FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Casablanca (film)
Casablanca
Directed by Michael Curtiz
Produced by Hal B. Wallis
Written by Julius J. Epstein
Philip G. Epstein
Howard Koch
Starring Humphrey Bogart
Ingrid Bergman
Paul Henreid
Claude Rains
Conrad Veidt
Sydney Greenstreet
Peter Lorre
S.Z. Sakall
Music by Hugo W. Friedhofer
Max Steiner
Cinematography Arthur Edeson
Editing by Owen Marks
Distributed by Warner Brothers (1942 theatrical release)
AAP (rights holder, 1956–1958)
United Artists (rights holder, 1958–1981)
Turner Entertainment (current rights, 1986–present)
MGM (1992 re-release, 1998 DVD release, and film rights from 1981–1998)
Warner Home Video (current home video distributor via-Turner, 1998–present)
Release date(s) November 26, 1942
Running time 102 min.
Country Flag of United States United States
Language English
Budget $1,039,000
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile

Casablanca is an Oscar-winning 1942 romance film set in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca. The film was directed by Michael Curtiz and stars Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine and Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. It focuses on Rick's conflict between, in the words of one character, love and virtue: he must choose between his love for Ilsa and doing the right thing, helping her and her Resistance leader husband escape from Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis. It may also refer to: // Casablanca, a city in Morocco Greater Casablanca, a region in Morocco Camp Casablanca, a military base in Kosovo Casablanca, Chile, a municipality in the region of Valparaiso Casablanca, Cuba, a suburb of Havana, Cuba Casa Blanca, El Salvador Casablanca (film), a 1942 film starring Humphrey... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... Julius J. Epstein (born August 22, 1909, New York, New York; died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California) was an American screenwriter, who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation -— in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others —- of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks... Philip G. Epstein (August 22, 1909 - February 7, 1952) was an American screenwriter most known for his adaptation in partnership with his twin brother, Julius, and others of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks that became the screenplay for the Academy Award-winning film Casablanca (1942). ... Howard Koch (December 2, 1902 - August 17, 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Henreid in Casablanca Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director probably best known for his roles in Casablanca and Now, Voyager. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ... Sydney Hughes Greenstreet (December 27, 1879 – January 18, 1954) was an English actor. ... Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born László Loewenstein, was an Hungarian-American actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner. ... Szöke Szakáll known as S.Z. Sakall (born February 2, 1884 in Budapest - died February 12, 1955 in Los Angeles, California) was a film character actor. ... Hugo Wilhelm Friedhofer (May 3, 1901 - May 17, 1981) was a film music composer born in San Francisco. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ... Arthur Edeson (October 24, 1891 - February 14, 1970) was a film cinematographer. ... Warner Bros. ... Associated Artists Productions was a distributor of theatrical features and short subjects for television founded in 1953 and headed by Elliott Hyman. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Turner Entertainment Company was established August 4, 1986 to oversee Turner Broadcastings film library after its acquisition of MGM/UA. In addition to the studio, Turner got its library, which included all of MGMs films, Warner Bros. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... See also: 1941 in film 1942 1943 in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events Carole Lombard is killed in a plane crash when returning from a War Bond tour. ... While most films have some aspect of romance between characters (at least as a subplot) a romance film can be loosely defined as any film in which the central plot (the premise of the story) revolves around the romantic involvement of the storys protagonists. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Although it was an A-list movie, with established stars and first-rate writers, nobody involved with its production expected Casablanca to be anything out of the ordinary;[1] it was just one of dozens of pictures being churned out by Hollywood every year. The film was a solid, if unspectacular success in its initial release, but has grown in popularity as time has gone by, consistently ranking near the top of lists of great films. Critics have praised the charismatic performances of Bogart and Bergman, the chemistry between them, the depth of characterization, the taut direction, the witty screenplay and the emotional impact of the work as a whole.[citation needed] American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...

