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Encyclopedia > Casablanca (movie)
Casablanca
Directed by Michael Curtiz
Written by Julius J. Epstein,
Philip G. Epstein,
Howard Koch
Starring Humphrey Bogart,
Ingrid Bergman,
Paul Henreid,
Claude Rains,
Conrad Veidt,
Sydney Greenstreet,
Peter Lorre
Produced by Hal B. Wallis
Distributed by Warner Brothers
Release date November 26, 1942
Runtime 102 min.
Language English
Budget $950,000 (est.)
IMDb page

Casablanca is a 1942 movie set during World War II in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca. The film was directed by Michael Curtiz, and stars Humphrey Bogart as Rick and Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa. It focuses on Rick's conflict between, in the words of one character, love and virtue: he must choose between his love for Ilsa and his need to do the right thing by helping her husband, Resistance hero Victor Laszlo, escape from Casablanca and continue his fight against the Nazis. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a film director, whose films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... Julius J. Epstein was an American screenwriter (born August 22, 1909, New York City, New York died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California), who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation—in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others—of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick... American screenwriter (b. ... Howard Koch (1902-1995) was an American screenwriter. ... Humphrey Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor who retains legendary status decades after his death. ... Ingrid Bergman  listen? (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter Von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 - May 30, 1967) was an English actor. ... Conrad Veidt (full name Hans Walter Conrad Weidt) was a German actor. ... Sydney Greenstreet (December 27, 1879 - January 18, 1954) was an actor, originally from Sandwich, England. ... Peter Lorre, 1946, by Yousuf Karsh Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-born actor known both for playing criminals (particularly psychopaths) and comic roles. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... Warner Bros. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945. ... Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II. The Vichy position that it was the... Hassan II Mosque Casablanca (Arabic: الدار البيضاء, transliterated ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ) is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a film director, whose films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... Humphrey Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor who retains legendary status decades after his death. ... Ingrid Bergman  listen? (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... A heart, a symbol of love Love has many meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure (I loved that food) to something one would die for (patriotism, pairbonding). ... Virtue (Greek αρετη; Latin virtus) is the habitual, well-established, readiness or disposition of mans powers directing them to some goodness of act. ... A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


The film was an immediate hit, and it has remained consistently popular ever since. Critics have praised the charismatic performances of Bogart and Bergman, the chemistry between the two leads, the depth of characterisation, the taut direction, the witty screenplay and the emotional impact of the work as a whole. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... A fictional character is any person who appears in a work of fiction. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A screenplay or script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. ...

Contents


Plot

Humphrey Bogart plays Rick Blaine, the owner of an upscale cafe/bar/gambling den in the Morocco city of Casablanca which attracts a mixed clientele of Vichy French and Nazi officials, refugees and thieves. Rick is a bitter and cynical man, but he still displays a clear dislike for the fascist part of his clientele. Humphrey Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor who retains legendary status decades after his death. ... Hassan II Mosque Casablanca (Arabic: الدار البيضاء, transliterated ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ) is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


The plot begins when a petty crook, Ugarte (Peter Lorre), arrives in Rick's club with "letters of transit". The papers are signed by a high-ranking Vichy official, and allow the bearer to travel at will around Nazi-controlled Europe, including to neutral Lisbon, Portugal, whereupon one may catch a clipper to the United States. These papers are almost priceless to any of the continual stream of refugees attempting to escape the unoccupied French possession, and Ugarte plans on making his fortune by selling them to the highest bidder, who was due to arrive at the club that night, then buying his way out of Casablanca. However, he murdered their German carriers to get them, and is captured and killed by the local police, under the order of the Chief of Police, Captain Renault (Claude Rains), who is corrupt yet ambivalent about the Nazi presence in Casablanca. Unbeknowst to Renault or the Nazi command, Ugarte had secretly left the letters with Rick for safe-keeping. Peter Lorre, 1946, by Yousuf Karsh Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-born actor known both for playing criminals (particularly psychopaths) and comic roles. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Pedro Santana Lopes PSD Area 84. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 - May 30, 1967) was an English actor. ...


