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Encyclopedia > Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
As captured by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite
Coordinates 40°0′N 51°0′ECoordinates: 40°0′N 51°0′E
Lake type Endorheic
Saline
Permanent
Natural
Primary sources Volga River
Primary outflows Evaporation
Catchment area 3,626,000 km² (1,400,000 sq mi)[1]
Basin countries Azerbaijan
Iran
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Surface area 371,000 km² (143,200 sq mi)
Average depth 184 m (604 ft)
Max depth 1,025 m (3,363 ft)
Water volume 78,200 km³ (18,750 cu mi)
Residence time (of lake water) 250 years
Surface elevation -28 m (-92 ft)

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.[2][3] It has a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi).[4] It is an endorheic body of water and lies between the southern areas of the Russian Federation and northern Iran. It has a maximum depth of about 1025 meters (3,363 ft). It is called a sea because when the Romans first arrived there, they tasted the water and found it to be salty.[5] It has a salinity of approximately 1.2%, about a third the salinity of most seawater. Download high resolution version (550x700, 66 KB)Description: This is a view from orbit of the Caspian Sea as imaged by the MODIS sensor on the Terra satellite. ... Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. ... Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... “Volga” redirects here. ... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... A measure based on the volume of water in a lake and the mean rate of outflow. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


It is named after the ancient Caspians. The Caspians or Caspi were ancient people dwelling along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...

Contents

Geography

The Caspian Sea is bordered by five countries:

Major natural features around the Caspian sea include: Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Gonbad-e Qabus, built in 1007, is a reminder of the blossoming of art and architecture in medieval Persia. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Flag of Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Oblast (Russian: , Astrakhanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), with an area of 44,100 km², and a population of 1,005,276 (according to the 2002 Census). ...

The sea is connected to the Sea of Azov by the Manych Canal and the Volga-Don Canal. Caspian Depression and north Caspian Sea from space The Caspian Depression is a low-lying flatland region that lies at the northern end of the Caspian Sea. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Greater Caucasus (Russian: , sometimes translated as Caucasus Major, Big Caucasus or Large Caucasus) is the major mountain range of Caucasus mountains. ... Kara-Bogaz Gol from space, September 1995 (Credit: NASA) Waters flow through the narrow inlet from the Caspian (left) into the Garabogazköl. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Manych Canal is a canal which connects the Caspian Sea and Sea of Azov, which connects to the Black Sea. ... The Lenin Volga-Don Shipping Canal (In Russian Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени В. И. Ленина) is a canal, which connects the Volga River and the Don River in a closest location between them. ...


Salinity

Depending on the inflow of fresh water from its effluents, the Caspian Sea is a fresh-water lake in its northern portions. It is more saline on the Iranian shore. The largely dried-up Garabogazköl embayment routinely exceeds oceanic salinity. Kara-Bogaz Gol from space, September 1995 (Credit: NASA) Waters flow through the narrow inlet from the Caspian (left) into the Garabogazköl. ... “Bay” redirects here. ...


Cities near the Caspian Sea

Caspain Sea shore, Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan.
Caspain Sea shore, Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan.

Major cities by the Caspian Sea: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 991 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 991 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Türkmenbaşy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ...

  • Alyat, Azerbaijan
  • Astara, Azerbaijan
  • Avrora, Azerbaijan
  • Baku, Azerbaijan
  • Bank, Azerbaijan
  • Buzovna, Azerbaijan
  • Gobustan, Azerbaijan
  • Kala, Azerbaijan
  • Khudat, Azerbaijan
  • Khachmaz, Azerbaijan
  • Lankaran, Azerbaijan
  • Massally, Azerbaijan
  • Nabran, Azerbaijan
  • Oil Rocks, Azerbaijan
  • Syzan, Azerbaijan
  • Sangachaly, Azerbaijan
  • Sumqayit, Azerbaijan
  • Primorisk, Azerbaijan
  • Prishib, Azerbaijan
  • Astara, Iran
  • Babolsar, Iran
Map of the Caspian Sea, yellow shading indicates Caspian drainage basin.
Map of the Caspian Sea, yellow shading indicates Caspian drainage basin.