Contents

Plot

Humphrey Bogart plays Rick Blaine, a bitter and cynical American expatriate in Casablanca, who owns "Rick's Café Américain." This upscale nightclub and gambling den attracts a mixed clientèle of Vichy French and Nazi officials, refugees and thieves. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, it is later revealed that he had run guns to Ethiopia to combat the 1935 Italian invasion, and fought on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War against Francisco Franco's fascists. Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A tower of confiscated smuggled weapons about to be set ablaze in Nairobi, Kenya Gunrunning, also known as arms trafficking, is trafficking in (smuggling) contraband weapons and ammunition. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Ugarte (Peter Lorre), a petty criminal, arrives in Rick's club with "letters of transit" he obtained by killing two German couriers. The papers allow the bearer to travel freely around German-controlled Europe, including to neutral Lisbon, Portugal, and from there to the United States. They are almost priceless to any of the continual stream of refugees who end up stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to make his fortune by selling them to the highest bidder, who is due to arrive at the club later that night. However, before the exchange can take place, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault (Claude Rains), a corrupt Vichy official who accommodates the Nazis. Unbeknownst to Renault and the Nazis, Ugarte had left the letters with Rick for safekeeping, because "...somehow, just because you despise me, you are the only one I trust." Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born László Loewenstein, was an Hungarian-American actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ...


At this point, the reason for Rick's bitterness re-enters his life. His ex-lover, Ilsa Lund (Ingrid Bergman), arrives with her husband Victor Laszlo (Paul Henreid) to purchase the letters. Laszlo is a renowned Czech Resistance leader on the run from the Nazis. The couple must have the letters to leave Casablanca for America, where he can continue his work. When Ilsa first met and fell in love with Rick in Paris, she believed her husband had been killed in a concentration camp. Upon discovering that he had in fact escaped, she left Rick abruptly without explanation and returned to Laszlo, leaving Rick feeling betrayed. After the club closes, Ilsa returns to try to explain, but Rick is drunk and refuses to listen.   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Henreid in Casablanca Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director probably best known for his roles in Casablanca and Now, Voyager. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ...

The main characters, from left to right: Rick Blaine, Captain Renault, Victor Laszlo and Ilsa Lund

The next night, Laszlo, suspecting Rick of having the letters, speaks with him privately, but Rick refuses to part with them, telling Laszlo to ask his wife for the reason. They are then interrupted when a group of Nazi officers, led by Major Strasser (Conrad Veidt), begins to sing "Die Wacht am Rhein", a German patriotic song. Infuriated, Laszlo orders the house band to play "La Marseillaise". When the band leader looks to Rick for guidance, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first, then long-suppressed patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. In retaliation, Strasser orders Renault to close the club. Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) talks to his former sweetheart Ilsa Lund Laszlo (Ingrid Bergman) with Capt. ... Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) talks to his former sweetheart Ilsa Lund Laszlo (Ingrid Bergman) with Capt. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ... Die Wacht am Rhein (English: The Watch/Guard on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ...


That night, Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted cafe. When he refuses to give her the documents, she threatens him with a gun, but is unable to shoot, confessing that she still loves him. Rick decides to help Laszlo, leading her to believe that she will stay behind when Laszlo leaves.


However, Laszlo is arrested on a petty charge. Rick convinces Renault to release him, promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. Rick then double crosses Renault, forcing him at gunpoint to assist in the escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with her husband, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed. "Maybe not today. Maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life."


Major Strasser drives up, having been tipped off by Renault, but Rick shoots him when he tries to intervene. When the police arrive, Renault saves Rick's life by telling them to "round up the usual suspects." He then recommends that he and Rick leave Casablanca. They disappear into the fog with one of the most memorable exit lines in movie history: "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship." Round up the usual suspects is a line from the last scene of Casablanca, after Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) has shot the German officer in charge of controlling Moroccos Vichy administration. ...


