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Encyclopedia > Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III the Great
Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty
Coat of Arms

Piast Eagle Image File history File links CasimirtheGreat. ... Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... The history of Polish heraldry is an integral part of the history of the Szlachta, the Polish nobility. ... Orzel Piastowski Coat of Arms This work is copyrighted. ... The Piast Eagle (Polish: Orzeł Piastowski) is a Polish Coat of Arms. ...

Parents Władysław I the Elbow-high,

Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Kazimierz I Kujawski, Eufrozyna Opolska Consorts Jadwiga Kaliska Children Stefan, Władysław, Kunegunda, Elżbieta, Jadwiga, Casimir III the Great Date of Birth 1261 Place of Birth - Date of Death 1333 Place of Death Cracow Coronation January... Gniezno (pronounced: [gɲȋεznɔ]) is a town in central-western Poland, some 50 km east of Poznań, inhabited by about 73,000 people. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ...

Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan
Children 5 daughters
Date of Birth 1310
Place of Birth Kowal
Date of Death 1370
Place of Death Cracow
Ruled 13331370

Casimir III, called the Great (Polish: Kazimierz Wielki; April 30, 1310November 5, 1370), King of Poland (1333-70), was the son of King Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Gniezno and Greater Poland. Aldona Ona or Anna was the daughter of duke Gediminas of Lithuania. ... Capital Kassel, Marburg Government Monarchy Landgrave  - 1264 – 1308 Henry I the Child  - 1509 – 1567 Philip I the Magnanimous Historical era Middle Ages, Reformation  - Established 1264  - Disestablished 1567 The Landgraviate of Hesse (German: ) was a Landgraviate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1264 to 1567 when it was divided between the... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... Kowal is a city in Poland. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Events End of the Kamakura period and beginning of the Kemmu restoration in Japan. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents Kazimierz I Kujawski, Eufrozyna Opolska Consorts Jadwiga Kaliska Children Stefan, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw, Kunegunda, Elżbieta, Jadwiga, Casimir III the Great Date of Birth 1261 Place of Birth - Date of Death 1333 Place of Death Cracow Coronation January... Gniezno (pronounced: [gɲȋεznÉ”]) is a town in central-western Poland, some 50 km east of PoznaÅ„, inhabited by about 73,000 people. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Kowal, Casimir (Kazimierz) the Great first married Anna, or Aldona Ona, the daughter of the prince of Lithuania, Gediminas. The daughters from this marriage were Cunigunde (d 1357), who was married to Louis VI the Roman, the son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, and Elisabeth, who was married to Duke Bogislaus V of Pomerania. Aldona died in 1339 and Kazimierz then married Adelheid of Hesse. He divorced Adelheid in 1356, married Christina, divorced her, and while Adelheid and possibly also Christina were still alive c. 1365 married Hedwig (Jadwiga) of Glogow and Sagan. Kowal is a city in Poland. ... Aldona Ona or Anna was the daughter of duke Gediminas of Lithuania. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Louis VI the Roman (German: ; May 7, 1328 – May 17, 1365) was the first son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland and a member of the House of Wittelsbach. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... BogusÅ‚aw and Elizabeth Piast, his first wife. ... Capital Kassel, Marburg Government Monarchy Landgrave  - 1264 – 1308 Henry I the Child  - 1509 – 1567 Philip I the Magnanimous Historical era Middle Ages, Reformation  - Established 1264  - Disestablished 1567 The Landgraviate of Hesse (German: ) was a Landgraviate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1264 to 1567 when it was divided between the...


His three daughters by his fourth wife were very young and regarded as of dubious legitimacy because of their father's bigamy. Due to the fact that all of the 5 children he fathered with his first and fourth wife were daughters, he would have no lawful male heir to his throne.

Polish 50-złoty banknote with image of Kazimierz the Great
Sarcophagus of Kazimierz the Great at Wawel Cathedral
Royal seal of Kazimierz the Great
14th-century wiec, in the reign of Kazimierz the Great

When Kazimierz, the last Piast king of Poland, died in 1370, his nephew King Louis I of Hungary succeeded him to become king of Poland in personal union with Hungary. http://www. ... http://www. ... Złoty (literally meaning golden, plural: złote or złotych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1300x1908, 697 KB) Summary Kraków (Poland), cathedral church on Wawel Hill, tomb of king Casimir The Great, 14th cent. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1300x1908, 697 KB) Summary Kraków (Poland), cathedral church on Wawel Hill, tomb of king Casimir The Great, 14th cent. ... Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Louis the Great. ...


The Great King

Kazimierz is the only Polish king who both received and kept the title of Great in Polish history (Boleslaw I Chrobry was once also called the Great, but no longer). When he received the crown, his hold on it was in danger, as even his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków". The economy was ruined, and the country was depopulated and exhausted by war. Upon his death, he left a country doubled in size (mostly through the addition of land in today's Ukraine, then the Duchy of Halicz), prosperous, wealthy and with great prospects for the future. Although he is depicted as a peaceful king in children's books, he in fact waged many victorious wars and was readying for others just before he died. Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. ...


