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Encyclopedia > Cast Iron
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Iron alloy phases

Austenite (γ-iron; hard)
Bainite
Martensite
Cementite (iron carbide; Fe3C)
Ledeburite (ferrite - cementite eutectic, 4.3% carbon)
Ferrite (α-iron, δ-iron; soft)
Pearlite (88% ferrite, 12% cementite)
Spheroidite Cast iron is non-toxic, has excellent heat retention and diffusion properties, and is easy to mold into a variety of shapes. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For specification language, see Alloy Analyzer. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the eutectoid temperature and composition, at which bainite can form. ... Martensite in AISI 4140 steel 0. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which ferrite (α) is stable. ... Pearlite occurs at the eutectoid of the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Types of Steel

Plain-carbon steel (up to 2.1% carbon)
Stainless steel (alloy with chromium)
HSLA steel (high strength low alloy)
Tool steel (very hard; heat-treated)
The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Plain-carbon steel is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... HSLA steel (high strength low alloy steel) is a type of steel alloy that provides many benefits over regular steel alloys. ... Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. ...

Other Iron-based materials

Cast iron (>2.1% carbon)
Wrought iron (almost no carbon)
Ductile iron
It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... -1...

Iron-Cementite meta-stable diagram.

Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of ferrous alloys, which solidify with a eutectic. Image File history File links An English version of Diag phase fer carbone. ... Image File history File links An English version of Diag phase fer carbone. ... Gray Iron was the original cast iron. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to make. ... Ferrous in chemistry is a term used for the iron with an oxidation number +2. ... For specification language, see Alloy Analyzer. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ...

Contents

Overview

Iron (Fe) accounts for more than 95% of the alloy material, while the main alloying elements are carbon (C) and silicon (Si). The amount of carbon in cast irons is 2.1 - 4%, while ferrous alloys with less carbon are denoted as carbon steel by definition. Cast irons contain appreciable amounts of silicon, normally 1 - 3%, and consequently these alloys should be considered ternary Fe-C-Si alloys. General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark grey with bluish tinge Standard atomic weight 28. ... Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... In chemistry, a ternary compound is a compound containing three different elements. ...


Despite this, the principles of cast iron solidification are understood from the binary iron-carbon phase diagram, where the eutectic point lies at 1154 °C and 4.3 wt% carbon. Since cast iron has nearly this composition, its melting temperature of 1150 to 1200 °C is about 300 degrees lower than the melting point of pure iron. Cast iron tends to be brittle, unless the name of the particular alloy suggests otherwise. The color of a fracture surface can be used to identify an alloy: carbide impurities allow cracks to pass straight through, resulting in a smooth, "white" surface, while graphite flakes deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, resulting in a rough surface that appears grey. A binary compound is a compound that contains two different elements, such as NaCl (salt). ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more phases at a composition that has the lowest melting point, and where the phases simultaneously crystallise from molten solution at this temperature. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ...


With its low melting point, good fluidity, castability, excellent machinability and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications, including pipes, machine and car parts.


Production

Cast iron is made by remelting pig iron, often along with substantial quantities of scrap iron and scrap steel, and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants such as phosphorus and sulfur. Depending on the application, carbon and silicon content are reduced to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2% to 3.5% and 1% to 3% respectively . Other elements are then added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Casting may be used to create artistic sculptures Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material such as metal or plastic is introduced into a mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected or broken out to make a fabricated part. ...


Iron is most commonly melted in a small blast furnace known as a cupola (see blast furnace for more details). After melting is complete, the molten iron is removed or ladled from the forehearth of the blast furnace. This process was devised by the Chinese, whose innovative ideas revolutionized the field of metallurgy. Previously, iron was melted in an air furnace, which is a type of reverberatory furnace. Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... LADLE ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with the combustion gases. ...


Varieties of cast iron

Grey cast iron

Main article: Grey iron

Silicon is essential to making of grey cast iron as opposed to white cast iron. When silicon is alloyed with ferrite and carbon in amounts of about 2 percent, the carbide of iron becomes unstable. Silicon causes the carbon to rapidly come out of solution as graphite, leaving a matrix of relatively pure, soft iron. Weak bonding between planes of graphite lead to a high activation energy for growth in that direction, resulting in thin, round flakes. This structure has several useful properties. Gray iron or grey iron was the original cast iron. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to make. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Greek γραφειν (graphein): to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... The sparks generated by striking steel against a flint provide the activation energy to initiate combustion in this Bunsen burner. ...