Production

The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's then-unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick's.[2] The Warner Brothers story analyst who read the play, Stephen Karnot, called it (approvingly) "sophisticated hokum",[3] and story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal Wallis to buy the rights for $20,000,[4] the most anyone in Hollywood had ever paid for an unproduced play.[5] The project was renamed Casablanca, apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit Algiers.[6] Shooting began on May 25, 1942 and was completed on August 3. The film cost a total of $1,039,000 ($75,000 over budget),[7] not exceptionally high, but above average for the time.[8] Murray Burnett (1911-1997) was a high school teacher and playwright from New York City. ... Joan Alison co-wrote the play Everybody Comes to Ricks (with Murray Burnett), which was the basis for the movie Casablanca (film) with Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Warner Bros. ... Irene Diamond (1911 - January 21, 2003) was a Hollywood talent scout and later in life a prominent philanthropist. ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... Algiers a 1938 film directed by John Cromwell with Charles Boyer. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The entire picture was shot in the studio, except for the sequence showing Major Strasser's arrival, filmed at Van Nuys Airport. The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for another film, The Desert Song,[9] and redressed for the Paris flashbacks. It remained on the Warners backlot until the 1960s. The set for Rick's was built in three unconnected parts, so the internal layout of the building is indeterminate. In a number of scenes, the camera looks through a wall from the cafe area into Rick's office. The background of the final scene, which shows a Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior airplane with personnel walking around it, was staged using midget extras and a proportionate cardboard plane. Fog was used to mask the model's unconvincing appearance.[10] Film critic Roger Ebert calls Wallis the "key creative force" for his attention to the details of production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar).[11] Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY, FAA LID: VNY) is a public airport located in Van Nuys, California in the San Fernando Valley, within the Los Angeles city limits. ... The Desert Song was a notable 1926 operetta with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and Otto Harbach, respectively. ... A set dresser arranges things on a film set for shooting. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... In literature and film, a flashback (also called analepsis) takes the narrative back in time from the point the story has reached, to recount events that happened before and give the back-story. ... A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio with permanent exterior sets for outdoor scenes in motion picture and/or television productions. ... The Lockheed L-12A was a eight place, six passenger all metal transport designed for use by smaller airlines and private owners. ... In the 19th century, midget was a medical term referring to an extremely short but normally-proportioned person and was used in contrast to dwarf, which denoted disproportionate shortness. ... In drama, an extra is a performer in a film, television show, or stage production who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience or busy street scene). ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...


Bergman's height caused some problems. She was some two inches (5 cm) taller than Bogart, and claimed Curtiz had Bogie stand on blocks or sit on cushions in their scenes together.[12]


Wallis wrote the final line ("Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.") after shooting had been completed. Bogart had to be called in a month after the end of filming to dub it.


Later, there were plans for a further scene, showing Rick, Renault and a detachment of Free French soldiers on a ship, to incorporate the Allies' 1942 invasion of North Africa; however it proved too difficult to get Claude Rains for the shoot, and the scene was finally abandoned after David O. Selznick judged "it would be a terrible mistake to change the ending."[13] Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ...


Writing

The original play was inspired by a 1938 trip to Europe by Murray Burnett, during which he visited Vienna shortly after the Anschluss, as well as the south coast of France, which had uneasily coexisting populations of Nazis and refugees. The latter locale provided the inspirations for both Rick's cafe (the nightclub Le Kat Ferrat) and the character of Sam (a black piano player Burnett saw in Juan-les-Pins).[14] In the play, the Ilsa character was an American named Lois Meredith and did not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with Rick in Paris had ended; Rick was a lawyer. German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Juan-les-Pins is a district of Antibes, in southeastern France, on the Côte dAzur. ...


The first main writers to work on the script were the Epstein twins, Julius and Philip, who removed Rick's background and added more elements of comedy. The other credited writer, Howard Koch, came later, but worked in parallel with them, despite their differing emphases; Koch highlighted the political and melodramatic elements.[15] The uncredited Casey Robinson contributed to the series of meetings between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe.[16] Curtiz seems to have favored the romantic parts, insisting on retaining the Paris flashbacks. Despite the many writers, the film has what Ebert describes as a "wonderfully unified and consistent" script. Koch later claimed it was the tension between his own approach and Curtiz's which accounted for this: "Surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance."[17] Julius Epstein would later note the screenplay contained "more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. But when corn works, there's nothing better."[18] Julius J. Epstein (born August 22, 1909, New York, New York; died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California) was an American screenwriter, who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation -— in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others —- of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks... Philip G. Epstein (August 22, 1909 - February 7, 1952) was an American screenwriter most known for his adaptation in partnership with his twin brother, Julius, and others of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks that became the screenplay for the Academy Award-winning film Casablanca (1942). ... Howard Koch (December 2, 1902 - August 17, 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ...


