820 (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris) The Château de Coucy is a French castle in the commune of Coucy Le Château Auffrique, in the département of Aisne, built in the 13th century and renovated by Viollet le Duc in the 19th. ... Château-Gaillard Château-Gaillard is a ruined medieval castle, located above the town of Les Andelys, in the Eure département of Normandy, France. ... Beaumaris Castle and moat. ...


In some cases, transporting stone over large distances was altogether impractical, and in the Low countries, a lack of good building stone meant that castles were generally brick. Brick castles were predominant in Scandinavia and the Baltic.[9] For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


Later developments

Innovation and scientific design

Frederick II's Castel del Monte in Puglia has no keep at all: rising on a strategic high point, it consists of an octagonal structure with eight massive polygonal towers.
Frederick II's Castel del Monte in Puglia has no keep at all: rising on a strategic high point, it consists of an octagonal structure with eight massive polygonal towers.

During the Crusades, opportunities were afforded to western engineers to study the massive fortifications of the Byzantine Empire as well as fortifications built by the Islamic inhabitants of the Holy Land. The buildings they encountered in the late 10th century featured innovations which were not common in Europe at that time. This included in part regularly-spaced flanking towers of round or variable construction, and geometric scientific design. This revolutionized the art of castle-building in Europe, which henceforward followed these principles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (819x614, 82 KB) Castel del monte, Apulia, Italy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (819x614, 82 KB) Castel del monte, Apulia, Italy. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Castel del Monte. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Designers soon realized that a second line of defences should be built within the main enceinte, and a third line or keep inside the second line,[10] while a wall must be flanked by projecting towers. Thus from the Byzantine engineers, European castles derived the principle of mutual defence of all the parts of a fortress. The donjon of Western Europe was regarded as the fortress, the outer walls as accessory defences; in the East each envelope was a fortress in itself, and the keep became merely the last refuge of the garrison, used only when all else had been captured. Many scholars have noted that in the 13th century there was a tendency toward the strengthening of the enceinte, and a reduced role of the keep in both military and residential context.

Château-Gaillard, showing the wall encircling the keep.
Château-Gaillard, showing the wall encircling the keep.

In Richard I of England's fortress of Château-Gaillard Les Andelys, the innermost ward was protected by an elaborate system of strong appended defences, which included a strong tête-de-pont protecting the Seine bridge.[11] The castle stood upon high ground and consisted of three distinct enceintes or wards besides the keep, which was in this case merely a strong tower forming part of the innermost ward. Frederick II's Castel del Monte in Puglia has no keep at all: built on high ground, it is an octagonal structure with eight polygonal corner towers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château-Gaillard, Eure, Normandie. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Château-Gaillard, Eure, Normandie. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Château-Gaillard Château-Gaillard is a ruined medieval castle, located above the town of Les Andelys, in the Eure département of Normandy, France. ... Les Andelys is a commune of the Eure département, in Normandy, France. ... This article is about the river in France. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Castel del Monte. ...


Round towers, rather than square towers, were now becoming common, with the finest examples of their employment as keeps being at Conisborough in England and at Falaise and Coucy in France. Siege artillery of the 13th century was primitive, but it was realized that against mining and battering rams, corners in castle stonework were more vulnerable than a uniform curved surface. Falaise is the name of several communes in France: Falaise, in the Ardennes département Falaise, in the Calvados département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coucy-la-Ville is a commune in the Aisne département of northern France. ... Mining, or to undermine or undermining, was a siege method used since antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ...

Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle built with both rectangular and rounded towers.
Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle built with both rectangular and rounded towers.

