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Encyclopedia > Caste

Castes are hereditary systems of social occupation, endogamy, social culture, economic class, and political power. Discrimination based on a person's caste is prevalent mainly in parts of Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Japan) and Africa. Today, it is commonly associated with the Indian caste system. In a caste society, the assignment of individuals to places in the social hierarchy is decided by social group and cultural heritage. At the same time, the social groups, while promoting their own exclusiveness and endogamy, are traditionally mindful of the general and peculiar roles of the other groups. UNICEF estimates that discrimination based on caste affects 250 million people worldwide.[1] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A social class is, in the most basic sense, a group of people that shares the same or similar social status. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis or castes. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definitions


Caste can be defined as an early system of social grouping distinguished by degrees of purity, social status, and exclusiveness. [2] [3] The term "caste" was first used by the Portuguese during their 16th century voyages to India. The term comes from the Spanish and Portuguese word "casta" which is derived from the Latin word meaning "chaste" or "pure." However, many have stated that, due to Portuguese ignorance of Indian culture and religious tradition, they asserted their own prejudices when defining the social structures found in India. The system is difficult to define through western structures because it incorporates ancient social traditions and Dharmic laws.[4] Image File history File links Acap. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Castes in Africa

Countries in Africa who have societies with caste systems within their borders include Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Somalia. Countries in Africa who have societies with caste systems within their borders include Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Algeria, Nigeria, Chad, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


The Osu caste systems in Nigeria and southern Cameroon are derived from indigenous religious beliefs and discriminate against the "Osus" people as "owned by deities" and outcasts.


Similarly, the Mande societies in Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone have caste systems that divide society by occupation and ethnic ties. The Mande caste system regards the jonow slave castes as inferior. Similarly, the Wolof caste system in Senegal is divided into three main groups, the geer (freeborn/nobles), jaam (slaves and slave descendants) and the outcast neeno (people of caste). In various parts of West Africa, Fulani societies also have caste divisions. Mande refers to: the Mandé people of western Africa the Mande or Mandinka people of western Africa any of the Mande languages the Mande or Mandinka language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wolof may refer to: the ethnic group of the Wolof people; the Wolof language; things originating from the culture or tradition of the Wolof people. ... The Fulbhe (singular Pullo) or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa,Central Africa and as far as East Africa. ...


Other caste systems in Africa include the Borana caste system of northeast Kenya with the Watta as the lowest caste, the Tuareg caste system, the ubuhake castes in Rwanda and Burundi, and the Hutu undercastes in Rwanda who committed genocide on the Tutsi overlords in the now infamous Rwandan Genocide. The Borana are an East African ethnic group living in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Rwandan Genocide was an attempt to exterminate the Tutsi minority of Rwanda, and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ...


Sahrawi-Moorish society in Northwest Africa was traditionally (and still is, to some extent) stratified into several tribal castes, with the Hassane warrior tribes ruling and extracting tribute - horma - from the subservient Znaga tribes. Although lines were blurred by intermarriage and tribal re-affiliation, the Hassane were considered descendants of the Arab Maqil tribe Beni Hassan, and held power over Sanhadja Berber-descended zawiya (religious) and znaga (servant) tribes. The so-called Haratin lower class, largely sedentary oasis-dwelling black people, have been considered natural slaves in Sahrawi-Moorish society.[5][6] A map showing Northwest Africa Northwest Africa is the northwestern part of Africa. ... The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... The horma was a tribute paid by subservient tribes to their protectors in traditional Sahrawi-Moorish society in todays Mauritania and Western Sahara in North Africa. ... The Znaga or Zenaga tribes were at the bottom of Sahrawi-Moorish society in todays Mauritania and Western Sahara in North Africa. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Maqil or Maquil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt during the 13th century. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of Al Minya (or Minieh), on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... The Sanhaja (also commonly spelled Sanhadja) were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Zaouia (Arabic زاوية corner), also spelled zawiya or zawiyah, is a Maghrebi and West African term for an Islamic religious school cum monastery, roughly corresponding to the Eastern term madrassa. In precolonial times, these were the primary sources for education in the area, and taught basic literacy to a large proportion... The Znaga or Zenaga tribes were at the bottom of Sahrawi-Moorish society in todays Mauritania and Western Sahara in North Africa. ... The Haratin or Harratin are an ethnic group in the Sahara. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ...