The film ran into some trouble from Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favors from his supplicants, and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together in Paris. Both, however, remained strongly implied in the finished version.[19] Joseph Breen (born July 5, 1958) is an American soap opera actor. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ...


Direction

Wallis' first choice for director was William Wyler, but he was unavailable, so Wallis turned to his close friend Michael Curtiz.[20] Curtiz was a Hungarian Jewish emigre; he had come to the U.S. in the 1920s, but some of his family were refugees from Nazi Europe. Roger Ebert has commented in "Casablanca" "very few shots ... are memorable as shots", Curtiz being concerned to use images to tell the story rather than for their own sake.[11] However, he had relatively little input into the development of the plot: Casey Robinson said Curtiz "knew nothing whatever about story... he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories".[21] Critic Andrew Sarris called the film "the most decisive exception to the auteur theory",[22] to which Aljean Harmetz responded, "nearly every Warner Bros. picture was an exception to the auteur theory".[23] Other critics give more credit to Curtiz; Sidney Rosenzweig, in his study of the director's work, sees the film as a typical example of Curtiz's highlighting of moral dilemmas.[24] The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... William Wyler (July 1, 1902 – July 27, 1981) was a prolific, Oscar-winning motion picture director. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... Andrew Sarris is a film critic and a leading proponent of the Auteur theory of criticism. ... Auteurs redirects here. ... Aljean Harmetz is a Hollywood journalist and film historian. ...


The second unit montages, such as the opening sequence of the refugee trail and that showing the invasion of France, were directed by Don Siegel.[25] In film, the second unit is a separate team that shoots footage which is of lesser importance for the final motion picture, as opposed to the first unit, which shoots all scenes involving actors, or at least the stars of the film. ... Film editing is the connecting of one or more shots to form a sequence, and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. ... Don Siegel (October 26, 1912 - April 20, 1991) was an influential American film director. ...


Cinematography

The Cross of Lorraine, emblem of the Free French.

The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot The Maltese Falcon and Frankenstein. Particular attention was paid to photographing Bergman. She was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle; the whole effect was designed to make her face seem "ineffably sad and tender and nostalgic".[11] Bars of shadow across the characters and in the background variously imply imprisonment, the crucifix, the symbol of the Free French and emotional turmoil.[11] Dark film noir and expressionist lighting is used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Rosenzweig argues these shadow and lighting effects are classic elements of the Curtiz style, along with the fluid camera work and the use of the environment as a framing device.[26] Cross of Lorraine uploaded from the French Version, under GNU File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cross of Lorraine uploaded from the French Version, under GNU File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cross of Lorraine The Cross of Lorraine, ‡, is a heraldic cross. ... A Cameraman-Reporter during a MINUSTAH mission in 2007 (Photo: Patrick-André Perron A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography). ... Arthur Edeson (October 24, 1891 - February 14, 1970) was a film cinematographer. ... Actors Bogart, Lorre, Astor and Greenstreet in The Maltese Falcon (1941) The Maltese Falcon (1930) is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett that has been adapted several times for the cinema. ... Frankenstein is a 1931 science fiction film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. ... A catch light is a light source designed to add a glint or spark to a subjects eye during photography. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ...