In walks the reason for Rick's bitterness, his ex-lover Ilsa Lund (Bergman), who arrives in the club after being told the papers are available for sale. Her husband, Victor Laszlo (Henreid), is an important Resistance leader from Czechoslovakia with a massive price on his head, and he needs the letters to escape. Ingrid Bergman  listen? (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter Von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director. ... A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. ...


A group of German officers around the piano sing the Wacht am Rhein, a German patriotic song from the nineteenth century (the producers wanted to use the Nazi Horst Wessel Lied, but it was copyrighted by a German publisher). Laszlo, incensed, tells the house band to play La Marseillaise. The customers join in and drown out the Germans, who then order the club to be closed. Die Wacht am Rhein (in English, The Watch on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem which was particularly popular during the First World War. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Horst Wessel Lied, also known as Die Fahne Hoch (The flag on high) (from its opening line) was the anthem of the Nazi Party of Germany, chosen to glorify Horst Wessel as a Nazi martyr. ... La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France. ...


Despite initially refusing to give the documents to Ilsa, even at gunpoint, Rick eventually chooses to help the couple leave Casablanca. His own moral code is shown as being strong enough to allow him to do the right thing, regardless of his own feelings for Ilsa, with whom he earlier reconciles. Captain Renault is complicit in their escape, and after the couple fly out of Casablanca and Rick has shot Major Strasser, he suggests they both also leave and join the Free French. Just before making this suggestion, Renault throws a bottle of Vichy water in the bin. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in...


Production

The main characters: from left to right Rick Blaine, Captain Renault, Victor Laszlo and Ilsa Lund
The main characters: from left to right Rick Blaine, Captain Renault, Victor Laszlo and Ilsa Lund

The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick's. The story analyst at Warner Brothers who read the play called it (approvingly) "sophisticated hokum", and it was agreed to buy the rights for $20,000. The project was renamed Casablanca, apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit Algiers. Shooting began on May 25, 1942 and was completed on August 3, 1942. The entire film was shot in the studio, except for the sequence showing the arrival of Major Strasser (filmed at Van Nuys Airport). The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for another film, The Desert Song, and was redecorated and used again in Casablanca for the Paris flashbacks. It remained on the Warners backlot until the 1960s. The set for Rick's cafe was built in three unconnected parts, so the internal geography of the building is indeterminate, and in a number of scenes the camera looks through a wall from the cafe area into Rick's office. The final scene includes midget extras as aircraft personnel walking around a model cardboard plane, because of budgetary and wartime rationing constraints. The fog in the scene was there to mask the unconvincing appearance of the plane. Bergman's height caused some problems: she was somewhat taller than Bogart, so in their scenes together he sometimes had to be put on boxes or cushions. Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) talks to his former sweetheart Ilsa Lund Laszlo (Ingrid Bergman) with Capt. ... Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) talks to his former sweetheart Ilsa Lund Laszlo (Ingrid Bergman) with Capt. ... Murray Burnett (1911-1997) was a high school teacher and playwright from New York City. ... Play – literature / theatre A play (noun) is a common form of literature, usually consisting chiefly of dialog between characters, and usually intended for performance rather than reading. ... Warner Bros. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Van Nuys Airport is reputed to be the worlds busiest general aviation airport. ... The Desert Song was a notable 1926 operetta with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and Otto Harbach, respectively. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... As in film, a flashback in literature is a technique which takes the narrative back in time from the point the story has reached, to recount events that happened before and give the back-story. ... A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio with permanent exterior sets for outdoor scenes in motion picture and/or television productions. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... The term midget refers to something which is smaller than usual but well-proportioned. ... The term extra has many meanings: in drama, an extra is a character who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience scene or a busy street scene). ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ... Early morning fog obscures the surface of this lake in Carrollton, Georgia, but the sky remains clear. ...


