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Encyclopedia > Castile (historical region)
Discussed non-official map of what is traditionally considered to be Castile limits
Discussed non-official map of what is traditionally considered to be Castile limits

A former kingdom, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English), gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Kingdom of Spain. in modern-day Spain, it comprises the regions of Castilla y León in the north-west, and Castilla-La Mancha in the center of the country. Modern Spanish monarchs are numbered according to the system of Castile. Image File history File links Castilemodified. ... Image File history File links Castilemodified. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... Categories: Castile-La Mancha | Autonomous communities of Spain ...


Castile's name means land or region of castles, in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian re-conquest from the Moors. It has been suggested that Moor religion be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents


Castilian identity and cultural expansion

Castilians are a community of inhabitants with common Culture and History. Their origin is, as well as most of other parts of the Spain, a heterogeneous mixture of Celtiberian, Roman, Visigoth, Arab, Jew, and European roots. Thus, it is not correct to establish a strict common origin, but a common cultural identity. Over time, most Castilians have mixed with other Spaniards due to their past political dominance, and present-day cultural dominance. Castilians and their cultural influence spread throughout the entire mesa of central Spain during the Reconquista, carried out principally by the Kingdom of Toledo which was renamed "New Castile". Castilian "ethnicity" is the product of the conquest, by a small kingdom in northern Spain, of vast tracts of sparsely populated lands (the central mesetas). These lands were populated, during the reconquest, by peoples from all over the peninsula (even from southern Spain (see exile of Mozarabes -christians- from Al Andalus and even the dispersal of Moriscos from Granada in the 16th century). The Celtiberians dwelt in the Iberian Peninsula and spoke a Celtic language. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article is about the continent. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as she/he is influenced by her/his belonging to a group or culture. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Al-Āndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims from 711 to 1492. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Their language, (modern day Spanish) has been adopted as the language of Spain although it is still referred to as "Castilian" in Spain and frequently in Latin America. At present, Castilians are known as the inhabitants of those regions of Spain where there is no regional identity which conflicts with that of "Castilian". The Castilian regions roughly coincide with the mesas of north-central Spain, historically sparsely populated highlands. Castilian identity is now defined negatively rather than positively. The reason for this is that Castilian nationalism was the first to have been destroyed by the Spanish Crown during the revolt and war of the Castilian communities against the Spanish Monarchy, between 1520 and 1521. Castilian identity is thus excluded from the historical nationalities of Spain such as Catalonia and the Basque regions, but also other regions which due to historical reasons have their own identity, culture and dialects such as the 8 million strong Andalusian region, and the Canary islands. Both Andalusia and the Canary islands experienced an early Castilian colonisation and subsequent immigration, but the survival and absorption of (or by) local populations allowed for a culture particular to those regions. Certain regions are not considered Castilian, such as Valencia and the Balearic Islands because historically they belong to the Crown of Aragon and because their local language is Catalan. Galicians are not considered to be Castilian, although their region was annexed by the Crown of Castile. Their language, Galician is akin to Portuguese, and they possess a local culture and identity. Navarre, a historical kingdom in its own right is Basque in the north and more Castilian in the south whereas Extremadura, a region in western Spain is considered to be Castilian in the north and Andalusian in the south. The list goes on with Murcians, Leonese, Manchegos etc... but establishing whether these people are to be considered "Castilian" is a more difficult matter. Castilian independentist mural in Belfast Castilian nationalism, or Castilianism, is a political movement that advocates for the national recognition of Castile, and in some cases, its independence. ... The Castilian War of the Communities is also known as the Revolt of the Comuneros, and in Spanish as la Guerra de los Comunidades de Castilla. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan, Spanish, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th in Spain  32 114 km²  6,3% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 2nd in Spain  6 995 206  15,9%  217,82/km² GDP Total (2004) GDP: €157,124 billion GDP per /capita: $26,550... Location of Historical Territory of the Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag The Lauburu, Basque Country symbol This article is about the traditional overall Basque domain. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Galician (Galician: galego) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia. ... Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community in Spain. ... Capital Mérida Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41 634 km²  8,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 12th  1 083 879  2,5%  26,03/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  extremeño/a, castúo Statute of Autonomy February 26, 1983 ISO 3166-2 EX Parliamentary representation... Leon or Léon or León may refer to: // Places France Léon, Landes, a commune of the Landes département, France Léon (viscounty), Brittany, France Léon (diocese), Brittany, France Mexico León, Guanajuato León (beer), a mexican beer Nicaragua León, Nicaragua León Department...


Castile in literature and poetry

Antonio Machado, perhaps one of Spain's greatest poets, and part of the auto-critical moment that was Generation of 98, wrote several books of poems to Castile. He focused that pesimisic point of view in the place of Castile and Castilians in Spanish history with these verses: Also called Generation of 1898 (Spanish: Generación del 98 or In Spain, the novelists, poets, essayists, and thinkers active at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898), who reinvigorated Spanish letters and restored Spain to a position of intellectual and literary prominence that it had not held for...


Castilla miserable, ayer dominadora,


envuelta en sus andrajos desprecia cuanto ignora.


¿Espera, duerme o sueña? ¿La sangre derramada


recuerda, cuando tuvo la fiebre de la espada?


Todo se mueve, fluye, discurre, corre o gira;


cambian la mar y el monte y el ojo que los mira.


¿Pasó? Sobre sus campos aún el fantasma yerra


de un pueblo que ponía a Dios sobre la guerra.