Astara is a rayon in southeastern Azerbaijan. ... Avrora (Russian for Aurora) may refer to: Aurora (cruiser) (Avrora), a Russian protected cruiser; currently a museum ship in St. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Qobustan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Kala is the second studio album by UK artist M.I.A. and will be released, according to Billboard. ... Khudat (or Xudat) is a town in the Caspian lowlands located in the northern section of Azerbaijan. ... Xacmaz is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Lankaran, or Lenkoran, (Azeri: LÉ™nkÉ™ran) is a small city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran, with a population of 48,400 (2002), at least half of which are Talysh. ... Nabran is a popular resort in Khachmaz rayon of Azerbaijan. ... The Oil Rocks (Neft Dashlari) (Azerbaijani: Neft DaÅŸları) was the first oil platform in the world. ... Sumqayit is located about 30 kilometers (approximiately 20 miles) northwest of Azerbaijans capital Baku, near the Caspian Sea. ... Astara is a city in the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Dabir Azam Hosna: former mayor of Babolsar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 602 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a map of the Caspian Sea including a small locator map. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 598 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 602 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a map of the Caspian Sea including a small locator map. ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... Chaloos (Persian: چالوس), also transliterated as Chalous and Chalus is a city in Mazandaran Province, in Iran. ... Noshahr (also written Nowshahr, Noushahr and نوشهر in persian) is a port city in the province of Mazandaran in northern Iran. ... Ramsar (in Persian: رامسر) is a town in Mazandaran province of Iran, at the Caspian Sea. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Rasht Rasht ( رشت in Persian, also transcribed as Resht) is the capital of Gilan province in northwestern Iran. ... Sari /SārÄ«/ is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea. ... Geographical location of Atyrau. ... Aqtau or Aktau (Kazakh: Ақтау Aqtau; Russian: ) is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport on the Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... Makhachkala (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Dagestan. ...

Islands

  • Ashuradeh
  • Bulla
  • Çikil
  • Çilov
  • Gil
  • Nargin
  • Pirallahı
  • Ogurchinskiy (Turkmenistan)
  • Qara Su
  • Qum
  • Səngi Muğan
  • Vulf
  • Zənbil

ello luv this is megan and olivia here. ... Bulla Island (Kharra Zira, Azeri: Bulla adası (Xərə Zirə)) is the largest island in the Caspian Sea within the Absheron Peninsula region (area: 3,5 km2, maximum length: 3,4 km, width: 2,6 km). ... Nargin (Boyuk Zirya, Azeri: Nargin (Böyük Zirə)) is the largest island within the Baku Bay (DMS: 40°1738N 49°5518E). ... Pirallahı Island (Azeri: Pirallahı adası; formerly Artyom Island) is a settlement in the Caspian Sea, within the Azizbekov district of Baku. ... Vulf, (Also spelled Volf ) is a tiny uninhabited island in the Baku Archipelago. The island is one of many that protects the Bay of Baku. ...

History

The Caspian Sea, viewed from Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan
The Caspian Sea, viewed from Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan

The Caspian Sea is a remnant of the Tethys Sea, along with Black and Aral seas. It became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago. Discoveries in the Huto cave near the town of Behshahr, Mazandaran south of the Caspian, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 75,000 years ago.[2] Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 611 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 611 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... The Tethys Sea was a shallow inland body of water that existed between Laurasia and Gondwana, the geological ancestor of the modern Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... http://en. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ...


In classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the Hyrcanian Ocean. In Persian antiquity, as well as in modern Iran, it is known as the Khazar or Mazandaran Sea. In Turkic speaking countries it is known as the Khazar Sea. Old Russian sources call it the Khvalyn (Khvalynian) Sea after the Khvalis, inhabitants of Khwarezmia. Ancient Arabic sources refer to Bahr-e-Qazvin — the Qazvin Sea. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ...


The word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspi, an ancient people that lived to the west of the sea in Transcaucasia.[6] Strabo wrote that "to the country of the Albanians belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared".[7] Moreover, the Caspian Gate, which is the name of a region in Tehran province of Iran, is another possible piece of evidence that they migrated to the south of the sea. The Cas or Caspi were a tribe of the Dahae who settled south of the Caspian sea and north of the Alborz mountains, in what is now the Gīlān Province, in Achaemenid times. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ...


Historical cities by the sea include

Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (Turkic for Big River), was a name of the Volga River and of the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until towards the end of the Jews, Christians, Shamanists, and pagans and included many public baths and shops. ... Khazaran was a city east of Atil in the Khazar kingdom, connected to the latter by a pontoon bridge. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Cities in Azerbaijan ... Astara is also the name of a rayon in Azerbaijan, see Astara, Azerbaijan Astara is a city in the Iranian province of Gilan. ...