The Somali clans are divided into "noble clans," the Rahanweyn agro-pastoral clans and the lower castes such as Somali Bantus and Midgan, sometimes treated as outcasts.[7] This 2002 CIA map shows the distribution of Somali clan populations across the Somali homelands, and their percentages within Somalia: Hawiye (25%), Isaaq (22%), Darod (20%), Rahanweyn (17%), Dir (7%), Digil (3%), and ethnic minorities (6%) Somali clan refers to the clan grouping of the Somali people. ... The Rahanweyn (Somali Maay: Reewing) is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle. ... Bantu farmers near Kismaayo The Somali Bantu (also called Jarir, Jareer, Wagosha or Mushunguli) are an ethnic minority group in Somalia which is largely inhabited by Somali people. ... The Midgan or Midgaan (Somali: Midgaan or Madhibaan) is a Somali clan. ...


Castes in China

The Southern and Northern Dynasties showed such a high level of polarization between North and South that northerners and southerners referred to each other as barbarians; the Mongol Yuan Dynasty also made use of the concept: Yuan subjects were divided into four castes, with northern Han Chinese occupying the second-lowest caste and southern Han Chinese occupying the lowest one.[8] Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ...


Traditional Yi society in Yunnan was caste based. People were split into the Black Yi (nobles, 5% of the population), White Yi (commoners), Ajia (33% of the Yi population) and the Xiaxi (10%). Ajia and Xiaxi were slave castes. The White Yi were not slaves but had no freedom of movement. The Black Yi were famous for their slave-raids on Han Chinese communities. After 1959, some 700,000 slaves were freed.[9][10][11] The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... This article is about the majority ethnic group within China. ...


Castes in Hawaii

Ancient Hawaii was a caste society. People were born into specific social classes; social mobility was not unknown, but it was extremely rare. The main classes were: This article is about the U.S. State. ...

  • Aliʻi, the royal class. This class consisted of the high and lesser chiefs of the realms. They governed with divine power called mana.
  • Kahuna, the priestly and professional class. Priests conducted religious ceremonies, at the heiau and elsewhere. Professionals included master carpenters and boat builders, chanters, dancers, genealogists, and physicians and healers.
  • Makaʻāinana, the commoner class. Commoners farmed, fished, and exercised the simpler crafts. They labored not only for themselves and their families, but to support the chiefs and kahuna.
  • Kauwa, the outcast or slave class. They are believed to have been war captives, or the descendants of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden. The kauwa worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau. (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.)[12]

Luakini: in Hawaii, a temple where human and animal blood sacrifices are made. ...

Balinese caste system

Main article: Balinese caste system

The caste system in Bali is similar to the Indian caste system; however, India's caste system is far more complicated than Bali's, and there are only four Balinese castes: The Balinese caste system is a system of social organization similar to the Indian caste system. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ...

  • Shudras - peasants making up more than 90% of Bali's population
  • Vaishyas - the caste of merchants
  • Kshatrias - the warrior caste, it also included some nobility and kings
  • Brahmans - holy men and priests

Different dialects of the Balinese language are used to address members of a different caste. The Balinese caste system does not have untouchables. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ...


Castes in India

The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis or castes. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Caste system among South Asian Muslims refers to units of social stratification that have developed among Muslims in South Asia(largely the region that comprises India and Pakistan), despite Islams egalitarian tenets[1][2]. // Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with... In some parts of India, Christians are stratified by sect, location, and the castes of their predecessors. ...

Caste system among Hindus

Main article: Caste system in India

Hindu society was divided into several thousands of clans and sub-castes called Jatis. To say "Hindu Caste System" subsumes two very different schemes - the varna (class/group)[13], which is the theoretical system of grouping found in Brahminical traditions and the Jati - clan or (tribe) system actually prevalent in the society, where a person is born into a jati with ascribed social roles and endogamy, ie marriage could take place only within that jati. The jati provided identity , security and status and was historically open to change based on economic, social and political influences. The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis or castes. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... Jatis (the word literally means births) comprise the subcastes found within the four major castes, or varnas, of the Indian caste system. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ...


On the other hand, Varna as enunciated in the Brahminical texts eg Manusmriti, categorized the people in the Indian society into just 4 categories and is popularly referred to as the caste system. Broadly speaking, the varnas are Brahmins (priests, scholars and teachers), Kshatriya (warriors and rulers), Vaisya (traders and agriculturists), and Sudra ( workers and service providers). Brahmins have usually been described by the western orientalists as the priestly class, but this is not entirely accurate, as a temple priest need not have been a Brahmin necessarily, but a Yajna or fire sacrifice priest always was. In fact, there were categories even among the Brahmins and the priests are usually at the lower end of the Brahmin social scale. The Greeks and the Muslims, eg Alberuni described Brahmins as philosophers. The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... In the Hindu caste system, a Vaishya (Sanskrit vaiśya, female vaiśyā) is a member of the third of the four major castes of the varna system of traditional Indian society, comprising farmers, herders, merchants, and businessmen. ... Shudra or Sudra is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Indian society. ... In Hinduism, Yajna (Devanagari यज्ञ IAST ; also anglicized as Yagna or Yagya) is a ritual of sacrifice (Monier-Williams gives the meanings worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice) more commonly practised during Vedic times. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ...


