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Encyclopedia > Caserta Palace
18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complexa
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The view down the cascade towards the Palace of Caserta.
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Identification #549
Regionb Europe and North America

Inscription History San Leucio resort or San Leucio Complex In 1750 Charles VII of Naples selected this place for an unusual social and tecnological experiment, a different model of production based on technical innovation and alert to the needs of workers. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x664, 249 KB) Summary Source from German Wikipedia [1] Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Beschreibung: Der bourbonische Königspalast in Caserta Quelle: Selbst fotografiert Fotograf oder Zeichner: Manuel Mauer Datum: 15. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ...

Formal Inscription: 1997
21st Session

a Name as officially inscribed on the WH List
b As classified officially by UNESCO
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

The Palace of Caserta, in Italian Reggia di Caserta, is a former royal residence in Caserta, near Naples, constructed for the Borbone kings of Naples. It was the largest palace and probably the largest building erected in Europe in the eighteenth century. In 1996, the Palace of Caserta was listed among the World Heritage Sites on the grounds that it was "the swan song of the spectacular art of the Baroque, from which it adopted all the features needed to create the illusions of multidirectional space".[1] The kingdom of Naples was neither powerful nor prosperous when Caserta was built, and it has been unflatteringly described by the historian Edward Crankshaw as "a colossal monument to minuscule glory" and a reviewer of George Hersey, Architecture, Poetry, and Number in the Royal Palace at Caserta, found that "interpretive description is palsied by monotony, the principal quality of the palace and its garden."[2] Caserta, near Naples was certainly the largest palace and probably the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century. ... Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) Capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...

Contents

History

The construction of the palace was begun in 1752 for Charles VII of Naples, who worked closely with his architect Luigi Vanvitelli. When Charles saw Vanvitelli's grandly-scaled model for Caserta it filled him with emotion "fit to tear his heart from his breast". In the end, he never slept a night at the Reggia, as he resigned from the throne in 1759 to become King of Spain, and the project was carried to completion for his third son and successor, Ferdinand IV of Naples. Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Luigi Vanvitelli (Naples, May 12, 1700 – March 1, 1773, Caserta), an engineer as well as the most prominent 18th-century Italian architect, practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ...

The throne room.
The throne room.

The political and social model for Vanvitelli's palace was Versailles, which, though it is strikingly different in its variety and disposition, solves similar problems of assembling and providing for king, court and government in a massive building with the social structure of a small city, confronting a baroque view of a highly subordinated nature, la nature forcée.[3] The Royal Palace of Madrid, where Charles had grown up, which had been devised by Filippo Juvarra for Charles' father, Felipe V of Spain, and also Charlottenburg provided models. A spacious octagonal vestibule seems to have been inspired by Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, while the palatine chapel is most often compared to Robert de Cotte's royal chapel at Versailles. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caserta Palace Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caserta Palace Metadata This file contains... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... East Palacio Real de Madrid North Palacio Real redirects here. ... Filippo Juvarra also spelled Filippo Juvara, Italian architect and scene-designer, was born in Messina March 7,1678 and died in Madrid January 31,1736. ... King Philip V of Spain (1683-1746) was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Schloss Charlottenburg, front view Schloβ Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute (Basilica of St Mary of Health/Salvation), commonly known simply as the Salute, is one of the largest churches of Venice and has the status of a minor basilica. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Robert de Cotte (1656–Paris, 15 July 1735) was a French architect-administrator, under whose design control of the royal buildings of France from 1699, the earliest notes presaging the Rococo style were introduced. ...


The reasons for building the Palace were to have a new magnificent administrative capital of the Kingdom in Caserta and to preserve the court by possible attacks from the sea; as well the King decided to build a theatre, a large library, and a university. The Palace might have been a splendid place for court ceremonies, too.


Vanvitelli died in 1773: the construction was continued by his son Carlo, until it was ended in 1780. 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


As finished, the palace has some 1,200 rooms, two dozen state apartments, and a royal theatre modelled after the Teatro San Carlo of Naples. The San Carlo is a famous opera house in Naples, Italy. ...


The population of Caserta Vecchia was shifted 10 kilometers to make it available to the new palace. A silk manufactory at San Leucio resort, was disguised as a pavilion in the immense parkland. San Leucio resort or San Leucio Complex In 1750 Charles VII of Naples selected this place for an unusual social and tecnological experiment, a different model of production based on technical innovation and alert to the needs of workers. ...


A monumental avenue, 20 kilometers in length, which would have connected the Palace to Naples, was never realized.


Overview

The palace has a rectangular plan, measuring 247 x 184 m. The four sides are connected by two orthogonal arms, forming four inner courts, each measuring more than 3,800 m².


Behind the facades of its matching segmental ranges of outbuildings that flank the giant forecourt, a jumble of buildings arose to facilitate daily business. In the left hand arc was built as barracks. Here, later, during World War II the soldiers of the US Fifth Army recovered in a "rest centre". Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Of all the royal residences inspired by the Palace of Versailles, the Reggia of Caserta is the one bearing the greatest resemblance to the original model: the unbroken balustraded skyline, the slight break provided by pavilions within the long, somewhat monotonous facade. As at Versailles, a large aqueduct was required to bring water for the prodigious water displays. Like its French predecessor, the palace was designed to be the powerhouse of an absolute Bourbon monarchy in the true Baroque fashion. A solecism at Caserta is that above the piano reale, the King's floor, is another floor of equal architectural value and grandeur. The enfilades of Late Baroque saloni were the heart and seat of government, as well as displays of national wealth. The palace also provided suitable housing for the royal family and the court of the Kingdom of Naples, the Palace housed the offices of government bureaucracy a national library, a university, a national theatre, all apart and free from the disorder and squalor of Naples. Thus the King of Naples at Caserta was free from the mob and factions of his capital in the same way as Versailles had freed Louis XIV from Paris. Besides its size and grandeur, it also had the advantage of being inland, and hence more defensible, than the old Royal Palace in Naples, which fronted the Bay of Naples and hence was vulnerable to attack from the sea. To provide the King with extra protection a barracks was also housed within the precincts of the palace. The Château de Versailles, or Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ...


