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Encyclopedia > Casas Grandes

Casas Grandes (Great Houses), a small village in Mexico, in the state of Chihuahua, situated on the Casas Grandes or San Miguel river, about 35 m. S. of Janos and 150 m. N.W. of the city of Chihuahua. The community is centered in a wide, fertile valley long inhabited by indigenous people. The railway from Ciudad Juárez to Terrazas passes through the modern town. Chihuahua is a state in northwestern Mexico. ... Chihuahua is a state in northwestern Mexico. ... Fertile may be used in the following conrtext: Fertility, a term used to describe the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles in area. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... La Catedral in downtown Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with an estimated population of 1,512,354. ...

Contents

Archeological ruins

Before significant archaeological investigation, sizable portions of ruined buildings from pre-Columbian times were still extant about half a mile from the modern community. The ruins were built of sun-dried blocks of mud and gravel, about 22 in. thick, and of irregular length, generally about 3 ft., probably formed and dried in place. The thick walls seem to have been plastered both inside and outside. A principal structure extended 800 ft. from north to south, and 250 ft. east to west; generally rectangular, and appears to have consisted of three separate units joined by galleries or lines of lower buildings. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... Rocky landscape with ruins, by Nicolaes Berchem, ca. ... In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon or Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. ... Gravel being unloaded from a barge Gravel is rock that is of a certain grain size range. ... // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚*Hâ‚‚O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSOâ‚„ · 2Hâ‚‚O) → (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚ · Hâ‚‚O + 3 Hâ‚‚O (released as steam). ...


The living spaces evidently varied in size from mere closets to extensive courtyards. Walls at many of the angles stand 40 to 50 feet high, and indicate an original elevation of up to six of seven stories. Ruins about 450 ft. from the main grouping consist of a series of rooms ranged round a square court, seven to each side with a larger apartment at each corner. Wall closet in a residential house in the U.S. It is common for a mirror to be placed on the inside of a closet door. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


At the time of the Spanish Conquest, the district of Casas Grandes was studded with artificial mounds, from which looters took large numbers of stone axes, metates or corn-grinders, and earthenware pottery vessels of various kinds. Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... A metate is the large stone slab on which grain is crushed with a mano. ... Earthenware is a particularly common type of ceramic material and is used extensively for tableware and decorative objects. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


Mexican artist Juan Quezada, a descendant of native peoples of the region, has been credited with the modern revival of Casas Grandes ceramics. Largely self taught, although his mother's relatives were traditional potters, Quezada's work shows continuity from the pre-Columbian art tradition rather than from European techniques. His work incorporates elements from the work of the Raramuri people as well as the peoples of the Casas Grandes Valley. The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ...


Pre-Columbian culture

Between AD 1130 and 1300, the area's inhabitants began to congregate in small settlements in this wide fertile valley. The size of the settlements expanded during the 14th century, ultimately resulting in multi-storied communities which may have housed up to 2500 people. The larger communities are characterized by I-shaped ball courts, stone-faced platforms, effigy mounds, a market area and an elaborate water storage system. Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... A reference to colonization, or the resulting communities. ... Fertile soil or Soil fertility is soil that can support abundant plant life, in particular the term is used to describe agricultural and garden soil. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles in area. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Shape. ... Ball Court at Monte Alban The Mesoamerican ballgame, known in Spanish as juego de pelota, was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times, and in a few places continues to be played by the local Amerind inhabitants. ...


Specialized craft activities included the production of copper bells and ornaments, the manufacture of beads from marine molluscs, and extensive pottery production. These crafts were probably distributed by an extensive trading network. Casas Grandes pottery has a white or reddish surface, with ornamentation in blue, red, brown or black, and is sometimes considered of better manufacture than the modern pottery in the area. Effigy bowls and vessels often formed in the shape of a painted human figure. Casas Grandes pottery was traded as far north as New Mexico and Arizona and throughout northern Mexico. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


The largest identified settlement is known today as Paquime or Casas Grandes. It began as a group of 20 or more house clusters, each with a plaza and enclosing wall. These single-story adobe dwellings shared a common water system. Excavations in one compound produced eggshell fragments, bird skeletons and traces of wooden perches which led to the conclusion that the community raised scarlet macaws, important in Mesoamerican rituals. This community was almost completely rebuilt during the 14th century. Multi-storied apartment buildings replaced the smaller dwellings. Paguime was abandoned in the early 15th century. Binomial name Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758) The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is a large, colourful parrot. ...


Ruins similar to those of Casas Grandes exist near the Gila, the Salinas, and the Colorado and it is probable that they all represent one cultural group related to the Mogollon culture to the north. Early ethnologist Hubert Howe Bancroft, in The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, was disposed to relate them to the modern day Hopi, sometimes known as Moqui during his period. Gila may refer to: Gila, a genus of cyprinid fish known as chubs Gila monster, a venomous lizard Gila County, Arizona Gila river, a Colorado tributary Gila trout Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, a national monument in New Mexico Gila Desert, the informal name of Sonoran Desert Gila Woodpecker, a... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Mogollon (pronounced mo-goi-YONE) were an American Indian culture living in the American Southwest from approximately AD 700 until sometime between AD 1300 and AD 1400. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl. ...


See also

Chihuahua in Mexico Nuevo Casas Grandes, also known as Nueva Casas Grandes, is a city in Mexico. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...

References

  • Cahill, Rick. The Story of Casas Grandes Pottery. Bodjum Books, 1991. ISBN 0-9630853-0-1
  • Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent. Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1995. ISBN 0-500-05075-9.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • History and photos of Paquimé
  • Paquimé declared a World Heritage Site

  Results from FactBites:
 
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona (511 words)
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument contains an imposing 4-storey building dating from the late Hohokam period, probably 14th century and contemporary with other preserved ruins in Arizona such as the Tonto and Montezuma Castle Monuments.
A door at the back of the center leads to the Casa Grande itself, at the middle of a rectangular area that was once a walled compound containing several other smaller buildings.
It is believed that the Casa Grande was a kind of astronomical observatory as the four walls face the points of the compass, and some of the windows are aligned to the positions of the sun and moon at specific times.
MSN Encarta - Romania (1012 words)
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