All others, including foreigners, tribals and nomads, who did not subscribe to the norms of the society were untouchables and called 'Mlechhas'. The people who fell outside the four varnas included the group of outcastes now referred as Dalits or the 'downtrodden', by some. Thus, an untouchable, or an outcaste, is a person who is deemed to not have any "varnas by those who claimed to possess it."[14][15][16] Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... now. ...


Varna: Indian texts speak of 'varna,' which means category, type or order (of things), and groups the human society into four main types (varna) as follows. This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ...

  1. Brahmins (intelligentsia)
  2. Kshatriyas (kings)
  3. Vaishyas (merchants and cultivators)
  4. Shudras (artisans andworkers)

In "A New History of India," by Stanley Wolpert, "..a process of expansion, settled agricultural production, and pluralistic integration of new people led to the development of India's uniquely complex system of social organization by occupation..." Note that the word Brahmin is also known as Brahman in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English* Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ...


There are countless Jatis or sub-castes (organized by occupations) in India throughout history. Job skills were retained and marriage took place within the same sub-caste. The Brahmins conceptualized a hypothetical system to describe this reality, by categorizing occupation or related job into one of the four broad occupations varnas. Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Varna is a Sanskrit term derived from the root meaning to choose (from a group). ...


The Brahmins' primary vocation was to learn the scriptures, teach others and pray for peace, harmony and well being of the people as well of the whole society. The Kshastriyas'(warriors') chief vocation was to provide security and risk their lives on the battlefield to protect the society. The Vaishyas' indulged in economic activities(agrarian & trade) and the shudras were the skilled workers and professionals of various trades and services. Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...

Name Modern Names Social Task
Brahmins Bourgeiose/ Teacher/Priests Planning, Learning, teaching and praying
Kshatriyas Soldiers Maintain security & protect society
Vaishyas Peasants, Traders, Perform economic activity & build economy
Shudras Skilled Workers Manual workers Service Providers,Labourers

Jatis: Evidently, in course of history, familial, tribal, economic, political and social factors led to the closing and consolidation of the existing social ranks which became a traditional, hereditary system of social structuring. It operated through thousands of exclusive, endogamous groups, termed jāti. Though there were several kinds of variations across the breadth of India, the jati was the effective community within which one married and spent most of one's personal life. Often it was the community (jati) which one turned to for support, for resolution of disputes and it was also the community (jati) which one sought to promote. People of different jatis across the spectrum,from the upper castes to the lowest of castes, tended to avoid intermarriage, sharing of food and drinks, or even close social interaction with other jatis. But now, with rapid urbanization and large scale migration, the ensuing crowded living arrangements and public transport, and the broad-based mix of workplace colleagues, has resulted in a significant churn in social attitudes and an unprecedented commingling. Associations of occupations to caste have been changing as new occupations are developing and people from different castes are venturing into the same new job categories. It has been suggested that Journeyman be merged into this article or section. ... Jati - A part of the Hindu caste system. ... For other uses, see Jati. ...


Caste: As we have seen, the Indian society has traditionally followed a different kind of community (Jati) structure. With the 1901 Population Census, the British colonial administration force-fitted the innumerable Hindu jatis throughout India into the Brahmins' 4 varna categories, ostensibly for administrative ease in understanding the ethnic distribution and classification of the population. Thus, Jati, which was a fluid, continuously evolving, flexible structure of Indian society, with a complex system of relationships and interdependences, was frozen into an immutable, rigid frame of simple hierarchy, which was easier for the British colonial masters to comprehend, but which destroyed the cooperative, republican ethos of the society. With this sudden and unprecedented assertion of varna "caste" identities under the British empire, communities (jatis) anxiously sought to place themselves in higher levels within varna categories. On the other hand, most of the jatis grouped into the lower caste categories obviously found this classification arbitrary, unfair and unacceptable. This created a growing resentment firstly against this newly imposed "Caste" system and secondly against the Brahmins, who were seen to be the instigators and possible beneficiaries of the arrangement which cast them in a superior role in perpetuity. The revolt of the Justice Party and Periyar in the south, by the Maharaja of Kolhapur and the outstanding scholar Dr Ambedkar in western India against this, in the early decades of the twentieth century, has had a profound, long lasting impact on the Indian society and politics, which continues to this date.


While community (jati) endogamy and food restrictions remain quite strong throughout India, even in the lower caste groups, and though a diverse range of communities enriches the society, the British enforced linking of communities to a particular social Varna/Caste status, that has continued to be reinforced by post-independence India for purposes of reverse discrimination, is perhaps the biggest obstacle to the process of dissolution of inherited social status and the artificial Caste system.