The wide central entrance carriageway has, today, been incorporated into the city's automobile circulation.

A view of the park.
A view of the park.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 600 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caserta Palace Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 600 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Caserta Palace Metadata This file contains...

The park

The garden, a typical example of the baroque extension of formal vistas, stretch for 120 ha, partly on hilly terrain. It is inspired by the park of Versailles, but it is commonly regarded as superior in beauty. The park starts from the back façade of the palace, flanking a long alley with artificial fountains and cascades. There is an English garden in the upper part designed in the 1780s by Carlo Vanvitelli and the London-trained plantsman-designer John Graefer, recommended to Sir William Hamilton by Sir Joseph Banks.[4] It is an early Continental example of an "English garden" in the svelte naturalistic taste of Capability Brown. William Hamilton Sir William Douglas Hamilton (December 13, 1730–April 6, 1803) was a Scottish diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and volcanologist. ... Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks (February 13, 1743 - June 19, 1820) was the British naturalist and botanist on Cooks first great voyage (1768-1771) and some 75 species bear Banks name. ... Capability Brown, by Nathaniel Dance, ca. ...


The fountains and cascades, each filling a vasca ("basin"), with architecture and hydraulics by Luigi Vanvitelli at intervals along a wide straight canal that runs to the horizon, rivalled those at Peterhof outside St. Petersburg. These include: Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south... Saint Petersburg (Russian: &#1057;&#1072;&#1085;&#1082;&#1090;-&#1055;&#1077;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088;&#1073;&#1091;&#769;&#1088;&#1075;, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as &#1055;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088; (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (&#1051;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1085;&#1075;&#1088;&#1072;&#769;&#1076;, 1924&#8211;1991) and...

  • the Fountain of Diana and Actaeon (sculptures by Paolo Persico, Brunelli, Pietro Solari);
  • The Fountain of Venus and Adonis (1770-80);
  • The Fountain of the Dolphins (1773-80);
  • the Fountain of Aeolus;
  • the Fountain of Ceres.

A large population of figures from classical Antiquity were modelled by Gaetano Salomone for the gardens of the Reggia, and executed by large workshops. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ...


Film locations

Caserta was used as the location for Queen Amidala's Royal Palace on Naboo in the 1999 film Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. The same room was also used in Mission: Impossible III as the Vatican City. In fact, the square where the Lamborghini is blown up is actually the square inside the Palace. Padmé Naberrie Skywalker, also Her Royal Highness, Queen Amidala of the Naboo and later Senator Amidala of Naboo (46 - 19 BBY), is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe played by Natalie Portman. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ... Automobili-Lamborghini S.p. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Unesco site evaluation.
  2. ^ David R. Coffin, in Renaissance Quarterly 37.2 (Summer, 1984, pp. 264-267) p 265. Hersey introduces The Pentagon as Caserta's tweentieth-century architectural equivalent.
  3. ^ Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture pp 133ff.
  4. ^ Alice M. Coats, "Forgotten Gardeners, II: John Graefer" The Garden History Society Newsletter No. 16 (February 1972), pp. 4-7.

This article is about the U.S. military building. ... Sigfried Giedon (April 14, 1888, Prague – April 10, 1968, Zürich) was a Bohemia-born Swiss historian of architecture, and critic for architecture. ...

External links

Reference

  • George Hersey, Architecture, Poetry, and Number in the Royal Palace at Caserta, (Cambridge: MIT Press) 1983. Caserta interpreted through the Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico

Coordinates: 41°04′12″N, 14°19′33″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reggia di Caserta - Royal Palace Caserta, storia, il parco, appartamenti reali (332 words)
Reggia di Caserta - In una delle più belle pianure d'Italia, la "Terra di Lavoro", Carlo di Borbone, Re del Regno delle Due Sicilie, incaricò l'architetto Luigi Vanvitelli di progettare una Reggia pulifunzionale, in grado di rappresentare magnificenza e grandezza, collocandolo nel più ampio progetto di riorganizzazione amministrativa dello Stato.
appartenuta ai conti di Caserta, diventò con Ferdinando IV una piccola colonia autonoma con le sue leggi, ed un distretto industriale con l'arte della seta che presto diventò famosa in tutto il mondo [continua]
Un record di 657.045 turisti che hanno visitato gli splendidi giardini della reggia di caserta e i fastosi appartamenti.
Caserta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (186 words)
Caserta,the capital of the province of Caserta, is an important agricultural, commercial and industrial comune and town that stands on the edges of the Campanian plain, at the foot of the first slopes of the Campanian Subapennines of Italy.
Everyone knows it as the city of the palace, the sumptuous residence which wonderfully epitomises the luxury of the Bourbon kings: but this is not the only point of interest in the city, which grew very rapidly within a 19th-c.
Caserta really came into being because of its magnificent royal palace: before the palace was constructed there, the city was only a small farming town, which grew over time until it had attracted all the inhabitants of Casertavecchia ("Old Caserta").
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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