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Encyclopedia > Caspar David Friedrich
Self-portrait in chalk, 1810
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Self-portrait in chalk, 1810
C.D.Friedrich in his studio by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812
C.D.Friedrich in his studio by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812

Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. Self-portrait By Caspar David Friedrich (1810) souce: German Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Self-portrait By Caspar David Friedrich (1810) souce: German Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Caspar_studio. ... Image File history File links Caspar_studio. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...

Contents

Life

The German romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich, b. Sept. 5, 1774, d. May 7, 1840, was one of the greatest exponents in European art of the symbolic landscape.


He studied at the Academy in Copenhagen (1794-98), and subsequently settled in Dresden, often traveling to other parts of Germany. Friedrich's landscapes are based entirely on those of northern Germany and are beautiful renderings of trees, hills, harbors, morning mists, and other light effects based on a close observation of nature.


Some of Friedrich's best-known paintings are expressions of a religious mysticism. In 1808 he exhibited one of his most controversial paintings, The Cross in the Mountains (Gemaldegalerie, Dresden), in which--for the first time in Christian art--an altarpiece was conceived in terms of a pure landscape. The cross, viewed obliquely from behind, is an insignificant element in the composition. More important are the dominant rays of the evening sun, which the artist said depicted the setting of the old, pre-Christian world. The mountain symbolizes an immovable faith, while the fir trees are an allegory of hope. Friedrich painted several other important compositions in which crosses dominate a landscape.


Even some of Friedrich's apparently nonsymbolic paintings contain inner meanings, clues to which are provided either by the artist's writings or those of his literary friends. For example, a landscape showing a ruined abbey in the snow, Abbey with Oak Trees (1810; Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin), can be appreciated on one level as a bleak, winter scene, but the painter also intended the composition to represent both the church shaken by the Reformation and the transitoriness of earthly things.


Work

Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1817
Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1817
Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon, ca. 1830-1835
Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon, ca. 1830-1835
Chalk cliffs on Rügen, 1830
Chalk cliffs on Rügen, 1830
The sea of ice, 1824 (mistakenly known as "The wreck of the Hope" which was destroyed in 20th century)
The sea of ice, 1824 (mistakenly known as "The wreck of the Hope" which was destroyed in 20th century)

After the development of sepia drawings and watercolours (mainly naturalistic and topographical), Friedrich took up oil painting after the age of thirty. His paintings were modeled on his sketches and studies of scenic spots, like the cliffs on Rügen, the surroundings of Dresden or Elbe and later composed in symbolic, often symmetrically balanced, compositions. His first mature style painting is the "Tetschen Altar" (1807) in which the crucified Christ is seen in profile in the top of a mountain, alone, surrounded by nature. In his time this work was not unanimously accepted for the principal role of landscape in a religious subject, however, this was his first appraised painting. Image File history File links Caspar_David_Friedrich_032. ... Image File history File links Caspar_David_Friedrich_032. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x1944, 417 KB) Description: Title: de: Mann und Frau den Mond betrachtend Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 34 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Alte Nationalgalerie Other notes: de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x1944, 417 KB) Description: Title: de: Mann und Frau den Mond betrachtend Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 34 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location (gallery): de: Alte Nationalgalerie Other notes: de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3193, 5501 KB) Description: Title: de: Kreidefelsen auf Rügen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 90,5 × 71 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Winterthur Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung Dr. Oscar Reinhardt Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3193, 5501 KB) Description: Title: de: Kreidefelsen auf Rügen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 90,5 × 71 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Winterthur Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung Dr. Oscar Reinhardt Other notes... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3176x2375, 597 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspar David Friedrich Expressionist architecture ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3176x2375, 597 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caspar David Friedrich Expressionist architecture ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ...


His famous morbidly romantic painting "Mönch am Meer" (Monk by the Sea) impressed Karl Friedrich Schinkel (later Prussia's most famous classicist architect) so much that he gave up painting and took up architecture, much to the benefit of German and world architecture. The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...