Music

The score was written by Max Steiner, who was best known for the musical score for Gone with the Wind. The song "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfeld had been part of the story from the original play; Steiner wanted to write his own composition to replace it, but Bergman had already cut her hair short for her next role (María in For Whom the Bell Tolls) and could not re-shoot the scenes which incorporated the song. (As it turned out, the song enjoyed a resurgence after the film's release, spending 21 weeks on the hit parade.) So Steiner based the entire score on it and "La Marseillaise", transforming them to reflect changing moods.[27] Particularly notable is the "duel of the songs", in which "La Marseillaise" (the French national anthem) is played by a full orchestra, rather than just the small band actually present in Rick's club, competing against a small group of Germans singing "Die Wacht am Rhein" ("The Watch on the Rhine") at the piano. Originally, the piece intended for the iconic sequence was the "Horst Wessel Lied", the de facto second national anthem of Nazi Germany, which was still under international copyright in non-Allied countries. Other songs include "It Had to Be You" from 1924 with lyrics by Gus Kahn and music by Isham Jones, "Knock on Wood" with music by M.K. Jerome and lyrics by Jack Scholl, and "Shine" from 1910 by Cecil Mack and Lew Brown, with music by Ford Dabney. A score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... As Time Goes By is a song written by Herman Hupfeld for the 1931 Broadway musical Everybodys Welcome. ... Herman Hupfeld (February 1, 1894- June 8, 1951) was an American songwriter. ... For Whom the Bell Tolls is a 1943 film based on the famous novel by Ernest Hemingway. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Horst Wessel The Horst-Wessel-Lied (Horst Wessel Song), also known as Die Fahne hoch (The flag on high, from its opening line), was the anthem of the Nazi Party from 1930 to 1945. ... It Had to Be You could mean: It Had to Be You! (2005 film) It Had to Be You (television series) It Had to Be You (1989 film) It Had to Be You (2000 film) It Had to Be You (song) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles... Gustav Gerson Kahn (November 6, 1886 - October 8, 1941) was a famous Jewish-German-American musician, songwriter and lyricist. ... Isham Jones, 1922 Isham Jones (31 January 1894 – 19 October 1956) was a United States bandleader, violinist, saxophonist, bassist and songwriter. ... Poster for Knock on Wood Knock on Wood is a 1954 film starring Danny Kaye as Jerry Morgan. ... Shine (originally titled Thats Why They Call Me Shine) was a 1910 jazz song, with lyrics by Cecil Mack and Tin Pan Alley songwriter Lew Brown and music by Ford Dabney. ...


Cast

The cast is notable for its internationalism: only three of the credited actors were born in the U.S. The three top-billed actors were:

  • Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine. The New York City-born Bogart became a star with Casablanca. Earlier in his career, he had been typecast as a gangster, playing characters called Bugs, Rocks, Turkey, Whip, Chips, Gloves and Duke (twice). High Sierra (1941) had allowed him to play a character with some warmth, but Rick was his first truly romantic role.
  • Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. Bergman's official website calls Ilsa her "most famous and enduring role".[28] The Swedish actress's Hollywood debut in Intermezzo had been well received, but her subsequent films were not major successes—until Casablanca. Ebert calls her "luminous", and comments on the chemistry between her and Bogart: "she paints his face with her eyes".[11] Other actresses considered for the role of Ilsa had included Ann Sheridan, Hedy Lamarr and Michèle Morgan; Wallis obtained the services of Bergman, who was contracted to David O. Selznick, by loaning Olivia de Havilland in exchange.[29]
  • Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Henreid, an Austrian actor who left Austria in 1935, was reluctant to take the role (it "set [him] as a stiff forever", according to Pauline Kael[30]), until he was promised top billing along with Bogart and Bergman. Henreid did not get on well with his fellow actors (he considered Bogart "a mediocre actor", while Bergman called Henreid a "prima donna").[31]

The second-billed actors were: Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other meanings, see typecasting. ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... High Sierra (1941) is a film noir written by John Huston and W.R. Burnett from the novel by W.R. Burnett. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... ... Intermezzo (aka Intermezzo: A Love Story) is a 1939 film made in the USA by producer David O. Selznick and director Gregory Ratoff. ... Ann Sheridan (February 21, 1915 – January 21, 1967) was an American film actress. ... Hedy Lamarr (November 9, 1913 – January 19, 2000) was an Austrian/Jewish-American actress and communications technology innovator. ... Michèle Morgan (née Simone Renée Roussel on 29 February 1920 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France) is a French actress. ... Olivia Mary de Havilland (born July 1, 1916) is a two-time Academy Award winning actress in American motion pictures and is the last surviving principal cast member from Gone with the Wind. ... Henreid in Casablanca Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director probably best known for his roles in Casablanca and Now, Voyager. ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine. ...