The Brahmins were enjoined by their scriptures and texts, including the Manusmriti, to live in poverty and to shun possessions and temporal power and to instead devote themselves to the study and teaching of scriptures and other knowledge, to pure conduct, and to spiritual growth. In fact, they usually subsisted on alms from the rest of the society, including from those in the Shudra varna. This is an important point in understanding the difference between caste and class, which are usually equated in the westernized mind, with concepts of economic hierarchies and dominating power structures deeply embedded in its world-view and belief systems[17] The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ...


Some activists have ventured that the caste (tribes and jatis) is a form of racial discrimination.[18][19] This allegation has been disputed by many sociologists such as Andre Béteille, who writes that treating caste as a form of racism is "politically mischievous" and worse, "scientifically nonsense" since there is no discernible difference in the racial characteristics between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes such as the jatav. He writes that "Every social group cannot be regarded as a race simply because we want to protect it against prejudice and discrimination".[20] An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Andre Béteille is an Indian sociologist and writer. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The Indian government denies the claims of equivalence between Caste and Racial discrimination, pointing out that the issues of social status is essentially intra-racial and intra-cultural. The view of the caste system as "static and unchanging" has also been disputed. The Indian government has been working towards creating equality between castes with guaranteed seats in educational institutions, government jobs (and promotions) and even in the parliament for those of the Scheduled Untouchable castes and tribes. Scholarships have also been available to all of these groups, so that they can go on to further education more easily and this has raised their social status.Sociologists describe how the perception of the caste system as a static and textual stratification has given way to the perception of the caste system as a more processual, empirical and contextual stratification. Others have applied theoretical models to explain mobility and flexibility in the caste system in India.[21] According to these scholars, groups of lower-caste individuals could seek to elevate the status of their caste by attempting to emulate the practices of higher castes. Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


The eminent Socio-anthropologistM. N. Srinivas has also questioned the rigidity of Caste and introduced the concept of Sanskritisation.[22][23]. M.N. Srinivas, 1916-1999 Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas is Indias foremost sociologist. ... Sanskritization is a term coined by late M.N.Srinivas, the eminent sociologist from India, to define the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. ...


Modern status of the caste system

In rural areas and small towns, the Jati-caste system is part of the rural cultural values. Many argue rural cultural values and history should be respected, just like rural society respects city culture. The Jati-caste system is part of the multicultural heritage of South Asia, but was distorted by the British Colonial policy, when it was cast into the theoretical Varna mould. In this artificial Varna-caste system mutual respect seems a difficult proposition and a distant, if ever possible goal, due to caste politics.[citation needed] Heritage can refer to: Cultural heritage Cultural traditions Heritage tourism Inheritance Kinship and descent Natural heritage A novel in the BBC Books series See also English Heritage UNESCO World Heritage Site This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Caste is one of the major factors in politics of India. ...


The Government of India has officially documented castes and subcastes, primarily to determine those deserving reservation (positive discrimination in education and jobs) through the census. The Indian reservation system, though limited in scope, relies entirely on quotas. The Government lists consist of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes: Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... Affirmative action (US English), or positive discrimination (British English), is a policy or a program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ...

Scheduled castes (SC)
Scheduled castes generally consist of former "untouchables" (the term "Dalit" is now preferred). Present population is 16% of total population of India i.e. around 160 million. For example, the Delhi state has 49 castes listed as SC.[24]
Scheduled tribes (ST)
Scheduled tribes generally consist of tribal groups. Present population is 7% of total population of India i.e. around 70 million.
Other Backward Classes (OBC)
The Mandal Commission covered more than 3000 castes under Other Backward Classes Category and stated that OBCs form around 52% of the Indian population. However, the National Sample Survey puts the figure at 32%.[25]. There is substantial debate over the exact number of OBCs in India. It is generally estimated to be sizable, but many believe that it is lower than the figures quoted by either the Mandal Commission or the National Sample Survey[26]

The Supreme Court of India on Apr 10 , 2008 upheld the law for 27% OBC quota the law enacted by the Centre in 2006 providing a quota of 27 per cent for candidates belonging to the Other Backward Classes in Central higher educational institutions . [27] [28][29][30][31][32][33][34] In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ... Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... Tribal peoples in India comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ... The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... The Other Backward Classes (or OBCs) in India are a group of castes officially recognized as having been traditionally subject to exclusion. ...