Friedrich's masterpieces were almost forgotten by the general public in the second half of 19th century and only at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century he was rediscovered by Symbolist painters for his visionary and allegorical landscapes. For that same reason Max Ernst and other surrealists saw him as a precursor of their movement. Symbolist painters were part of a 19th century movement in which art became infused with mysticism, and by the closely allied Symbolist movement in literature. ... Pieta or Revolution by Night 1923 Max Ernst (April 2, 1891 – April 1, 1976) was a German artist. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ...


Adolf Hitler would later cite Friedrich's work as expressing the Aryan ideals and co-opted a painting as a cover for Nazi propaganda, making some contemporary critics and art historians reluctant to promote Friedrich's work. Hitler redirects here. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ...


As well as other romantic painters like J. M. W. Turner or John Constable he made landscape painting a major genre in western art. Friedrich's style influenced the painting of the Norwegian Johann Christian Dahl but the successors of his painting style did not achieve his mastery and depth. Arnold Böcklin was strongly influenced by his work and perhaps also the painters of the American Hudson River School, the Rocky Mountain School, and the New England Luminists. Self portrait, oil on canvas, circa 1799 Joseph Mallord William Turner (born in Covent Garden, London on April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed), died December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape artist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (June 11, 1776 – March 31, 1837) was a British Romantic artist. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1891-1892). ... I.C. Dahl, Outbreak of the Vesuvius (1826), Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main. ... Self-portrait, oil on canvas, 1872 Arnold Böcklin (16 October 1827 – 16 January 1901) was a symbolist Swiss painter. ... Thomas Coles View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow) 1836 The Hudson River school was a mid-1800 American group of landscape painters whose approach was related to romanticism. ... Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through the use of aerial perspective, and the hiding of visible brushstrokes. ...


Friedrich also sketched monuments (a memorial) and sculptures for mausoleums, which reflects his obsession with death and afterlife, and some funereal art in Dresden's cemeteries are his. Some of his masterpieces were destroyed due to a fire in Munich's Glass Palace (1931) and in Bombing of Dresden in World War II. A mausoleum is a large and impressive tomb, usually constructed for a deceased leader. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... The bombing of Dresden led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945 remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an...


Quotes

"The painter should paint not only what he has in front of him, but also what he sees inside himself. If he sees nothing within, then he should stop painting what is in front of him.", Caspar David Friedrich


"A mountain of ice and the debris of a ship that has been crushed by it. It is a great tragedy, not a single survivor.", David d´Angers, 19th century French sculptor about "The sea of ice".


Selected works

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x866, 78 KB) Summary Thestchen altar, oil on canvas, 1807, C.D. Friedrich Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Image File history File links Cross_on_the_mountain. ... Image File history File links Cloister_Graveyard_in_the_Snow. ... Image File history File links Winter_landscape. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x677, 90 KB) Summary View of Arkona at Moonrise, sepia drawing, C.D. Friedrich Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of... Image File history File links Caspar_David_Friedrich_032. ... Image File history File links The_tree_of_crows. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Trees_in_the_moonlight. ...

External links

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Caspar David Friedrich
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Visual art and architecture: Brullov - Constable - Corot - Delacroix - Friedrich - Géricault - Gothic Revival architecture - Goya - Hudson River school - Leutze - Nazarene movement - Palmer - Turner
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Caspar David Friedrich (1177 words)
Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 &ndash; May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German Romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement.
Caspar David Friedrich was born in Greifswald, Hither Pomerania.
Friedrich was almost forgotten by the general public in the second half of 19th century, and it was only at turn of the century that he was rediscovered by the Symbolist painters, who valued his visionary and allegorical landscapes.
Caspar David Friedrich - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1156 words)
Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement.
Friedrich's masterpieces were almost forgotten by the general public in the second half of 19th century and only at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century he was rediscovered by Symbolist painters for his visionary and allegorical landscapes.
Friedrich also sketched monuments (a memorial) and sculptures for mausoleums, which reflects his obsession with death and afterlife, and some funereal art in Dresden's cemeteries are his.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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