Fauna

An aerial view of the southern Caspian coast as viewed from atop the Alborz mountains in Mazandaran, Iran
An aerial view of the southern Caspian coast as viewed from atop the Alborz mountains in Mazandaran, Iran

The Caspian Sea holds great numbers of sturgeon, which yield eggs that are processed into caviar. In recent years overfishing has threatened the sturgeon population to the point that environmentalists advocate banning sturgeon fishing completely until the population recovers. However, prices for sturgeon caviar are so high that fisherman can afford to pay similarly high bribes to authorities to look the other way, making regulations in many locations ineffective.[citations needed] Caviar harvesting further endangers the fish stocks, since it targets reproductive females. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2170x1599, 2149 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspian Sea Mazandaran Province ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2170x1599, 2149 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspian Sea Mazandaran Province ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Sturgeon is a term for a genus of fish (Acipenser) of which 26 species are known. ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ...


The Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica, Pusa caspica in some sources) is endemic to the Caspian Sea, one of very few seal species living in inland waters (see also Baikal Seal). Binomial name Pusa caspica (Gmelin, 1788) Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), one of the smallest members of the true seal family, are unique in that they are found exclusively in the brackish Caspian Sea. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Binomial name Phoca sibirica Gmelin, 1788 The Nerpa or Baikal Seal (Phoca sibirica) is a species of earless seal endemic to Lake Baikal, a huge freshwater lake in Siberia near the border with Mongolia). ...


The area has given its name to several species of birds, including the Caspian Gull and the Caspian Tern. Binomial name Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 Caspian Gull is a name applied to the gull taxon Larus (argentatus) cachinnans, a member of the Herring Gull/Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


There are several species and subspecies of fish endemic to the Caspian sea, including Kutum (also known as Caspian White Fish), Caspian Roach, Caspian Bream (some report that the Bream occurring in the Aral Sea is the same subspecies), and a species of salmon. Caspian Salmon is critically endangered. Trinomial name Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskiy, 1901 The Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, family Cyprinidae) also known as Caspian White Fish, Caspian Roach, mahi sefid in Persian, Talaji in Mazandarani, and sifid mahyi in Gileki , is a medium sized fresh water and brackish water fish native to the caspian Sea. ... Trinomial name Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskiy, 1901 The Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, family Cyprinidae) also known as Caspian White Fish, Caspian Roach, mahi sefid in Persian, Talaji in Mazandarani, and sifid mahyi in Gileki , is a medium sized fresh water and brackish water fish native to the caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Roach. ... Binomial name Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 The carp bream (Abramis brama) is a species of fresh-water fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae, to which about 1,500 species belong. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ...


Oil

The area is rich in energy wealth. As well as recently discovered oil fields, large natural gas supplies are also in evidence, though further exploration is needed to define their full potential. Geopolitical jockeying is taking place amongst Caspian-bordering countries, especially in the light of Middle East instability and the subsequent recasting of many Western countries' energy policies. Another factor influencing this is the new US military deployment to the Central Asian region. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...


A key problem is the status of the Caspian Sea and the establishment of the water boundaries among the five countries bordering the Caspian. Russia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan signed an agreement in 2003 to divide the northern 64% of the sea among themselves, although the other two bordering countries, Iran and Turkmenistan, did not agree to this. This is likely to result in the three agreeing nations proceeding with oil development regardless; Iranian and Turkmen development is likely to stall.


At present, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have seen the biggest increase in oil production, an increase of 70% since 1992. Despite this, the region is still achieving less than potential output, with total regional production 1.6 million barrels (250,000 m³) per day, roughly equal to Brazil's production. This is expected to triple by 2010.


The oil in the Caspian basin is estimated to be worth over USD $12 trillion dollars. “USD” redirects here. ...


International disputes

There are three major issues regulated by the Caspian Sea status: access to mineral resources (oil and natural gas), access for fishing and access to international waters (through Russia's Volga river and the canals connecting it to the Black Sea and Baltic Sea). Access to the Volga-river is particularly important for the landlocked states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. This issue is of course sensitive to Russia, because this potential traffic will move through its territory (albeit onto the inland waterways). If a body of water is labeled as Sea then there would be some precedents and international treaties obliging the granting of access permits to foreign vessels. If a body of water is labeled merely as lake then there are no such obligations. Environmental issues are also somewhat connected to the status and borders issue. It should be mentioned that Russia got the bulk of the former Soviet Caspian military fleet (and also currently has the most powerful military presence in the Caspian Sea). Some assets were assigned to Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan and especially Turkmenistan got a very small share (because they lack major port cities). Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ...