Caste politics

Mahatma Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar and Jawaharlal Nehru had radically different approaches to caste especially over constitutional politics and the status of "untouchables."[35] Till the mid-1970s, the politics of independent India was largely dominated by economic issues and questions of corruption. But since the 1980s, caste has emerged as a major issue in the Politics of India.[35] Caste is one of the major factors in politics of India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डा. भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was an Indian jurist, scholar, Bahujan political leader and a Buddhist revivalist, who is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Mandal Commission was established in 1979 to "identify the socially or educationally backward,"[36] and to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination. In 1980, the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law whereby members of lower castes were given exclusive access to a certain portion of government jobs and slots in public universities. When V. P. Singh Government tried to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission in 1989, massive protests were held throughout the country. Many alleged that the politicians were trying to benefit personally from caste-based reservations for purely pragmatic electoral purposes. The Mandal Commission in India was established in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to identify the socially or educationally backward. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Vishwanath Pratap Singh (विश्वनाथ प्रताप सिंघ, born 25 June 1931) was the tenth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


Many political parties in India have openly indulged in caste-based votebank politics. Parties such as Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) relies on the Dalits, the Rashtriya Janata Dal, the Samajwadi Party and the Janata Dal rely primarily on OBC support, and seek Muslim support to win the elections.[37] Look up Votebank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ... RJD Womens wing office in Delhi The [Rashtriya Janata Dal]http://www. ... Samajwadi Party flag Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party) is a political party in India. ... Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger one of the major Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen led by V.P. Singh. ...


Castes in Japan

Main article: Burakumin

Japan historically subscribed to a feudal caste system. While modern law has officially abolished the caste hierarchy, there are reports of discrimination against the Buraku or Burakumin undercastes, historically referred to by the insulting term "Eta."[38] Studies comparing the caste systems in India and Japan have been performed, with similar discriminations against the Burakumin as the Dalits. The Burakumin are regarded as "ostracized."[39] The burakumin are one of the main minority groups in Japan, along with the Ainu of Hokkaidō and residents of Korean and Chinese descent. Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... Birth and death rates of Japan since 1950 Japans population, currently 127,463,611, experienced a high growth rate during the 20th century, as a result of scientific, industrial, and social changes. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese in Japan, also referred to as kakyou (Japanese: 華僑, literally Chinese sojourners) or zainichi chuugokujin (Japanese: 在日中国人, literally Chinese people resident in Japan), have a history going back for centuries or even millenia. ...


Castes in Korea

See also: Baekjeong

The baekjeong were an "untouchable" outcaste group of Korea, often compared with the burakumin of Japan and the dalits of India and Nepal. The term baekjeong itself means "a butcher," but later changed into "common citizens" to change the caste system so that the system would be without untouchables. In the early part of the Goryeo period (918 - 1392), the outcaste groups were largely settled in fixed communities. However, the Mongol invasion left Korea in disarray and anomie, and these groups began to become nomadic. Other subgroups of the baekjeong are the chaein and the hwachae.[citation needed] During the Joseon dynasty, they were specific professions like basket weaving and performing executions. They were also considered in moral violation of Buddhist principles, which lead Koreans to see work involving meat as polluting and sinful, even if they saw the consumption as acceptable. The baekjeong were an “untouchable” outcaste group of Korea, often compared with the burakumin of Japan and the dalits of India and Nepal. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... In South Asias caste system, a Dalit; often called an untouchable; is a person of shudra; the lowest of the four castes. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...


The opening of Korea to foreign Christian missionary activity in the late 19th century saw some improvement in the status of the baekjeong; However, everyone was not equal under the Christian congregation, and protests erupted when missionaries attempted to integrate them into worship services, with non-baekjeong finding such an attempt insensitive to traditional notions of hierarchical advantage.[citation needed] Also around the same time, the baekjeong began to resist the open social discrimination that existed against them.[40] hey focused on social and economic injustices affecting the baekjeong, hoping to create an egalitarian Korean society. Their efforts included attacking social discrimination by the upper class, authorities, and "commoners" and the use of degrading language against children in public schools.[41] Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ...

See also: Yangban

With the unification of the three kingdoms in the seventh century and the foundation of the Goryeo dynasty in the Middle Ages, Koreans systemized its own native caste system. At the top was the two official classes, the Yangban. Yangban means "two classes." It was composed of scholars (Munban) and warriors (Muban). Within the Yangban class, the Scholars (Munban) enjoyed a significant social advantage over the warrior (Muban) class, until the Muban Rebellion in 1170. Muban ruled Korea under successive Warrior Leaders until the Mongol Conquest in 1253. Sambyeolcho, the private Army of the ruling Choe dynasty, carried on the struggle against the Mongols until 1273, when they were finally wiped out to the last man in Chejudo. With the destruction of the warrior class, the Munban gained ascendancy. In 1392, with the foundation of Joseon dynasty, the full ascendancy of munban over muban was final. With the establishment of Confucianism as the state philosophy of Joseon, the Muban would never again gain its former social standing in Korean society. The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ... Sambyeolcho was a military unit of the Goryeo Dynasty during the era when the Choe family (최씨,崔氏) held the reins of power as military dictators behind puppet kings. ... Joseon redirects here. ...