The metal expands slightly on solidifying as the graphite precipitates, resulting in sharp castings. The graphite content also offers good corrosion resistance. For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


Graphite acts as a lubricant, improving wear resistance. The exceptionally high speed of sound in graphite gives cast iron a much higher thermal conductivity. Since ferrite is so different in this respect (having heavier atoms, bonded much less tightly) phonons tend to scatter at the interface between the two materials. In practical terms, this means that cast iron tends to “damp” mechanical vibrations (including sound), which can help machinery to run more smoothly. Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a wave. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... Normal modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ...


All of the properties listed in the paragraph above ease the machining of grey cast iron. The sharp edges of graphite flakes also tend to concentrate stress, allowing cracks to form much more easily, so that material can be removed much more efficiently. A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A stress concentration is a phenomenon encounterered in mechanical engineering where an object under load has higher than average local stresses due to its shape. ...


Easier initiation of cracks can be a drawback once an item is finished, however: grey cast iron has less tensile strength and shock resistance than steel. It is also difficult to weld. Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ...


Grey cast iron's high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are often exploited to make cast iron cookware and disc brake rotors. Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat (Symbol: C or c) is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of a substance by one degree. ... Cast iron is non-toxic, has excellent heat retention and diffusion properties, and is easy to mold into a variety of shapes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Vehicle brake. ...


Other cast iron alloys

An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Chinese Yuan Dynasty.

With a lower silicon content and faster cooling, the carbon in white cast iron precipitates out of the melt as the metastable phase cementite, Fe3C, rather than graphite. The cementite which precipitates from the melt forms as relatively large particles, usually in a eutectic mixture where the other phase is austenite (which on cooling might transform to martensite). These eutectic carbides are much too large to provide precipitation hardening (as in some steels, where cementite precipitates might inhibit plastic deformation by impeding the movement of dislocations through the ferrite matrix). Rather, they increase the bulk hardness of the cast iron simply by virtue of their own very high hardness and their substantial volume fraction, such that the bulk hardness can be approximated by a rule of mixtures. In any case, they offer hardness at the expense of toughness. Since carbide makes up a large fraction of the material, white cast iron could reasonably be classified as a cermet. White iron is too brittle for use in many structural components, but with good hardness and abrasion resistance and relatively low cost, it finds use in such applications as the wear surfaces (impeller and volute) of slurry pumps, shell liners and lifter bars in ball mills and autogenous grinding mills, balls and rings in coal pulverisers and (conceivably?) balls for rolling-element bearings and the teeth of a backhoe's digging bucket (although the latter two applications would normally use high quality wrought high-carbon martensitic steels and cast medium-carbon martensitic steels respectively). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Wáng ZhÄ“n (王禎) (fl. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Metastability is the ability of a non-equilibrium state to persist for a long period of time. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... In physics and materials science, plasticity is a property of a material to undergo a non-reversible change of shape in response to an applied force. ... In materials science, a dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ... A Cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metallic (met) materials. ... An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. ... A volute is a spiral scroll-like ornament such as that used on an Ionic capital. ... Four-point-contact radial bearings A rolling-element bearing is a bearing which carries a load by placing round elements between the two pieces. ... It has been suggested that Backhoe fade be merged into this article or section. ...


It is difficult to cool thick castings fast enough to solidify the melt as white cast iron all the way through. However, rapid cooling can be used to solidify a shell of white cast iron, after which the remainder cools more slowly to form a core of grey cast iron. The resulting casting, called a “chilled casting”, has the benefits of a hard surface and a somewhat tougher interior.


White cast iron can also be made by using a high percentage of chromium in the iron; Cr is a strong carbide-forming element, so at high enough percentages of chrome, the precipitation of graphite out of the iron is suppressed. High-chrome white iron alloys allow massive castings (for example, a 10-tonne impeller) to be sand cast, i.e., a high cooling rate is not required, as well as providing impressive abrasion resistance. General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ...


Malleable iron starts as a white iron casting, that is then heat treated at about 900 °C. Graphite separates out much more slowly in this case, so that surface tension has time to form it into spheroidal particles rather than flakes. Due to their lower aspect ratio, spheroids are relatively short and far from one another, and have a lower cross section vis-a-vis a propagating crack or phonon. They also have blunt boundaries, as opposed to flakes, which alleviates the stress concentration problems faced by grey cast iron. In general, the properties of malleable cast iron are more like mild steel. There is a limit to how large a part can be cast in malleable iron, since it is made from white cast iron. Malleable Iron is the oldest member of the family of nodular irons. ... Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ... A 3-D view of a beverage-can stove with a cross section in yellow. ...


