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Encyclopedia > Caspar Weinberger
Caspar Weinberger
Caspar Weinberger

In office
January 21, 1981 – November 23, 1987
Under President Ronald Reagan
Preceded by Harold Brown
Succeeded by Frank Carlucci

Born August 18, 1917
Flag of United States San Francisco, CA, USA
Died March 28, 2006
Flag of United States Bangor, ME, USA
Political party Republican

Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. He is also known for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), the Iran-Contra Affair, and also as Chairman of Forbes Magazine. Official PUBLIC photo of Secretary Caspar Weinberger (around 1960) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The presidential seal was first used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... This article is about the Maine, USA city of Bangor. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a presidential republic... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916) is an American business executive and a former United States Secretary of Defense. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld, (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic... The Iran-Contra Affair (also called the Iran-Contra Matter and Iran-gate) was one of the largest political scandals in the United States during the 1980s. ... Alternate meaning: For the Boston Brahmin family associated with John Forbes Kerry, see Forbes family. ...

Contents

Early life

Weinberger was born in San Francisco, California, as the son of Colorado-born lawyer Herman Weinberger and Cerise Carpenter Hampson, his stepmother, whose parents were immigrants from England.[1] He had a Bohemia-born Jewish paternal grandfather, Nathan Weinberger, and followed his stepmother's Episcopalian faith.[2] He received a B.A. degree, magna cum laude, in 1938 and a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1941, both from Harvard University. Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The word Episcopal is derived from the Greek επισκοπος epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word however is used in religious terms to mean bishop. ... // Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence(J.D. or JD, from the Latin Juris Doctor) is a degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


He entered the U.S. Army as a private in 1941, was commissioned, and served with the 41st Infantry Division in the Pacific. At the end of the war he was a captain on General Douglas MacArthur's intelligence staff. Early in life, he developed an interest in politics and history, and, during the war years, a special admiration for Winston Churchill, whom he would later cite as an important influence. Between 1945 and 1947, Weinberger worked as a law clerk for a federal judge before joining a San Francisco law firm. The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The 41st Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. A National Guard unit, it was reorgnized in 1965 as a separate infantry brigade; the 41st Brigade Combat Team is headquartered in Tigard, Oregon and is currently assigned to the... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...


Political career

He won election to the California State Assembly in 1952 and reelection in 1954 and 1956. As the Chairman of the Assembly Government Organization Committee, Caspar is responsible for the creation of the California Department of Water Resources and was instrumental in the creation of the California State Water Project. Although unsuccessful in his 1958 campaign for California Attorney General, Weinberger continued to be active in politics, becoming chairman of the California Republican Party in 1962. The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... The California Department of Water Resources is responsible for the management of water resources in California. ... The California State Water Project is the is the nations largest state-built water and power development and conveyance system. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ...


Governor Ronald Reagan named him chairman of the Commission on California State Government Organization and Economy in 1967 and appointed him State director of finance early in 1968. Weinberger moved to Washington in January 1970 to become chairman of the Federal Trade Commission. He subsequently served under President Richard Nixon as deputy director (1970-72) and director (1972-73) of the Office of Management and Budget and Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1973-75). For the next five years, Weinberger was vice president and general counsel of the Bechtel Corporation in California. FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ... Nixon redirects here. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest civil engineering company in the world. ...


Secretary of Defense

Although not widely experienced in defense matters, Weinberger had a reputation in Washington as an able administrator; his powers as a cost cutter earned him the sobriquet "Cap the Knife." He shared President Reagan's conviction that the Soviet Union posed a serious threat to the United States, and that the defense establishment needed to be modernized and strengthened. Belying his nickname, at the Pentagon Weinberger became a vigorous advocate of Reagan's plan to increase the Department of Defense budget. Readiness, sustainability, and modernization became the watchwords of the defense program. In his early years at the Pentagon, Cap Weinberger was known as "Cap the Ladle" for advocating large increases in defense spending. The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located at 48 N. Rotary Road, Arlington, Virginia 22211 (Map). ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...