The next development was the extension of the principle of successive lines of defence to form what is called the "concentric" castle, in which each ward was placed wholly within another which enveloped it. This was inspired by the Walls of Constantinople, and thus places built on a flat site became for the first time more formidable than strongholds perched upon rocks and hills, where some points could not be as heavily fortified as others for lack of space. In these cases, the fall of the inner ward by surprise, escalade, or even sometimes by ordinary siege, entailed the fall of the whole castle. The adoption of the concentric system precluded any such mischance, and thus, even though siege engines improved during the 13th and 14th centuries, the defences of strong concentric castle, or naturally inaccessible castles, retained its importance during the Late Middle Ages. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 763 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1225 × 963 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Krak des Chevaliers as it was in the Middle-Ages. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 763 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1225 × 963 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Krak des Chevaliers as it was in the Middle-Ages. ... Krak des Chevaliers, also transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military architectures in the world. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and, in cases, no central keep. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... For the SUV vehicle, see Cadillac Escalade. ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ...


Construction of castles in this period was often connected to the necessity to establish a strong central power against local fragmentation, or in newly conquered lands: examples are the large building programs of Edward I of England in Wales, Philip I August of France, the Ezzelino IV da Romano and the Scaligers in northern Italy, Frederick II and Charles I of Anjou in southern Italy (often reusing former Norman or even Byzantine and Lombard structures), King Denis I in Portugal, and notably the Teutonic Knights in their conquest of Pagan lands in Prussia and Poland. In Germany, stone structures appeared in Hesse, Thuringia, Alsace and Saxony, commissioned by the powerful local aristocracy. Structures in northern Germany were usually simpler, often taking advantage of water streams. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Ezzelino III da Romano. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... Palazzo dei Normanni, the palace of the Norman kings in Palermo. ... Dinis of Portugal (in archaic Portuguese Diniz; in English Denis), the Farmer (Port. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Elsaß redirects here. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


Response to the advent of gunpowder

The advent of gunpowder in the Middle Ages signalled a change in the purpose of a castle - from being purely a military building, it became increasingly a residential one. From the Renaissance onward, this loosening of military importance allowed for a more aesthetic approach to construction, for example the Castello Estense of Ferrara in Italy, the castles of Valderrobres and Manzanares el Real in Spain and the series of highly decorated castles built (or rebuilt) in France along the Loire starting from the 15th century A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... View of the Castello Estense. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Valderrobres (Catalan: Vall-de-roures, Aragonese: Baldecaxicos) is the major town of the comarca of Matarraña (Catalan: Matarranya) in the province of Teruel, Aragon (Spain). ... Manzanares el Real is a 6,140 inhabitant town in the northern area of the autonomous Comunidad de Madrid. ... This article is about the French department. ...


Whilst siegecraft had consisted of throwing machines such as trebuchets, the primary aims in the construction of castle walls were height and thickness. However it became almost impossible to follow this ideal to cope with ever more powerful cannons. Existing castles which retained military importance were updated, as far as practically possible, to cope with new siege technologies. One example is the English fortress of Bodiam, built from 1385, provided with opposite slit to allow firing from arquebuses. But inevitably, those fortifications previously deemed impregnable, eventually proved inadequate in the face of gunpowder. These include Friesack Castle (which was reduced in two days (during February 1414), by Frederick I with "Heavy Peg" (Faule Grete), and other guns; Constantinople (the massively strong walls of which were breached in 1453 to the Ottomans after lengthy cannon bombardment); and Nanstein Castle (Franz von Sickingen's stronghold at Landstuhl, was ruined in one day in 1523 by the artillery of Philip of Hesse). Architects of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, many of whom were also renowned as engineers, were called to plan countermeasures; e.g. Guillén Sagrera, Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger, Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Baldassarre Peruzzi and Leonardo da Vinci. Viollet-le-Duc, in his Annals of a Fortress, gives a full account of the repeated renovations of a fortress (at an imaginary site in the valley of the Doubs), the construction by Charles the Bold of artillery towers at the angles of the castle, the protection of the masonry by earthen outworks, boulevards and demi-boulevards, and, in the 17th century, the final service of the medieval walls and towers as a pure enceinte de sfireti. For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Bodiam is a small village in East Sussex, England in the valley of the River Rother near to the Sussex villages of Sandhurst and Ewhurst Green. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Franz von Sickingen (1481 - May 7, 1523) was a German knight, one of the most notable figures of the first period of the Reformation. ... Portrait by Piero di Cosimo, c. ... Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1395-1482) was an Italian painter of the Sienese School, who apprenticed with Vecchietta. ... Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481—6 January 1537) was an architect and painter, born at Siena and died at Rome. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 - Lausanne 1879) was a French architect, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ...