The film cost a total of $950,000, which was slightly over budget but an average cost for a film of the time. Bogart was called in a month after shooting was finished to dub in the final line ("Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.") Later, there were plans for a further scene to be shot (featuring Renault, Rick and a detachment of Free French fighters on a ship), but these were abandoned. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in...


Writing

The original play was inspired by a 1938 trip to Europe by Murray Burnett, during which he visited Vienna and the French south coast, both of which had uneasily coexisting populations of Nazis and refugees. In the play, the Ilsa character was American, and did not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with Rick in Paris had ended; Rick was a lawyer. 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ...


The first main writers to work on the script for Warners were the Epstein twins (Julius and Philip), who removed Rick's background and added more elements of comedy. The other credited writer, Howard Koch, joined later but continued to work in parallel with the Epsteins, despite their differing emphases (Koch highlighting the political and melodramatic elements). Important scenes were also added by the uncredited Casey Robinson, who contributed the series of meetings between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe. Curtiz seems to have favoured the romantic element, insisting on retaining the flashback Paris scenes. One of the most famous lines— "here's looking at you"— is not in the draft screenplays, and has been attributed to the poker lessons Bogart was giving Bergman in between takes. The final line of the film was written by the producer Hal Wallis after shooting had been completed, and film critic Roger Ebert calls Wallis the "key creative force" for his attention to the details of production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar). Julius J. Epstein was an American screenwriter (born August 22, 1909, New York City, New York died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California), who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation—in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others—of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick... American screenwriter (b. ... Comedy is the use of humour in the performing arts. ... Howard Koch (1902-1995) was an American screenwriter. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Romance or romantic can refer to: Romance (genre) - a style of Medieval narrative fiction. ... As in film, a flashback in literature is a technique which takes the narrative back in time from the point the story has reached, to recount events that happened before and give the back-story. ... Poker - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the entertainment industry, a producer is generally in charge of, or helps to coordinate, the financial, legal, administrative, technological, and artistic aspects of a production. ... Roger Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Chicago Sun-Times film critic and the first author to win a Pulitzer Prize for criticism (1975 award for his film criticism during 1974). Through his newspaper reviews, books, television shows, lectures, and public persona, he has contributed perhaps more than anyone... Genera A parrot is any of the many birds belonging to the family Psittacidae. ...


Despite the many different writers, the film has what Ebert describes as a "wonderfully unified and consistent" script. Critic Andrew Sarris called it "the most decisive exception to the auteur theory". Koch later said that it was the tensions between his own approach and that of Curtiz which accounted for this: "surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance". Julius Epstein would later note that the screenplay contained "more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. But when corn works, there's nothing better." Andrew Sarris is a film critic and a leading proponent of the Auteur theory of criticism. ... The Auteur Theory is a way of reading and appraising films through the imprint of an auteur, usually meant to be the director. ...


The film ran into some trouble from Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favours from his supplicants and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together in Paris. Both, however, are strongly implied in the finished version. Joseph Breen (born July 5, 1958) is an American soap opera actor. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ... ...


Direction

The director, Michael Curtiz, was a Hungarian emigre; he had come to the US in the 1920s, but some of his family were refugees from Nazi Europe. Roger Ebert has commented that in Casablanca "very few shots ... are memorable as shots", Curtiz being concerned to use images to tell the story rather than for their own sake. However, he had relatively little input into the development of the plot: Casey Robinson said that Curtiz "knew nothing whatever about story... he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories". The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a film director, whose films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. // Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy gun John Logie Baird invents the first working television system (1925) Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly... In film, a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film, created of a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. ...


The second unit montages, such as that showing the invasion of France, were directed by Don Siegel. In motion picture terminology, a montage (literally putting together) is a form of movie collage consisting of a series of short shots which are edited into a coherent sequence. ... Don Siegel (October 26, 1912 - April 20, 1991) was an influential American film director. ...