A more recent development is nodular or ductile cast iron. Tiny amounts of magnesium or cerium added to these alloys slow down the growth of graphite precipitates by bonding to the edges of the graphite planes. Along with careful control of other elements and timing, this allows the carbon to separate as spheroidal particles as the material solidifies. The properties are similar to malleable iron but parts can be cast with larger sections.-1... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ...


Recycling of cast iron

For purposes of recycling scrap, cast iron is classified into two types. One is HMS 1, which means Heavy Melting Scrap grade 1,and HMS 2, which means Heavy Melting Scrap grade 2.


Historical uses

A cast iron wagon wheel

Because cast iron is comparatively brittle, it is not suitable for purposes where a sharp edge or flexibility is required. It is strong under compression, but not under tension. Cast Iron was first invented in China (see also: Du Shi), and poured into molds to make weapons and figurines. Historically, its earliest uses included cannon and shot. In England, the ironmasters of the Weald continued producing these until the 1760s, and this was the main function of the iron industry there after the Restoration, though probably only a minor part of the industry there earlier. Download high resolution version (424x658, 25 KB)World War I United States propaganda poster featuring a pit bull. ... Download high resolution version (424x658, 25 KB)World War I United States propaganda poster featuring a pit bull. ... Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih, active 1st century AD) was a governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An ironmaster is the manager – and usually owner – of a forge or blast furnace for the processing of iron. ... A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... Events and Trends King George III ascends the British throne in 1760. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ...


Cast iron pots were made at many English blast furnaces at that period. In 1707, Abraham Darby patented a method of making pots (and kettles) thinner and hence cheaper than his rivals could. This meant that his Coalbrookdale Furnaces became dominant as suppliers of pots, an activity in which they were joined in the 1720s and 1730s by a small number of other coke-fired blast furnaces. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Abraham Darby (c. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Events and Trends Manufacture of the earliest surviving pianos. ... Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ...


The development of the steam engine by Thomas Newcomen provided a further market for cast iron, since this was considerably cheaper than the brass of which the engine cylinders were originally made. A great exponent of cast iron was John Wilkinson, who amongst other things cast the cylinders for many of James Watt's improved steam engines until the establishment of the Soho Foundry in 1795. Diagram of the Newcomen steam engine Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine, today referred to as a Newcomen steam engine, was the first practical device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work. ... Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... John Iron-Mad Wilkinson (1728 – 1808) was a British industrialist who suggested the use of iron for many roles where other materials had previously been used. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... Soho Foundry is a factory created by Matthew Boulton and James Watt at Smethwick, near Birmingham, England, for the manufacture of steam engines. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Cast Iron Bridges

The major use of cast iron for structural purposes began in the late 1770s when Abraham Darby III built the Iron Bridge, although short beams had been used prior to the bridge, such as in the blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale. This was followed by others, and cast iron bridges became common as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace. Thomas Telford adopted the material for his bridge upstream at Buildwas, and then for a canal trough aqueduct at Longdon-on-Tern on the Shrewsbury Canal. It was followed by the spectacular Chirk Aqueduct and the breath-taking Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, both of which remain in use following recent restorations. Cast iron beam bridges were used widely by the early railways, such as the Water street bridge at the Manchester terminus of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. However, problems arose when such a bridge collapsed shortly after opening in 1846. The Dee bridge disaster was caused by excessive loading at the centre of the beam by a passing train, and many similar bridges had to be demolished and rebuilt, often in wrought iron. The bridge had been under-designed, being trussed with wrought iron straps, which were wrongly thought to reinforce the structure. Nevertheless, cast iron continued to be used for structural support, until the Tay Rail Bridge disaster of 1879 created a crisis of confidence in the material. Further bridge collapses occurred, however, culminating in the Norwood Junction rail accident of 1891. Thousands of cast iron rail under-bridges were eventually replaced by steel equivalents. Events and Trends For more events, see 18th century United States Declaration of Independence ratified by the Continental Congress (July 4, 1776). ... Abraham Darby III (1750 – 1791) was an English ironmaster and Quaker. ... The Iron Bridge Map sources for Ironbridge at grid reference SJ672033 Ironbridge is a settlement beside the River Severn in Shropshire, England that grew up beside the 100 foot (30 meter) cast-iron bridge that was built across the river there in 1779. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ... Buildwas is a village and a ward in Shropshire, England. ... Longdon-on-Tern (also known as Longdon-upon-Tern) is a village in south Shropshire, England, situated approximately seven miles east of Shrewsbury and seven miles north-west of Telford. ... The Shrewsbury Canal was a canal in Shropshire, England. ... looking at Wales over the Aqueduct Chirk Aqueduct and the Railway viaduct behind it Chirk Aqueduct is a 70ft high aqueduct near Chirk that carries the Llangollen Canal across the River Ceirog. ... The Aqueduct, view from the ground Crossing the aqueduct A view of the ground below from the aqueduct The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is an aqueduct which carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee, east of Llangollen in north Wales. ... Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the worlds first intercity passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and operated for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. ... The Dee bridge after its collapse The Dee bridge disaster was a rail accident that occurred in 1847. ... It has been suggested that Wrought iron furniture be merged into this article or section. ... A view of the Tay Bridge from Dundee Tay Bridge, central section The Tay Bridge (sometimes unofficially the Tay Rail Bridge) is a railway bridge approximately two and a quarter miles (three and a half kilometres) long[1] that spans the Firth of Tay in Scotland, between the city of... The Norwood Junction railway crash occurred on May 1, 1891, when a cast iron under-bridge fractured under an express train from Brighton, UK. The locomotive crossed the bridge safely with most of its carriages intact, but the brake van fell into the gap on the bridge. ...