The rounded walls of Sarzana Castle showed adaptation to gunpowder.
The rounded walls of Sarzana Castle showed adaptation to gunpowder.

The general adoption of cannons led therefore to the disappearing (or to the loss of importance) of majestic towers and merlons. Walls of new fortresses were thicker and angulated, towers became lower and stouter. Examples of the late type of castle-fortress are that in Sarzana (Italy), that built by Henry VIII of England in Deal, the Fort de Salses constructed by Ferdinand II of Aragon and the Imperial Castle of Nurnberg. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1792x1184, 236 KB) Castle (Fortezza Firmafede) of Sarzana, Italy author: Lapo Luchini date: 2002-08-07 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Castle Sarzana Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1792x1184, 236 KB) Castle (Fortezza Firmafede) of Sarzana, Italy author: Lapo Luchini date: 2002-08-07 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Castle Sarzana Metadata This file... Sarzana is a town and comune in the Province of La Spezia, of Liguria, Italy, 15 km east of Spezia, on the railway to Pisa, at the point where the railway to Parma diverges to the north. ... Sarzana is a town and comune in the Province of La Spezia, of Liguria, Italy, 15 km east of Spezia, on the railway to Pisa, at the point where the railway to Parma diverges to the north. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Deal can refer to: an agreement reached after negotiation, for example a contract to sell as a dealer or dealership a bargain a situation, as in whats the deal with the Johnson account ?. a problem, as in whats your deal ?. Deal$, a U.S. dollar store a Deal... Moat and ramparts Inner courtyard The Fort de Salses (also called Forteresse de Salses) is a northern Catalan fortress in the commune of Salses-le-Château, situated in the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


In the end, the introduction of gunpowder led to a disappearing of traditional castles, in the meaning of a building intended for both military and residential roles. This transition began in the 14th century and was fully underway by the 15th. In the 16th century the feudal fastness had become an anachronism. Here and there we find old castles serving in secondary roles, as forts d'arret or block-houses in mountain passes and defiles, and in some few cases, as at Dover, they formed the nucleus of purely military places of arms. Normally castles, when they were not let to fell into ruins, became peaceful mansions, or were merged in the fortifications of the town which has grown up around it. The Block House in Claymont, Delaware was originally designed for defense against local Indians. ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ... Dover Castle is situated at Dover, Kent and has been described as the Key to England due to its defensive significance throughout history. ...

Fortaleza Ozama, Santo Domingo - first castle built in the Americas.

In the Viollet-le-Duc's Annals of a Fortress the site of the feudal castle is occupied by the citadel of the walled town, for once again, with the development of the middle class and of commerce and industry, the art of the engineer came to be displayed chiefly in the fortification of cities. The baronial "castle" assumes pan passu the form of a mansion, retaining indeed for long some capacity for defence, but in the end losing all military characteristics save a few which survived as ornaments. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 1873 KB) Source: I User:EdwinCasadoBaez took this pic on a trip to Santo Domingo on January 7,2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 1873 KB) Source: I User:EdwinCasadoBaez took this pic on a trip to Santo Domingo on January 7,2007. ... For other uses, see Santo Domingo (disambiguation). ...