Cinematography

The Cross of Lorraine, emblem of the Free French
The Cross of Lorraine, emblem of the Free French

The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot The Maltese Falcon and Frankenstein. Particular attention was paid to photographing Bergman: she was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle. The whole effect is to make her face "ineffably sad and tender and nostalgic" (Ebert). Ebert also highlights the use of bars of shadow across the characters and in the background, variously implying imprisonment, the crucifix, the Free French symbol and emotional turmoil. Cross of Lorraine uploaded from the French Version, under GNU File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cross of Lorraine uploaded from the French Version, under GNU File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cross of Lorraine The Cross of Lorraine is a heraldic cross. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ... Poster of the 1941 Warner Brothers film version, directed by John Huston The Maltese Falcon is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett, made into a quintessential film noir movie. ... Frankenstein is a 1931 horror film based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. ... A small, handheld crufix. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in...


Dark film noir and expressionist lighting is used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Film noir is a style of film associated with crime films that developed in the United States during World War II that featured people acting out of desparation in a bleak and morally ambiguous world. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ...


Music

The score was written by Max Steiner, who was best known for the musical score to Gone With the Wind. The song As Time Goes By by Herman Hupfield had been part of the story from the original play; Steiner wanted to write his own song to replace it, but he had to abandon his plan because Bergman had already cut her hair short for her next role, and could not re-shoot the scenes which mentioned the song. Instead, Steiner based the entire score on it (and on the Marseillaise), transforming them to express the changing mood of the movie. Particularly notable is the "duel of the songs", in which the Marseillaise is played by a full orchestra rather than just the small band actually present in Rick's club, competing against the Germans singing "Die Wacht Am Rhein" at the piano. Other songs include "It Had to Be You" from 1924 with lyrics by Gus Kahn and music by Isham Jones, and "Knock on Wood" with music by M.K. Jerome and lyrics by Jack Scholl. A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (May 10, 1888 - December 28, 1971) was an Austrian-American composer of music for films. ... Gone With the Wind was an instant success. ... As Time Goes By is a song written by Herman Hupfeld for the 1931 Broadway musical Everybodys Welcome, made famous by its inclusion in the film Casablanca. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... Gustav Gerson Kahn (November 6, 1886 - October 8, 1941) was a famous German-American musician, songwriter and lyricist. ... Isham Jones (31 January 1894 – 19 October 1956) was a United States bandleader, musician, and songwriter. ...


Reception

Reaction to the film at previews before release was described as "beyond belief". It premiered at the Hollywood Theater in New York City on November 26, 1942. It was a substantial box-office hit, taking $3.7 million on its initial US release, and went on to win three Oscars, while As Time Goes By spent 21 weeks on the hit parade. As Koch later said, "it was a picture the audiences needed... there were values... worth making sacrifices for. And it said it in a very entertaining way". However not everyone liked the film including some critics in the French New Wave. Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York and abbreviated NYC) is the most populous city in the United States, and is at the center of international finance, politics, communications, music, fashion, and culture. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The hit parade is the list of songs most popular at any given time. ... Nouvelle Vague is also the name of a pop band. ...


The film has maintained its popularity: Murray Burnett has called it "true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow". During the 1950s, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts began a long-running tradition of screening Casablanca during the week of final exams at Harvard University. This tradition continues to the present day, and it is emulated by many colleges across the United States. It is also credited with helping the movie remain popular while other famous films of the 1940s have faded away. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the... Harvard Square, May 2000 Cambridge is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ...


The film was parodied in two later movies: the 1946 Marx Brothers film A Night in Casablanca and Woody Allen's 1972 pastiche, Play It Again, Sam (a line which first occurred in the Marx Brothers film). The movie was also taken off by Warner Brothers themselves in the 1995 Bugs Bunny cartoon Carrotblanca. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The brothers in Hollywood: (left to right) Chico, Zeppo, Groucho, Harpo The Marx Brothers were a team of sibling comedians that played in vaudeville, stage plays, film and television. ... Sheet Music Cover A Night in Casablanca (1946) is the twelfth Marx Brothers movie. ... Woody Allen (born December 1, 1935), is an American short story writer, screenwriter, and film director whose large body of work and cerebral style have made him one of the most widely respected and prolific filmmakers in the modern era. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... Warner Bros. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bugs Bunny on a United States stamp Bugs Bunny is a fictional street-smart gray rabbit appearing in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons, and is one of the most recognizable characters, real or imaginary, in the world. ... A cartoon is any of several forms of art, with varied meanings that evolved from one to another. ...