  • According to a treaty signed between Persia (Iran) and Russia, the Caspian Sea is technically a lake and it is to be divided into two sectors (Persian and Russian), but the resources (then mainly fish) would be commonly shared. The line between the two sectors was to be seen as an international border in a common lake (like Lake Albert). Also the Russian sector was sub-divided into administrative sectors of the four littoral republics.
  • After the dissolution of the Soviet Union not all of the newly independent states assumed continuation of the old treaty. At first Russia and Iran announced that they would continue to adhere to the old treaty (but they don't have a common border any more, so this is practically impossible). Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan announced that they do not consider themselves parties to this treaty.
  • Later followed some proposals for common agreement between all littoral states about the status of the sea.
    • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan insisted that the sectors should be based on the median line, thus giving each state a share proportional to its Caspian coastline length. Also the sectors would form part of the sovereign territory of the particular state (thus making them international borders and also allowing each state to deal with all resources within its sector as it wishes unilaterally).
    • Iran insisted that the sectors should be such that each state gets a 1/5th share of the whole Caspian Sea. This was advantageous to Iran, because it has a proportionally smaller coastline.
    • Russia proposed a somewhat compromising solution: the seabed (and thus mineral resources) to be divided along sectoral lines (along the two above-described variants), the surface (and thus fishing rights) to be shared between all states (with the following variations: the whole surface to be commonly shared; each state to receive an exclusive zone and one single common zone in the center to be shared. The second variant is deemed not practical, because of the small size of the whole sea).
  • Current situation

Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan have agreed to a solution about their sectors. There are no problems between Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, but the latter is not actively participating, so there is no agreement either. Azerbaijan is at odds with Iran over some oil fields that the both states claim. There have been occasions where Iranian patrol boats have opened fire at vessels sent by Azerbaijan for exploration into the disputed region. There are similar tensions between Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan (the latter claims that the former has pumped more oil than agreed from a field, recognized by both parties as shared). Less acute are the issues between Turkmenistan and Iran. Regardless, the southern part of the sea remains disputed. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake Albert (disambiguation). ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 11 former Soviet Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...

    • Russia and Kazakhstan signed a treaty, according to which, they divide the northern part of the Caspian Sea between them into two sectors along the median line. Each sector is an exclusive zone of its state. Thus all resources, seabed and surface are exclusive to the particular state.
    • Russia and Azerbaijan signed a similar treaty about their common border.
    • Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan signed a similar treaty about their common border.
    • Iran doesn't recognize the bilateral agreements between the other littoral states, but this has limited practical implications, because it doesn't have common borders with Russia and Kazakhstan. Also Iran continues to insist on a single multilateral agreement between all five littoral states (as the only way to achieve 1/5-th share).
    • The position of Turkmenistan is unclear.

After Russia adopted the median line sectoral division and the three treaties already signed between some littoral states this is looking like the realistic method for regulating the Caspian borders. The Russian sector is fully defined. The Kazakhstan sector is not fully defined, but is not disputed either. Azerbaijan's, Turkmenistan's and Iran's sectors are not fully defined. It is not clear if the issue of Volga-access to vessels from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan is covered by their agreements with Russia and also what the conditions are for Volga-access for vessels from Turkmenistan and Iran.


Eurasia Canal

In July 2007, in order to boost his oil-rich country's access to markets, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev proposed a 700km link between the Caspian and Black seas. It is hoped that the "Eurasia Canal" would transform the landlocked Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries into maritime states, enabling them to significantly increase trade volume. While the canal would traverse Russian territory, it would benefit Kazakhstan through its Caspian Sea ports. [8] Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишёвич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev]) (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakhstan) is the current President of Kazakhstan, and the countrys only leader since independence from the Soviet Union. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ...