However, some true castles were built in the Americas by the Spanish and French colonies.[12] The first stage of Spanish fort construction has been termed the "castle period", which lasted from 1492 until the end of the 16th century.[13] Starting with Fortaleza Ozama, "these castles were essentially European medieval castles transposed to America."[14] Among other defensive structures (including forts and citadels), castles were also built in New France towards the end of the 17th century.[14] Where artillery was not as developed as on the battle-fields of Europe, some of Montreal's outlying forts were built like the fortified manor houses of France. Fort Longueuil, built from 1695–1698 by a baronial family, has been described as "the most medieval looking fort built in Canada".[14] The manor house and stables were within a fortified bailey, with a tall round turret in each corner. The "most substantial castle-like fort" near Montréal was Fort Senneville, built in 1692 with square towers connected by thick stone walls, as well as a fortified windmill.[14] Stone forts such as these served as defensive residences, as well as imposing structures to prevent Iroquois incursions.[14] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The title Baron de Longueuil is the only French colonial title that is recognised by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Queen of Canada. ... Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montréal, Québec, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


To guard against artillery and gunfire, increasing use was made of earthen, brick and stone breastworks and this redoubts, such as the geometric fortresses of the 17th century French Marquis de Vauban. These soon replaced castles in Europe, and eventually castles in the Americas were superseded by bastions and forts.[13] A Breastwork is a fortification. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


Revival castles and the castle as a country house

Neuschwanstein - perhaps the most famous 19th century neo-romantic castle in the world.
Neuschwanstein - perhaps the most famous 19th century neo-romantic castle in the world.

From the late 18th century to the early 20th century, as a manifestation of a romantic interest in the Medieval period, and as part of the broader Gothic Revival in architecture, many so-called castles were built. These Castles had no defensive purpose, but incorporated stylistic elements of earlier castles, such as castellation and towers. These features were personified in the Scottish Baronial style. Most of them were country houses. These revival or "mock" castles were particularly common in the British Isles, for example Belvoir Castle and Eastnor Castle. Edwin Lutyens' Castle Drogo was the last flicker of this movement in England. In Ireland, a considerable number of vast, complicated mock-castles were built, including Belfast Castle and Castle Oliver. Famous revival castles in other countries include Neuschwanstein in Germany, Miramare in Italy, and Castillo de Chapultepec in Mexico. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2970x1944, 4341 KB) Castle Neuschwanstein at Schwangau, Bavaria, Germany Picture taken by: de:Benutzer:Softeis File links The following pages link to this file: Neuschwanstein ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2970x1944, 4341 KB) Castle Neuschwanstein at Schwangau, Bavaria, Germany Picture taken by: de:Benutzer:Softeis File links The following pages link to this file: Neuschwanstein ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Crenellation (or crenelation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that framed the tops of the walls of many medievel castles, often called battlements. ... Craigievar Castle in Aberdeenshire, completed in 1626, shows the origin of the style. ... A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ... Belvoir Castle in the late 19th century. ... Eastnor Castle circa 1880. ... Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... Castle Drogo is a country house in Drewsteignton, Devon, England. ... Castle Oliver, also known as Clonodfoy, is a spectacular castle in the south part of County Limerick, Ireland. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... Miramare Castle The Miramare Castle (Italian: Castello di Miramare; German: Schloss Miramar) is a 19th century castle, built for Austrian Archduke Maximilian and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium, on the Gulf of Trieste near Trieste, northeastern Italy. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Castle