Beneath the Yangban class were the Jung-in. They were the technicians. They served in lower level government bureaucracy. They were literate, yet were unable to rise into full bureaucratic positions despite passing the gwageo (central government entrance) exam. This class was small and specialized.


Beneath the Jung-in were the Chun min. They were the landless peasants. These people composed the majority of Korean society until the 1600s. They were illiterate, and forbidden from marrying into the Yangban class. During the Japanese invasion of 1592, as many government genealogical record was burnt, many of them fabricated their social origin and moved into the Yangban class. With the Manchu invasion of Korea in the 1627 and 1637 and numerous peasant rebellions that followed, the ranks of Yangban families swelled up to more than 60% of the whole country by the late 1800s. Belligerents Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... During the 17th century, there were two Manchu invasions of Korea: First Manchu expedition to Korea, in 1627 Second Manchu expedition to Korea, in 1637 Category: ...


Beneath the Cheonmin were the Sangmin, also called Ssangnom in the vernacular. These were the servant class.


Underneath them all were the Baekjeong. The meaning today is that of butcher. They originate from the Khitan invasion of Korea in the 1000s. As they were defeated, instead of sending them back to Manchuria, The Goryeo government retianed them as warriors, spread out throughout Korea. As they were nomads skilled in hunting and tanning of leather, their skill was initially valued by Koreans. Over the centuries, their foreign origins were forgotten, and were only remembered as butchers and tanners. The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Korea had a very large slave population, nobi, ranging from a third to half of the entire population for most of the millennium between the Silla period and the Joseon Dynasty. Slavery was legally abolished in Korea in 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930.[42][43][44] Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Joseon redirects here. ...


With Gabo reform of 1896, the caste system of Korea was officially abolished. However, the Yangban families carried on traditional education and formal mannerisms into the 20th century. With the democratization of 1990s in South Korea, remnant of such mannerisms and classism is now heavily frowned upon in the South Korean society, replaced by the myth of egalitarianism. However, with rampant capitalism, a new aristocracy is slowly developing, caused by a major gap in income among the people of Korea, with the resulting differences in education and mannerism. The Gabo Reform or Gabo Gyeongjang (갑오 경장; 甲午更張) describes a series of sweeping reforms introduced into Korea (at that time called Joseon) in 1894, during the reign of King Gojong. ...


Nepalese caste system

Main article: Nepalese caste system

The Nepalese caste system resembles that of the Indian Jāti system with numerous Jāti divisions with a Varna system superimposed. The caste system in Nepal can be traced back to the migration immigrants from the Gangetic plains and the ascendancy of the Hindu religion. ... For other uses, see Jati. ...


Caste system in Pakistan


A caste system similar to that in India is practiced in Pakistan. In the absence of "classical" castes, typically the proxies used are ethnic background (Sindhi, Punjabi, Pusthun, Balochi, Mohajir etc.), tribal affiliations and religious denominations or sects (Sunni, Shia, Ahmadiyya, Ismaili, Christian, Hindu etc.). Caste system among South Asian Muslims refers to units of social stratification that have developed among Muslims in South Asia(largely the region that comprises India and Pakistan), despite Islams egalitarian tenets[1][2]. // Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Balochi may refer to: Baloch people Balochi language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


While caste/social stratification information can be found relating to specific areas in Pakistan, it is not known if any studies have compared how relatively prevalent such attitudes are amongst the various ethnic groups, religious sects and geographies. Also, it is not known if any tracking studies have documented changes in these social attitudes.


Anecdotal evidence seems to suggest that there are quite significant differences in how social stratification is practised within, and between, the various ethnic/religious groups in Pakistan.


The social stratification among Muslims in the "Swat" area of North Pakistan has been meaningfully compared to the Caste system in India. The society is rigidly divided into subgroups where each Quom (meaning tribe or nation) is assigned a profession. Different Quoms are not permitted to intermarry or live in the same community.[45] These tribes practice a ritual-based system of social stratification. The Quoms who deal with human emissions are ranked the lowest.[46].


The Caste system in Pakistan creates sectarian divide and strong issues. Lower castes (or classes) are often severely persecuted by the upper castes (or classes). Lower castes are denied privileges in many communities and violence is committed against them. A particularly infamous example of such incidents is that of Mukhtaran Mai in Pakistan, a low caste woman who was gang raped by upper caste men.[47] In addition, educated Pakistani women from the lower castes maybe at risk to be persecuted by the higher castes for attempting to break the shackles of the local, restrictive system (that traditionally denied education to the lower castes, particularly the women). Mukhtaran Bibi Mukhtaran Bibi (مختاران بی‌بی) (c. ...