Characteristics and ecology

The Caspian has characteristics common to both seas and lakes. It is often listed as the world's largest lake, though it is not a freshwater lake. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


The Volga River (about 80% of the inflow) and the Ural River discharge into the Caspian Sea, but it is endorheic, i.e. there is no natural outflow (other than by evaporation). Thus the Caspian ecosystem is a closed basin, with its own sea level history that is independent of the eustatic level of the world's oceans. The Caspian became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago. The level of the Caspian has fallen and risen, often rapidly, many times over the centuries. Some Russian historians claim that a medieval rising of the Caspian caused the coastal towns of Khazaria, such as Atil, to flood. In 2004, the water level was -28 metres, or 28 metres (92 feet) below sea level. “Volga” redirects here. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material)(also called closed basin). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sea level. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (Turkic for Big River), was a name of the Volga River and of the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until towards the end of the Jews, Christians, Shamanists, and pagans and included many public baths and shops. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


Over the centuries, Caspian Sea levels have changed in synchronicity with the estimated discharge of the Volga, which in turn depends on rainfall levels in its vast catchment basin. Precipitation is related to variations in the amount of North Atlantic depressions that reach the interior, and they in turn are affected by cycles of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Thus levels in the Caspian sea relate to atmospheric conditions in the North Atlantic thousands of miles to the north and west. These factors make the Caspian Sea a valuable place to study the causes and effects of global climate change. The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a complex climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean (especially associated with fluctuations of climate between Iceland and the Azores). ...


The last short-term sea-level cycle started with a sea-level fall of 3 m from 1929 to 1977, followed by a rise of 3 m from 1977 until 1995. Since then smaller oscillations have taken place[3]. These changes have caused major environmental problems[4].


Transportation

Several scheduled ferry services operate on the Caspian Sea, including: The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ...

TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Aktau is a city in Kazakhstan and a seaport to the Caspian Sea. ...

Freezing

The northern portion of the Caspian Sea freezes in winter, and in the coldest winters, ice will form at the south.


See also

Look up Caspian Sea in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Caspian Depression and north Caspian Sea from space The Caspian Depression is a low-lying flatland region that lies at the northern end of the Caspian Sea. ... An ekranoplan (Russian: , literally screen plane) is a vehicle resembling an aircraft but that operates solely on the principle of ground effect (in Russian эффект экрана effekt ekrana - from which the name derived). ... Tengiz field, in western Kazakhstan, is located in the swamplands along the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea. ... Shah Deniz gas field is the largest natural gas field in Azerbaijan. ... This article may not meet Wikipedias quality standards and should be cleaned up. ... Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline is a planned submarine extension of the South Caucasus Pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum pipeline) by Baku (Azerbaijan)- TürkmenbaÅŸy (Turkmenistan) and Tengiz (Kazakhstan) branch. ... The Trans-Caspian Oil Pipeline is a proposed oil pipeline from the Kazakhstani port of Aktau to Baku in Azerbaijan. ... The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ...

Notes

  1. ^ van der Leeden, Troise, and Todd, eds., The Water Encyclopedia. Second Edition. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, 1990. page 196.
  2. ^ Caspian Sea » General background. CaspianEnvironment.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  3. ^ ESA: Observing the Earth - Earth from Space: The southern Caspian Sea. ESA.int. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  4. ^ Lake Profile: Caspian Sea. LakeNet.
  5. ^ Large Lakes of the World. Factmonster.com.
  6. ^ Caspian Sea. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 13, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110540
  7. ^ Strabo. Geography. 11.3.1
  8. ^ [1]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Caspian Sea - MSN Encarta (665 words)
The Caspian Sea is bordered on the west by Azerbaijan and Russia, on the northeast and east by Kazakhstan, on the east by Turkmenistan, and on the south by Iran.
The Caspian coastline is irregular, with large gulfs on the east, including Krasnovodsk Gulf and the very shallow Garabogazköl Gulf, which acts as an evaporation basin and is the site of a major chemical plant that extracts salts from the deposits.
The southern and southwestern shorelines of the Caspian Sea are bordered by the Elburz Mountains and the Caucasus Mountains.
Asia and Oceania (6262 words)
It is bounded on the N by the South China Sea, on the N and E by the Pacific Ocean, and on the S and W by the Indian Ocean.
Iran is bounded on the N by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and the Caspian Sea, on the E by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the S by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, on the W by Iraq, and on the NW by Turkey, with a total land boundary length of 5,440 km (3,380 mi).
Situated off the eastern edge of the Asian continent, the Japanese archipelago is bounded on the N by the Sea of Okhotsk, on the E and S by the Pacific Ocean, on the SW by the East China Sea, and on the W by the Sea of Japan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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