The List of castles is a link page for any castle in the sense of a fortified building. ... Krak des Chevaliers, Syria This is a list of castles in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, founded or occupied during the crusades. ... This is a list of fictional castles. ... This is a list of castles in Germany. ... Qing dynasty wall of Xian, showing elaborate wall towers Chinese city walls (Chinese: ; pinyin: chéngqiáng; literally city wall) refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times. ... An alcázar is a Spanish castle, from the Arabic word القصر al qasr meaning palace or fortress, from the Latin castellum fortress (ultimately from castrum watchpost). Many cities in Spain have an alcázar. ... Himeji Castle in Hyōgo Prefecture is the most visited castle in Japan. ... Katsuren Gusuku Ruins Gusuku is the Okinawan word for castle or fortress. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... A water castle is a castle, whose outside walls are generally surrounded by water ditches called moats, which originally served the defense. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Philip Wilkinson, Castles (Pocket Guides). Publisher: DK CHILDREN; Pocket edition (September 29, 1997). ISBN 0789420473. ISBN 978-0789420473
  2. ^ Royal, Robert. The Pope's Army: 500 Years of the Papal Swiss Guard. Crossroads Publishing Co, 2006.
  3. ^ Acta Sanctorum, quoted by GT Clark, Medieval Military Architecture
  4. ^ Castle: Stephen Biesty's Cross-Sections. Dorling Kindersley Pub (T); 1st American edition (September 1994). ISBN 978-1564584670
  5. ^ Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain (1995). The Cathedral Builders of the Middle Ages. Thames & Hudson Ltd, p. 121–126. ISBN 0500300526 ISBN 978-0500300527. 
  6. ^ a b Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain (1995). The Cathedral Builders of the Middle Ages. Thames & Hudson Ltd, p. 104. ISBN 0500300526 ISBN 978-0500300527. 
  7. ^ A Distant Mirror, Barbara Tuchman, p 11
  8. ^ Beaumaris Castle, CADW guide, p 3
  9. ^ Philip Wilkinson, Castles (Pocket Guides), p 92
  10. ^ Oman, Art of War: the Middle Ages, p. c20
  11. ^ See Clark, i. 384, and Oman, p. 533
  12. ^ Although it should be noted that there are no true castles in the United States.
  13. ^ a b René Chartrand, Spanish Main 1492–1800; Osprey Publishing
  14. ^ a b c d e René Chartrand, French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans (Fortress 27); Osprey Publishing, March 20 2005. ISBN 9781841767147

Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ...

Sources

*This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Allen Brown, R. (1970). English Castles. Chancellor Press. ISBN 0-907486-06-1. 
  • Bianchi, Vito (July-October 2006). "I Castelli". Medioevo 114–117. 
  • Cathcart King, D. J. (1983). Castellarium Anglicanum: An Index and Bibliography of the Castles in England, Wales and the Islands (2 vols). Kraus International Publications. ISBN 0-527-50110-7. 
  • Cathcart King, D. J. (1991). The Castle in England and Wales: An Interpretative History. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00350-4. 
  • Gravett, Christopher (1990). Medieval Siege Warfare. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-947-8. 
  • Higham, R.; Barker, P. (1992). Timber Castles. B. T. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 0-7134-2189-4. 
  • Johnson, M. (2002). Behind the Castle Gate: From Medieval to Renaissance. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26100-7. 
  • Kenyon, J. (1991). Medieval Fortifications. Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-1392-4. 
  • Pounds, N. J. G. (1994). The Medieval Castle in England and Wales: A Social and Political History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45828-5. 
  • Thompson, M. W. (1987). The Decline of the Castle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-85422-608-8. 
  • Thompson, M. W. (1991). The Rise of the Castle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37544-4. 

Christopher Gravett is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages, with an interest in the arms and armour of the period. ...

External links

List of castles:

  • Catalan Castles
  • Baltic Castles

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North American redirects here. ...      List of castles in Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1096x744, 47 KB)Australasia ecozone re-drawn from French wiki by MPF Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Copyright 2004 Affordable Solutions Pty Ltd Aust. ... Image File history File links Micronesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Polynesia. ... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stirling Castle Feature Page on Undiscovered Scotland (611 words)
The Castle is in the care of Historic Scotland and is open to the public all year round and seven days a week.
With the exception of the Outer Defences, most of Stirling Castle dates back to the 100 year period between 1496 and 1583, and to the efforts of three Kings, James IV, V and VI and one of their Queens, Mary of Guise.
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Castles were primarily the residences of the nobility and the gentry and the life lived in them was very much akin to that of the later country house.
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Motte and bailey castles came in a variety of configurations but the most common was a single mound and enclosure, with the motte at one end of the bailey and separated from it by its ditch.
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