A radio adaptation of the film was broadcast on April 26, 1943, again starring Bogart, Bergman and Henreid, while a second version of January 24, 1944 featured Hedy Lamarr as Ilsa. April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hedy Lamarr Hedy Lamarr (November 9, 1913–January 19, 2000) was an actress and communications innovator. ...


Sequels

Almost from the moment Casablanca became a hit, talk began of producing a sequel to the film. A sequel entitled Brazzaville (named after the capital city of the Republic of the Congo) was planned, but never produced.


There have been two short-lived television series based upon Casablanca, both of which are considered prequels to the movie. The first aired in 1955 (with Charles McGraw as Rick and Marcel Dalio, who played Emil the croupier in the movie, as Renault). Another series in 1983 starred David Soul as Rick and included Ray Liotta as Sacha and Scatman Crothers as a somewhat elderly Sam. A prequel is a work that portrays events which are set in the same universe as a previously completed narrative, but at an earlier time. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Born Charles Butters in Ohio May 10, 1914, square-jawed Charles McGraw grew up to become an actor and eventually made his first movie in 1942. ... A croupier is the person who takes and pays out bets at a gambling table, often in a Casino. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Soul (born August 28, 1943) is an American-born actor. ... Liotta as Officer Rhodes in Identity Ray Liotta, (born December 18, 1955, in Newark, New Jersey) is an American actor best known for his lead role as Henry Hill in Martin Scorseses Goodfellas. ... Scatman Crothers Scatman Crothers, original name: Benjamin Sherman Crothers (May 23, 1910 – November 22, 1986) He was an actor, singer, dancer, and musician. ...


In the 1980s and 1990s media reports occasionally arose about plans to either produce a sequel, or an outright remake of Casablanca, but as of 2005 no studio has seriously put such plans into action. To date the only authorized sequel to Casablanca has been the novel, As Time Goes By, written by Michael Walsh. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Cast

The cast is notable for its internationalism: only three of the credited actors were born in the US. The three top-billed actors were:

  • Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine. Bogart became a star with Casablanca. Earlier in his career he had been typecast as a gangster, playing characters called Bugs, Rocks, Turkey, Whip, Chips, Gloves and two Dukes. High Sierra (1941) had allowed him to play a character with some warmth, but Rick was his first truly romantic role.
  • Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. Bergman's official website calls Ilsa her "most famous and enduring role". After a well-received Hollywood debut in Intermezzo, her subsequent films had not been major successes— until Casablanca. Ebert calls her "luminous", and comments on the chemistry between her and Bogart: "she paints his face with her eyes".
  • Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Henreid, an Austrian actor who had fled Nazi Germany in 1935, was reportedly reluctant to take this unrewarding role (it "cast him as a stiff forever", according to Pauline Kael), until he was promised top-billing with Bogart and Bergman.

The second-billed actors were: Humphrey Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor who retains legendary status decades after his death. ... Typecasting is the process by which an actor is strongly identified with a role or genre. ... Gangsters are members of a professional crime organization, such as a gang or a mafia group. ... High Sierra (1941) is a film noir written by John Huston and W.R. Burnett from the novel by W.R. Burnett. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ingrid Bergman  listen? (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was an Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... ... Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter Von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 - September 3, 2001) was a well-known film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine. ...

Also credited were: Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 - May 30, 1967) was an English actor. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... St Stevens Tower - The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben Tower Bridge at night A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... Sydney Greenstreet (December 27, 1879 - January 18, 1954) was an actor, originally from Sandwich, England. ... Poster of the 1941 Warner Brothers film version, directed by John Huston The Maltese Falcon is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett, made into a quintessential film noir movie. ... Peter Lorre, 1946, by Yousuf Karsh Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-born actor known both for playing criminals (particularly psychopaths) and comic roles. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Conrad Veidt (full name Hans Walter Conrad Weidt) was a German actor. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Das Kabinett des Dr. caligari in German) is a groundbreaking 1919 silent film directed by Robert Wiene. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...