A recent example of this is the case of Ghazala Shaheen, a low caste Muslim woman in Pakistan who, in addition to getting a higher education, had an uncle who eloped with a woman of a high caste family. She was accosted and gang-raped by the upper-caste family. The chances of any legal action are low due to the Pakistani Government's inability to repeal the Hudood ordinance against women in Pakistan,[48] though, in 2006, Pakistan president Pervez Musharraf proposed laws against Hudood making rape a punishable offense,[49] which were ratified by the Pakistani senate. The law is meeting considerable opposition from the Islamist parties in Pakistan, who insist that amending the laws to make them more civilized towards women is against the mandate of Islamic religious law.[50]. Despite these difficulties, the law passed and is now expected to help the situation in regards to women. The Hudood Ordinance is a law in Pakistan, which enforces punishments mentioned in the Quran and sunnah for crimes such as adultery, rape and theft. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The late Nawab Akbar Bugti, the leader of his tribe and fighting for the Balochistan Liberation Army , criticised Punjabi attitudes to women when he said, "What respect we give to a woman, irrespective of her caste, religion or ethnicity, no Punjabi can understand."[51] now. ... Main article: History of Balochistan The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is an organisation dedicated to fighting for the independence of Balochistan. ...


Sri Lankan caste system

Main article: Caste in Sri Lanka

The system of Caste in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata, differing somewhat from the classic Varnas of North India but is similar in nature to the Jati system found in South India . ...

Castes in Yemen

In Yemen there exists a caste like system that keeps Al-Akhdam social group as the perennial manual workers for the society through practices that mirror untouchability.[52] Al-Akhdam (literally "servants" with Khadem as plural) is the lowest rung in the Yemeni caste system and by far the poorest. According to official estimates in Yemen, the total number of Khadem countywide is in the neighborhood of 500,000, some 100,000 of which live in the outskirts of the capital Sana'a. While according to the New York Times article (By ROBERT F. WORTH Published: February 27, 2008) there are more than a million.[53] The remainder are dispersed mainly in and around the cities of Aden, Taiz, Lahj, Abyan, Hodeidah and Mukalla.[54] In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ...


Origins

The Khadem are not members of the three castes--Bedouin (nomads), fellahin (villagers), and hadarrin (townspeople)--that comprise mainstream Arab society.[54]They are believed to be of Ethiopian ancestry. Some sociologists theorize that the Khadem are descendants of Ethiopian soldiers who had occupied Yemen in the 5th century but were driven out in the 6th century. According to this theory the al-Akhdham are descended from the soldiers who stayed behind and were forced into menial labor as a punitive measure.[54]


Discrimination

The Khadem live in small shanty towns and are marginalized and shunned by mainstream society in Yemen. The Khadem slums exist mostly in big cities, including the capital, Sana'a. Their segregated communities have poor housing conditions. As a result of their low position in society, very few children in the Khadem community are enrolled in school[54] and often have little choice but to beg for money and intoxicate themselves with crushed glass.[55] A traditional Arabic saying in the region goes: "Clean your plate if it is touched by a dog, but break it if it's touched by a Khadem".[54] Though conditions have improved somewhat over the past few years, the Khadem are still stereotyped by mainstream Yemenese society, considering them lowly, dirty, ill-mannered and immoral.[55] Joe Slovo shanty town in Langa on the Cape Flats simmers after a fire (Cape Town, South Africa) Shanty town near Tijuana, Mexico. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Many NGO's and charitable organizations from other countries such as CARE International are working towards their emancipation. The Yemenese government denies that there is any discrimination against the Khadem.[52][56]