Caspar Weinberger inspecting new hardware, Fort Lewis, Washington on April 22, 1983.
Caspar Weinberger inspecting new hardware, Fort Lewis, Washington on April 22, 1983.

As Secretary of Defense, Weinberger oversaw a massive rebuilding of US military strength. Major defense programs he championed included the B-1B bomber and the "600-ship Navy". His efforts created economic and military-industrial pressures that were associated with the beginning of Perestroika and the beginning of the end of both the Cold War and the Soviet Union. While these events were clearly substantial and world-changing, they came at the cost of helping to triple the national debt. Weinberger pushed for dramatic increases in the United States' nuclear weapons arsenal and was a strong advocate of the controversial Strategic Defense Initiative, popularly known as Star Wars, an initiative which proposed a space-based missile defense shield. Image File history File links Caspar_Weinberger_inspects_helicopter. ... Image File history File links Caspar_Weinberger_inspects_helicopter. ... Fort Lewis is a census-designated place and U.S. Army military base located in Pierce County, Washington. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing IDS (formerly Rockwell) B-1B Lancer is a long-range strategic bomber in service with the USAF. Together with the B-52 Stratofortress, it is the backbone of the United Statess long-range bomber force. ... The 600 Ship Navy was a plan put forth as a campaign plank by Ronald Reagan in 1980 to rebuild the United States Navy to its former size after post-Vietnam cutbacks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic...


In response to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, President Reagan assembled his national security team and planned to target the Sheik Abdullah barracks in Baalbek, Lebanon, which housed Iranian Revolutionary Guards believed to be training Hezbollah fighters. However Weinberger said there would be no change in the U.S.'s Lebanon policy and aborted the mission, reportedly because of his concerns that it would harm U.S. relations with other Arab nations. The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Overview of Baalbek in the late 19th century Baalbek (Arabic: ‎) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Involvement in the Jonathan Pollard Case

Prior to sentencing of Jonathan Pollard, then Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger submitted a 46-page classified memorandum to the judge, the contents of which were not shown to Pollard's attorneys. Weinberger called for severe punishment, and the memo, still classified, is widely cited as a major reason that the judge ultimately sentenced Pollard to life in prison without parole for espionage. Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954) is a convicted Israeli spy and a former United States Naval civilian intelligence analyst. ...


The late Mr. Weinberger, who himself was pardoned by President George H.W. Bush (#41), conceded before his death that, as many have claimed, Pollard's punishment is too harsh.


Iran-Contra Affair

Though he claims to have been opposed to the sale on principle, Weinberger participated in the transfer of United States TOW anti-tank missiles to Iran during the Iran-Contra Affair. By 1987, the disclosure of the Iran-Contra Affair and increasing difficulties with Defense budgets weighed on Weinberger. Weinberger resigned on November 23, 1987, citing his wife's declining health. He specifically denied that he was opposed to the INF Treaty, scheduled to be signed in Washington in December 1987. In fact, he took credit for proposing the substance of the treaty early in his term at the Pentagon. A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ... The Iran-Contra Affair (also called the Iran-Contra Matter and Iran-gate) was one of the largest political scandals in the United States during the 1980s. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ...


Following his resignation as Secretary of Defense, Weinberger was placed under indictment by Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh. The formal indictment charged Weinberger with several felony counts of lying to the Iran-Contra independent counsel during its investigation. Weinberger received a Presidential pardon from President George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992 after he had failed to win a second term. United States Office of the Independent Counsel was an independent prosecutor — distinct from the Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice — that provided reports to the Congress under Title 28 of the United States Code, Article 595. ... Lawrence E. Walsh, born January 8, 1912, is an American lawyer and former judge and Deputy Attorney General who was appointed to the Office of the Independent Counsel in 1987 to investigate the Iran-Contra affair during the Reagan Administration. ... The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Later career

Weinberger had been Secretary of Defense for six years and ten months, longer than any of his predecessors except Robert McNamara. After Weinberger left the Pentagon, he joined Forbes, Inc., in 1989 as publisher of Forbes magazine. He was named chairman in 1993. Over the next decade, he wrote frequently on defense and national security issues. In 1990, he wrote Fighting for Peace, an account of his Pentagon years. In 1996, Weinberger co-authored a book entitled The Next War, which raised questions about the adequacy of U.S. military capabilities following the end of the Cold War. After he published his book, his colleagues from the Reagan administration broke contact and refused to speak with him. Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916) is an American business executive and a former United States Secretary of Defense. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Death

Weinberger's funeral at Arlington National Cemetery.
Weinberger's funeral at Arlington National Cemetery.