  • Dooley Wilson as Sam. He was one of the few American members of the cast. A drummer, he could not play the piano. Hal Wallis considered also replacing his voice on the songs, but changed his mind.
  • Joy Page (Annina Brandel, the Bulgarian refugee), the other credited American, was studio head Jack Warner's step-daughter.
  • Madeleine LeBeau (Yvonne), a French actress, was Marcel Dalio's wife until their divorce in 1942.
  • S.Z. (or S. K.) "Cuddles" Sakall (Carl, the waiter) was a Hungarian actor who fled from Germany in 1939.
  • Curt Bois (the pickpocket) was a German Jewish actor and another refugee. He could claim the longest film career of any actor, making his first appearance in 1907 and his last in 1987.
  • John Qualen (Berger) was born in Canada, but grew up in America. He appeared in many of John Ford's movies.
  • Leonid Kinskey (Sascha) was born in Russia.

Notable uncredited actors were: Arthur Dooley Wilson (April 3, 1886 - May 30, 1953) was an African American actor and singer. ... A drummer is a musician who plays the drums, particularly the drum kit, marching percussion, or hand drums. ... Joy Page (born November 9, 1924) is an American actress best known for her role as the Bulgarian bride Annina Brandel in the movie Casablanca. ... Jack Warner Jack Warner (August 2, 1892 – September 9, 1978), born John Leonard Eichelbaum in London, Ontario, Canada, was the president and driving force behind the highly successful development of Warner Brothers Studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Ford (February 1, 1894 - August 31, 1973) was one of the most accomplished American film directors of the 1930s to 1960s, known particularly as a director of the Westerns, although his tributes to the veterans of World War II and Americana are also equally effective. ...

Finally, part of the emotional impact of the film has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees among the extras and in the minor roles. Ebert quotes a witness to the filming of the "duel of the songs" sequence as saying, "half of the extras had real tears in their eyes... most of these people were singing out of their own experience as refugees from Nazi Germany". A croupier is the person who takes and pays out bets at a gambling table, often in a Casino. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Grand Illusion (1937) poster for American release, depicting actors Jean Gabin (as Lt. ... The Rules of the Game (original French title: La règle du jeu) is a 1939 film directed by Jean Renoir about upper-class French society just before the start of World War II. The film was initially condemned for its satire on the French upper classes and was greeted... To Have and Have Not (1944), is a film directed by Howard Hawks that is nominally based on the novel To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... March 12, 1938: German troops march into Austria The general German term Anschluss [1] (literally meaning connection, but in this context translated as annexation in the sense of political union) often refers to Anschluss Österreichs — the inclusion of Austria in a Greater Germany in 1938. ... The term extra has many meanings: in drama, an extra is a character who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience scene or a busy street scene). ...


Myths

Several myths have grown up around the film, one being that Ronald Reagan was originally chosen to play Rick. This originates in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by that time the studio already knew that he was due to go into the army, and he was never seriously considered. Order: 40th President Vice President: George H.W. Bush Term of office: 20 January 1981 – 20 January 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: 6 February 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: 5 June 2004 Place of death: Bel-Air... A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for the making of a film. ...


The other most famous myth is that the actors did not know until the last day of shooting how the film was to end. The original play (set entirely in the cafe) had ended with Rick sending Ilsa and Victor to the airport. During scriptwriting, the possibility was discussed of Laszlo being killed in Casablanca, allowing Rick and Ilsa to leave together, but as Behlmer points out, "there was only one dramatically viable real possibility: Ilsa and Laszlo take the plane". It was certainly impossible that Ilsa would leave Laszlo for Rick, as the production code forbade showing a woman leaving her husband for another man. The confusion was most likely caused by Bergman's later statement that she didn't know which man she was meant to be in love with. However, Aljean Harmetz' examination of the scripts has shown that many of the key scenes were shot after Bergman knew how the film would end: any confusion was, in Ebert's words, "emotional", not "factual". The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ...