Textile Mills

Another important use was in textile mills. The air in these contained flammable fibres from the cotton, hemp, or wool being spun. As a result, textile mills had an alarming propensity to burn down. The solution was to build them completely of non-combustible materials, and it was found convenient to provide the building with an iron frame, largely of cast iron. This replaced flammable wood. The first such building was at Ditherington in Shrewsbury. Many other warehouses were built using cast iron columns and beams, although there were many collapses owing to faulty designs, flawed beams or overloading. The cotton mill is a type of factory that was created to house spinning and weaving machinery. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... The cotton mill is a type of factory that was created to house spinning and weaving machinery. ... Ditherington is a district within the town of Shrewsbury, county town of Shropshire. ... , Shrewsbury (pronounced either or [1]) is the county town of Shropshire, West Midlands, England. ...


During the Industrial Revolution, cast iron was also widely used for the frame and other fixed parts of machinery, including spinning and later weaving machinery in the textile mills. Cast iron became a widespread material, and many towns had foundries producing machinery, not only for industry but also agriculture. The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ...


Comparative Qualities of Cast Irons[1]

Name Nominal composition[2] Form and condition Yield strength[3] Tensile strength[4] Elongation[5] Hardness[6] Uses
Cast grey iron (ASTM A48) C 3.4, Si 1.8, Mn 0.5 Cast 25 0.5 180 Engine blocks, fly-wheels, gears, machine-tool bases
White C 3.4, Si 0.7, Mn 0.6 Cast (as cast) 25 0 450
Malleable iron (ASTM A47) C 2.5, Si 1.0, Mn 0.55 Cast (annealed) 33 52 12 130 Axle bearings, track wheels, automotive crankshafts
Ductile or nodular iron C 3.4, P 0.1, Mn 0.4, Ni 1.0, Mg 0.06 Cast 53 70 18 170 Gears, cams, crankshafts
Ductile or nodular iron (ASTM A339) Cast (quench tempered) 108 135 5 310
Ni-hard type 2 C 2.7, Si 0.6, Mn 0.5, Ni 4.5, Cr 2.0 Sand-cast 55 550 Strength
Ni-resist type 2 C 3.0, Si 2.0, Mn 1.0, Ni 20.0, Cr 2.5 Cast 27 2 140 Resistance to heat and corrosion
  1. ^ Lyons, William C. and Plisga, Gary J. (eds.) Standard Handbook of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, Elsevier, 2006
  2. ^ percent, balance being Fe
  3. ^ 0.2% offset, 1000 lb /in²
  4. ^ 1000 lb /in²
  5. ^ in 2 inches, percent
  6. ^ Brinell scale

ASTM International is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Cast iron is non-toxic, has excellent heat retention and diffusion properties, and is easy to mold into a variety of shapes. ... A cast iron mechanical bank is a toy bank with mechanical parts popular in the early 20th century. ... A street in SoHo in New York City showing a number of nineteenth century industrial structures with cast-iron facades. ...

References

  • John Gloag and Derek Bridgwater, A History of Cast Iron in Architecture, Allen and Unwin, London (1948)
  • Peter R Lewis, Disaster on the Dee: Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847, Tempus (2007) ISBN 978 0 7524 4266 2
  • George Laird, Richard Gundlach and Klaus Röhrig, Abrasion-Resistant Cast Iron Handbook, ASM International (2000) ISBN 0-87433-224-9

External links

  • Metallurgy of Cast Irons, Cambridge University

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