See also

A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar status. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Peasants plowing in front of a castle, French manuscript c. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Segregation means separation. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Discrimination, UNICEF
  2. ^ Ask Oxford: caste
  3. ^ Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability verifiable
  5. ^ Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance
  6. ^ Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law by BBC News
  7. ^ Africa's Lost Tribe Discovers American Way
  8. ^ The 'Four Class System'
  9. ^ Black Bone Yi (people)
  10. ^ General Profile of the Yi
  11. ^ The Yi ethnic minority
  12. ^ Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawai'i
  13. ^ varna, or Varna (Hinduism)
  14. ^ India: ‘Hidden Apartheid’ of Discrimination Against Dalits (Human Rights Watch, 13-2-2007)
  15. ^ UN report slams India for caste discrimination
  16. ^ India Criticized for Discrimination Against Untouchables
  17. ^ G.S. Ghurye (1969)-Caste and Race in India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai 1969 (1932)and Dirk "Castes of Mind" online
  18. ^ An Untouchable Subject?
  19. ^ Final Declaration of the Global Conference Against Racism and Caste-based Discrimination
  20. ^ Discrimination that must be cast away,The Hindu
  21. ^ James Silverberg (November 1969). "Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium". The American Journal of Sociology 75 (3): 443–444. 
  22. ^ Srinivas, M.N, Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India by MN Srinivas, Page 32 (Oxford, 1952)
  23. ^ Caste in Modern India; And other essays: Page 48. (Media Promoters & Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Bombay; First Published: 1962, 11th Reprint: 1994)
  24. ^ List of Scheduled Castes Delhi Govt.
  25. ^ Reply to SC daunting task for government, Tribune India
  26. ^ What is India's population of other backward classes?,Yahoo News
  27. ^ SC allows 27% quota for OBCs-India-The Times of India
  28. ^ SC okays 27% quota for OBCs in higher studies- Politics/Nation-News-The Economic Times
  29. ^ NDTV.com: SC upholds 27 per cent OBC quota in educational institutions
  30. ^
  31. ^ Breaking News Online: Breaking News! Supreme Court upholds OBC Quota in Educational Institutions
  32. ^ » Supreme Court upholds Governments OBC quota in higher educational institutions - Thaindian News
  33. ^ The Hindu : Front Page : Supreme Court upholds law for 27% OBC quota
  34. ^ http://www.freshnews.in/supreme-court-upholds-government’s-obc-quota-in-higher-educational-institutions-24625
  35. ^ a b Danny Yee. Book review of Caste, Society and Politics in India: From the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  36. ^ Bhattacharya, Amit. "Who are the OBCs?". Retrieved on 2006-04-19. Times of India, April 8, 2006.
  37. ^ Caste-Based Parties. Country Studies US. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  38. ^ Caste, Ethnicity and Nationality: Japan Finds Plenty of Space for Discrimination
  39. ^ William H. Newell (December 1961). "The Comparative Study of Caste in India and Japan". Asian Survey 1 (10): 3–10. doi:10.1525/as.1961.1.10.01p15082. 
  40. ^ Kim, Joong-Seop (1999). "In Search of Human Rights: The Paekchŏng Movement in Colonial Korea", in Gi-Wook Shin and Michael Robinson: Colonial Modernity in Korea, 326. 
  41. ^ Kim, Joong-Seop (2003). The Korean Paekjŏng under Japanese rule: the quest for equality and human rights, 147. 
  42. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica - Slavery
  43. ^ Edward Willett Wagner - The Harvard University Gazette
  44. ^ Korean Nobi
  45. ^ Leach, Edmund Ronald (November 24, 1971). Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North-West Pakistan (Pg 113). Cambridge University Press. 
  46. ^ Leach, Edmund Ronald (November 24, 1971). Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North-West Pakistan (Pg 113). Cambridge University Press. 
  47. ^ CNN.com - Six men found guilty in gang rape - Dec. 12, 2002
  48. ^ Pakistani graduate raped to punish her low-caste family The Sunday Times - September 24, 2006
  49. ^ Pakistan senate backs rape bill,BBC
  50. ^ Strong feelings over Pakistan rape laws,BBC
  51. ^ Tribals looking down a barrel in Balochistan
  52. ^ a b Akhdam: Ongoing suffering for lost identity Yemen Mirror
  53. ^ Despite caste-less society in Yemen, generations languish at bottom of ladder
  54. ^ a b c d e YEMEN: Akhdam people suffer history of discrimination,irinnews.org
  55. ^ a b Caste In Yemen by Marguerite Abadjian,Countercurrents.org archive of The Baltimore Sun
  56. ^ Yemen Times

UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Spectres of Agrarian Territory by David Ludden December 11, 2001
  • "Early Evidence for Caste in South India," p. 467-492 in Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum, Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987.

is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

External links

  • Caste system in India.
  • Caste & the Tamil Nation - Brahmins, Non Brahmins & Dalits
  • Caste system in Bali
  • Caste In Yemen by Marguerite Abadjian (Archive of the Baltimore Sun)
  • India Together on Caste
  • Varna Ashram and Hindu Scriptures (pdf)
  • The Caste System in India
  • Jati system in India
  • Articles on Caste by Koenraad Elst: Caste in India, Buddhism and Caste, Indian tribals and Caste,
  • Physical anthropology and Caste, Etymology of Varna
  • Is Caste System Intrinsic to Hinduism?
  • Caste & the Tamil Nation - Brahmins, Non Brahmins & Dalits
  • Hindu Caste System & Hinduism: Vedic vocations (Hindu castes) were not related to heredity (birth)
  • ISKCON view of caste and behavior
  • Information about Velama Caste
  • These documented Results of 4-Varn system can make you Proud of your Hindu heritage
  • Historic Leaders of Velama Caste
Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ...

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