Kazimierz the Great built many new castles, reformed the Polish army and Polish civil and criminal law. At the Sejm in Wislica, March 11, 1347, he introduced salutary legal reforms in the jurisprudence of his country. He sanctioned a code of laws for Great and Lesser Poland, which gained for him the title of "the Polish Justinian" and founded the University of Kraków, although his death stalled the university's development (which is why it is today called the "Jagiellonian" rather than "Casimirian" University). For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the common law, civil law refers to the area of law governing relations between private individuals. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Wiślica is a village on the Nida river in the Swietokrzyskie Voivodship, Poland. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ...


He organized a meeting of kings at Kraków (1364) in which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom.

Casimir III tomb effigy in Wawel Cathedral

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 5. ...

Concession to the nobility

In order to enlist the support of the nobility, especially the military help of pospolite ruszenie, Kazimierz was forced to give up important privileges to their caste, which made them finally clearly dominant over townsfolk (burghers or mieszczanstwo). Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with levée en masse. ... Burgher can refer to: a title; in the European Middle Ages, a burgher was any freeman of a burgh or borough; or any inhabitant of a borough, a person who lives in town (in Dutch the word for citizen is burger and the German cognate is Bürger). ...



In 1335, in the "treaty of Trenčín", Kazimierz relinquished "in perpetuity" his claims to Silesia. In 1355 in Buda Kazimierz designated Louis of Anjou (Louis I of Hungary) as his successor. In exchange, the szlachta's tax burden was reduced and they would no longer be required to pay for military expeditions expenses outside Poland. Those important concessions would eventually lead to the ultimately crippling rise of the unique nobles' democracy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Events Abu Said dies and the Ilkhan khanate ends Slavery abolished in Sweden Charles I of Hungary allies with Poland against the Hapsburgs and Bohemians Carinthia and Carniola come under Habsburg rule. ... Trenčín (Hungarian: Trencsén, German: Trentschin, Latin: Laugaricio) is a town in western Slovakia (close to the Czech border) at the Váh river. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Diet in 1505 transferred all legislative power from the king to the Diet. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


His second daughter, Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania, bore a son in 1351, named Kasimir (Kazimierz of Pomerania) after his maternal grandfather. He was slated to become the heir, but did not succeed to the throne, dying childless in 1377, 7 years after King Kazimierz. He was the only male descendant of King Kazimierz who lived during his lifetime.


Also, his son-in-law Louis VI the Roman of Bavaria, Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, was thought as a possible successor as king of Poland. However, he was not deemed eligible as his wife, Kazimierz's daughter Cunigunde, had died already in 1357, without children. Louis VI the Roman (German: ; May 7, 1328 – May 17, 1365) was the first son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland and a member of the House of Wittelsbach. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...


Kazimierz had no legal sons. Apparently he deemed his own descendants either unsuitable or too young to inherit. Thus, and in order to provide a clear line of succession and avoid dynastic uncertainty, he arranged for his sister Elisabeth, Dowager Queen of Hungary, and her son Louis king of Hungary to be his successors in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king on Kazimierz's death in 1370, and Elisabeth held much of the real power until her death in 1380. Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ...


Many of the influential lords of Poland were unsatisfied with the idea of any personal union with Hungary, and 12 years after Kazimierz's death, (and only a couple of years after Elisabeth's), they refused in 1382 to accept the succession of Louis's eldest surviving daughter Mary (Queen of Hungary) in Poland too. They therefore chose Mary's younger sister, Hedwig, as their new monarch, and she became "King" (=Queen Regnant) Jadwiga of Poland, thus restoring the independence enjoyed until the death of Kazimierz, twelve years earlier. This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ...


Relationship with Polish Jews

Wojciech Gerson, Casimir the Great and Jews

King Kazimierz was favorably disposed toward Jews. On 9 October 1334, he confirmed the privileges granted to Jewish Poles in 1264 by Boleslaus V. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism. He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 717 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 669 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 717 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 669 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Wojciech Gerson (1831-1901) was a Polish painter and professor. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births January 4 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (died 1383) January 13 - King Henry II of Castile (died 1379) May 25 - Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders (died 1398) August 30 - King Peter I of Castile (died 1369) James I of Cyprus (died... A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | 1226 births | 1279 deaths | Polish monarchs ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ...


Although Jews had lived in Poland since before the reign of King Kazimierz, he allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king. [1]


See also

  • History of Poland (966-1385)

In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ...

References

  1. ^ "In Poland, a Jewish Revival Thrives — Minus Jews", New York Times, July 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. “Probably about 70 percent of the world’s European Jews, or Ashkenazi, can trace their ancestry to Poland — thanks to a 14th-century king, Casimir III, the Great, who drew Jewish settlers from across Europe with his vow to protect them as "people of the king."” 
Preceded by
Władysław I the Elbow-high
King of Poland
1333-1370
Succeeded by
Ludwik the Hungarian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Casimir III of Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (936 words)
Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland, son of king Władyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow-high), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga of Gniezno and Great Poland.
Casimir then married Adelheid of Hessen, and this was the start of his bigamous marriage career.
Casimir is the only Polish king who did receive and maintain the title of the great in Polish history (Boleslaw I Chrobry was once also called the great, but not today), and the title is well deserved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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