The letters of transit are a subject of some confusion. Ugarte tells Rick that the letters are signed by "General Weygand," but the official DVD English subtitles say "de Gaulle." The French subtitles say "Weygand". General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Origin of Weygand Weygand was born in Brussels, Belgium. ...


Another famous myth is that Bergman asks Dooley Wilson, the piano player to "play it again, Sam," see Quotes. Casablanca is a 1942 movie set during World War II in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca. ...


Errors

The film has several apparent logical flaws, foremost being the two "letters of transit" which enable anyone to leave for abroad. A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never questioned. Even within the film, Rick suggests to Renault that the letters would not be enough for Ilsa to escape, let alone Laszlo: "people have been held in Casablanca in spite of their legal rights". This article is about the plot device; a MacGuffin is also a block cipher named after the plot device. ...


In the film, as Laszlo says, the Nazis cannot arrest him as "we're on free French soil; any violation of neutrality would reflect on Captain Renault". However "it makes no sense that he could walk around freely" in Casablanca, as Ebert points out: "he would be arrested on sight".


Other difficulties are the airport searchlight which is pointed at the cafe rather than into the sky; a continuity error at the station in Paris (Rick's wet coat becomes dry when he gets on the train); the supposedly Czech Laszlo's Hungarian name; and Renault's claim that "I was with [the Americans] when they blundered into Berlin in 1918." Curtiz's attitude to these issues was clear, however: "I make it go so fast, nobody notices". A searchlight is an apparatus with reflectors for projecting a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually devised so that it can be swiveled about. ... In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ...   Berlin? (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


For more errors, see Casablanca's page at Moviemistakes.com.


Criticism

Roger Ebert has claimed that the film is "probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other single title, including Citizen Kane", because of its wider appeal; while Citizen Kane is "greater", Casablanca is more loved. Behlmer also emphasises the variety in the picture: "it’s a blend of drama, melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue". Ebert says that he has never heard of a negative review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticised (he cites the unrealistic special effects and the stiff character/portrayal of Laszlo). While it is impossible to objectively determine the greatest film of all time, it is possible to discuss the films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... Citizen Kane is the first feature film directed by Orson Welles (he had directed two short films previously), and is loosely based on the life of the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, the reclusive aerospace and movie mogul Howard Hughes, and the Chicago utilities magnate Samuel Insull. ... Drama is a term generally used to refer to a literary form involving parts written for actors to perform. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Comedy is the use of humour in the performing arts. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ...


Ebert has also said that the film is popular because "the people in it are all so good". As the Resistance hero, Laszlo is ostensibly the most good, although Ebert comments that he is so stiff that he is hard to like. The other characters, in Rudy Behlmer's words, are "not cut and dried": they come into their goodness in the course of the film. Renault begins the film as a collaborator with the Nazis, who extorts sexual favours from refugees and has Ugarte killed in custody. Rick, according to Behlmer, is "not a hero, ... not a bad guy": he does what is necessary to get along with the authorities and "sticks his neck out for nobody". Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is "caught in the emotional struggle" over which man she really loves. By the end of the film, however, "everybody is sacrificing".


A dissenting note comes from Umberto Eco, who wrote that "by any strict critical standards... Casablanca is a very mediocre film". He sees the changes the characters undergo as inconsistency rather than complexity: "It is a comic strip, a hotch-potch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects". However, he argues that it is this inconsistency which accounts for the film's popularity by allowing it to include a whole series of archetypes: unhappy love, flight, passage, waiting, desire, the triumph of purity, the faithful servant, the love triangle, beauty and the beast, the enigmatic woman, the ambiguous adventurer and the redeemed drunkard. Central is the idea of sacrifice: "the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film". Photo of Umberto Eco by Robert Birnbaum Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian novelist and philosopher, best known for his novels and essays. ... Archetype is defined as the original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... A heart, a symbol of love Love has many meanings in English, from something that gives a little pleasure (I loved that food) to something one would die for (patriotism, pairbonding). ... In species which reproduce sexually, sexual attraction is attraction to other members of the same species for reproduction. ... A love triangle refers to a romantic relationship involving three people. ... Beauty and the Beast is a traditional folktale (type 425C -- search for a lost husband -- in the Aarne-Thompson classification). ... This article or section should be merged with intoxication Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... For the computer game, see Myth (computer game). ...