While residing on Mount Desert Island, Maine, Weinberger was treated for and died from complications due to pneumonia at Eastern Maine Medical Center in Bangor on March 28, 2006. He was 88 years old. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 1180 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspar Weinberger Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1632, 1180 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspar Weinberger Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... [[ Historical Information Arlington National Cemetery Section 27 Facts Pvt. ... Mount Desert Island, in Hancock County, Maine, is one of the larger islands in the United States, being the third largest in the East after Long Island and Marthas Vineyard. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the Maine, USA city of Bangor. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Shortly after his death President George W. Bush in a public statement said: George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

"Caspar Weinberger was an American statesman and a dedicated public servant. He wore the uniform in World War II, held elected office, and served in the cabinets of three Presidents. As Secretary of Defense for President Reagan, he worked to strengthen our military and win the Cold War. In all his years, this good man made many contributions to our Nation. America is grateful for Caspar Weinberger's lifetime of service. Laura and I send our condolences and prayers to the entire Weinberger family."[3]

Then United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stated: The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Donald Henry Rumsfeld, (born July 9, 1932) is a U.S. politician and businessman, who was the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975–1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001–2006. ...

"Cap Weinberger was a friend. His extensive career in public service, his support for the men and women in uniform and his central role in helping to win the Cold War leave a lasting legacy... He left the United States armed forces stronger, our country safer and the world more free."[4]

Awards

The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 258 killed [3] 777 wounded 59 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: ) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Strategic Studies Association (ISSA) is a Washington DC based non-governmental organization (NGO) with a world-wide membership of professionals involved in national management, particularly in national and international security and strategic policy. ...

References

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4854962.stm
  2. ^ http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0895261669
  3. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/03/20060328-3.html
  4. ^ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Mar2006/20060328_4637.html
  • Department of Defense biography
  • Caspar Weinberger Dies At 88 - Forbes Magazine obituary

External links

Preceded by
George P. Schultz
United States Office of Management and Budget
Deputy Director 19701972
Director 19721973
Succeeded by
Roy Ash
Preceded by
Elliot Richardson
United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
19731975
Succeeded by
F. David Mathews
Preceded by
Harold Brown
United States Secretary of Defense
19811987
Succeeded by
Frank C. Carlucci

  Results from FactBites:
 
SecDef Histories - Caspar Weinberger (4017 words)
Caspar W. Weinberger, President Ronald Reagan's choice to be the fifteenth secretary of defense, was born in San Francisco on 18 August 1917, the son of a lawyer.
Weinberger also had to meet the argument of some critics, including arms control advocates, that testing and deploying the projected defensive system would violate the ABM Treaty, which limited the United States and the Soviet Union to one antiballistic missile defense system for their capitals and one ICBM launch site each.
Weinberger had not favored U.S. participation, consistent with his view that troops should be committed only when vital to U.S. interests and with clearly defined objectives, but he acknowledged that it had been a success when the force withdrew in September.
Caspar Weinberger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (968 words)
Weinberger was born in San Francisco, California as the son of a lawyer.
Weinberger moved to Washington in January 1970 to become chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, subsequently serving as deputy director (1970-72) and director (1972-73) of the Office of Management and Budget, and as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1973-75).
Weinberger pushed for dramatic increases in the United States' nuclear weapons arsenal, and was a strong advocate of the controversial Strategic Defense Initiative, popularly known as Star Wars, which proposed a space-based missile defense shield.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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