-Antonio Machado, 'A orillas del Duero'


(Miserable Castille, yesterday dominating,


wrapped in her rags despising as much as she ignores.


Wait, does she sleep or dream? The spilt blood does she


remember, when she had the fever of the sword?


Everything moves, flows, runs, or spins;


they change: the sea, the mountain and the eye that watches them.


Did it happen? On its fields still lingers the ghost


of a people who put God to war.)


But this critical opinion of Machado was in the internal contradiction of an Andalusian, not-Castilian, who loved and felt Castilla as his own homeland:


—yo tuve patria donde corre el Duero


por entre grises peñas,


y fantasmas de viejos encinares,


allá en Castilla, mística y guerrera,


Castilla la gentil, humilde y brava,


Castilla del desdén y de la fuerza—


-Antonio Machado


(I had my Fatherland where River Duero runs


beneath grey rocks,


and beneath the ghosts of the old holm oaks,


there, in Castile, mystic and warrior,


Gentile, humble and brave Castile,


Castile of disdain and strength.)


History

Historically, the Castilian Kingdom and people were the architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Muslims and of marriages, wars, assimilation, and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours. From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in 1977, the Castilian language alone had an official status in the Spanish State. Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


Previously an eastern county of the kingdom of León, Castile in the 11th century became an independent realm with its capital at Burgos and later Valladolid, and the leading force in the northern Christian states' 400-year Reconquista ("reconquest") of central and southern Spain from the Muslim rulers who had dominated the peninsula since the 8th century. The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Plaza Mayor and city hall, Valladolid Valladolid is an industrial city and its municipality in central Spain, upon the Rio Pisuerga and within the Ribera del Duero region. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


The capture of Toledo in 1085 added New Castile to the crown's territories, and the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) heralded the Muslim loss of most of the south. León was finally reunited with Castile in 1230, and the following decades saw the capture of Córdoba (1236), Murcia (1243) and Seville (1248). By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile. Location of Toledo in Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... New Castile (Spanish: Castilla la Nueva) was the southern part of the Kingdom of Castile in central Spain, taken during the reconquista of the peninsula by Christian kings from Muslim rulers. ... The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... Murcia () is a city and municipality on the river Segura in southeastern Spain and the capital of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia. ... // Events Innocent IV was elected pope. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, irrigated by the river Guadalquivir (, ). It is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Sevilla. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla) and Portugal in 1479 that put an end to the Castillian civil war begun in 1474 over the succession of the kingdom of Castile. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella of Castile, would eventually lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree. Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 269 027  2,9%  26,59/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: Ferran dAragó el Catòlic) (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was queen of Castile and Aragon. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Aragon and Castile. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... This is a collection of family trees of the kingdom of Spain. ...


Nowadays many people consider that the territory traditionally regarded as Castile is now divided into the Spanish autonomous communities of Cantabria, Castile and Leon, Castile-La Mancha, Madrid and La Rioja, although this territory was conquered by Castile's Crown and separated of Navarrese Kingdom, as the Basque Country. However, the territory of the Castilian Crown actually comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon, Balearic Islands and Catalonia, which all belonged to the late Crown of Aragon, and Navarre, heir of the older Kingdom of the same name. Capital Santander Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5 321 km²  1. ... Capital Valladolid Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... Capital Toledo Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 3rd 79 463 km² 15,7% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 9th  1 782 038  4,3%  22,43/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Castilian-Manchego  castellano-manchego Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 CM Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats... Capital Madrid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  7 995 km²  1,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 3rd  5 964 143  13,5%  745,98/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Madrilenian  madrileño/a Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166-2 M Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats... Capital Logroño Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 16th  5 045 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 17th   281 614  0,7%  55,82/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  riojano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 Parliament  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  4  1 President Pedro Sanz... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 269 027  2,9%  26,59/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... Capital Barcelona Official languages Catalan, Spanish, Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th in Spain  32 114 km²  6,3% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 2nd in Spain  6 995 206  15,9%  217,82/km² GDP Total (2004) GDP: €157,124 billion GDP per /capita: $26,550... Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community in Spain. ...


Language

The language of Castile emerged as the primary language of Spain — known to many of its speakers as castellano and in English as Castilian, but more often as Spanish. See Names given to the Spanish language. Castilian is a noun and adjective that refers to the region and former kingdom of Spain; in particular, it refers to the language of this region, and is therefore considered by many to be a synonym of Spanish, though with different nuances. ... There are two names given to the Spanish language: Spanish (español) and Castilian (castellano). ...


See also


Two places in the United States of America have been named after this kingdom: Village of Castile and Town of Castile. Both are located in the state of New York. Capital Toledo Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 3rd 79 463 km² 15,7% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 9th  1 782 038  4,3%  22,43/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Castilian-Manchego  castellano-manchego Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 CM Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,510,849  5. ... Old Castille (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja) is an historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of politically, Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, and Ávila, to which some scholars add Valladolid and Palencia. ... New Castile (Spanish: Castilla la Nueva) was the southern part of the Kingdom of Castile in central Spain, taken during the reconquista of the peninsula by Christian kings from Muslim rulers. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina (twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas... It is traditional (at least, since the 19th century) to start the history of modern Spain with the Visigoth kingdom. ... This is a list of kings and queens of Castile. ... Castile soap is a name used in English-speaking countries for soap made exclusively from vegetable oil, as opposed to animal fat. ... Central Spain includes the cultural melting pot of Madrid and Castille. ... Castile is a village located in Wyoming County, New York. ... Castile is a town located in Wyoming County, New York. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


 
 

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