Awards

Casablanca won three Oscars: Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...

It was also nominated for another five Oscars: The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a film director, whose films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Julius J. Epstein was an American screenwriter (born August 22, 1909, New York City, New York died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California), who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation—in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others—of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick... American screenwriter (b. ... Howard Koch (1902-1995) was an American screenwriter. ...

In 1989 the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, while in 1998 it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the second greatest American film (after Citizen Kane). Academy Award for Best Actor - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Humphrey Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an iconic American actor who retains legendary status decades after his death. ... The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 - May 30, 1967) was an English actor. ... The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ... The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934. ... From Rule Sixteen of the Special Rules for The Music Awards Original Score: An original score is a substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (May 10, 1888 - December 28, 1971) was an Austrian-American composer of music for films. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The American Film Institute is an independent non-profit organization created by the National Endowment for the Arts, which was established in 1965 when President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act. ... Citizen Kane is the first feature film directed by Orson Welles (he had directed two short films previously), and is loosely based on the life of the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, the reclusive aerospace and movie mogul Howard Hughes, and the Chicago utilities magnate Samuel Insull. ...


Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

The (mis)quote "Play it again, Sam" originates with Casablanca. The closest lines are as follows: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...


At one point, Ilsa says to piano player Sam, "Play it, Sam. Play As Time Goes By." Later, Rick requests an encore by saying, "You played it for her, you can play it for me... If she can stand it, I can! Play it!". As Time Goes By is a song written by Herman Hupfeld for the 1931 Broadway musical Everybodys Welcome, made famous by its inclusion in the film Casablanca. ...


The line "Here's looking at you, kid", spoken by Rick to Ilsa, was voted in a 2005 poll by the American Film Institute as the fifth most memorable line in cinema history [1]. Six lines from the film appeared on their list. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The American Film Institute is an independent non-profit organization created by the National Endowment for the Arts, which was established in 1965 when President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act. ... The American Film Institute, celebrating the 100th anniversary of film, created several top 100 lists covering movies in American cinema. ...


References

  • Abbreviated Casablanca Movie Script
  • Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (1942) (with audio commentaries by Roger Ebert and Rudy Behlmer and documentary You Must Remember This).
  • Eco, Umberto (1994). Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers (Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon, eds.) Bedford Books. ISBN 0312259255.
  • Harmetz, Aljean (1993). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca. Warner Books Inc. ISBN 1562827618.
  • Ingrid Bergman Official Site
  • Humphrey Bogart Official Site
  • Casablanca at the Internet Movie Database
  • Vincent's Casablanca Homepage
  • The German Hollywood Connection

  Results from FactBites:
 
Casablanca (film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5520 words)
Casablanca is a 1942 romantic film set during World War II in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca.
In the movie Adaptation (2002), Casablanca is referenced as the greatest screenplay of all time, and the aspect of two brothers writing the screenplay is an important thematic device used in the film Adaptation.
Casablanca was also part of the film colorization controversy during the 1980s, when a color version aired on Australian television.
Casablanca: Information from Answers.com (0 words)
Casablanca blends romance, suspense, humor, and patriotic drama with such skill that one imagines it must have happened by accident, and the movie looks better with each passing year.
Casablanca was also part of the film colorization controversy during the 1980s when a color version of the film aired on Australian television.
Finally, the movie depicts a flag of French Morocco that is incorrect, consisting of a French tricolour with an Islamic crescent moon and star in the middle[1].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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