Sidney Greenstreet (left) alongside Humphrey Bogart.

Also credited were: Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Adventures of Robin Hood is an American film released in 1938 and directed by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sydney Hughes Greenstreet (December 27, 1879 – January 18, 1954) was an English actor. ... Actors Bogart, Lorre, Astor and Greenstreet in The Maltese Falcon (1941) The Maltese Falcon (1930) is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett that has been adapted several times for the cinema. ... Peter Lorre (June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964), born László Loewenstein, was an Hungarian-American actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Dr. Caligari, Caligari, and Doctor Caligari all redirect here. ...

  • Dooley Wilson as Sam. He was one of the few American members of the cast. A drummer, he could not play the piano. Hal Wallis had considered changing the role of Sam to a female character (Hazel Scott and Ella Fitzgerald were candidates), and even after shooting had been completed, Wallis considered dubbing over Wilson's voice for the songs.[32]
  • Joy Page as Annina Brandel, the young Bulgarian refugee. The third credited American, she was studio head Jack Warner's step-daughter.
  • Madeleine LeBeau as Yvonne, Rick's soon-discarded girlfriend. The French actress was Marcel Dalio's wife until their divorce in 1942.
  • S.Z. (or S. K.) "Cuddles" Sakall as Carl, the waiter. He was a Hungarian actor who fled from Germany in 1939. A friend of Curtiz's since their days in Budapest, his three sisters died in a concentration camp.
  • Curt Bois as the pickpocket. Bois was a German Jewish actor and another refugee. He may have a claim to the longest film career of any actor, making his first appearance in 1907 and his last in 1987.
  • John Qualen as Berger, Laszlo's Resistance contact. He was born in Canada, but grew up in America. He appeared in many of John Ford's movies.
  • Leonid Kinskey as Sascha, whom Rick assigns to escort Yvonne home. He was born in Russia.

Notable uncredited actors were: Arthur Dooley Wilson (April 3, 1886 - May 30, 1953) was an African American actor and singer. ... For the comic book character, see Drummer (comics). ... Hazel Dorothy Scott (1920 – 1981) was a jazz and classical pianist and singer. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... Joy Page (born November 9, 1924) is an American actress best known for her role as the Bulgarian bride Annina Brandel in the movie Casablanca. ... This article is about Jack Warner, the head of Warner Brothers. ... Madeleine LeBeau was born Marie Therese Ernestine in Bourg-la-Reine, France, on February 22, 1921, she married actor Marcel Dalio as a 17 year old in 1938 (it was his second marriage). ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Szöke Szakáll known as S.Z. Sakall (born February 2, 1884 in Budapest - died February 12, 1955 in Los Angeles, California) was a film character actor. ... Curt Bois (5 April 1901–25 December 1991) was a German actor. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... John Qualen in Casablanca John Qualen (December 8, 1899 - September 12, 1987) was a film character actor. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Leonid Kinskey (April 18, 1903 - September 8, 1998) was a Russian-born movie and television actor who enjoyed a long career. ...

Part of the emotional impact of the film has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees among the extras and in the minor roles. A witness to the filming of the "duel of the songs" sequence said he saw many of the actors crying, and "realized that they were all real refugees".[33] Harmetz argues that they "brought to a dozen small roles in Casablanca an understanding and a desperation that could never have come from Central Casting".[34] The German citizens among them nevertheless had to keep curfew as enemy aliens. Ironically, they were frequently cast as the Nazis from whom they had fled. Marcel Dalio (17 July 1900 in Paris, France – 20 November 1983 in Paris) was a French character actor. ... For the 1998 Clive Owen film, see Croupier (film). ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Grand Illusion (1937) poster for American release, depicting actors Jean Gabin (as Lt. ... The Rules of the Game (original French title: La règle du jeu) is a 1939 film directed by Jean Renoir about upper-class French society just before the start of World War II. The film was initially condemned for its satire on the French upper classes and was greeted... To Have and Have Not is a 1944 thriller romance war adventure film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall that is nominally based on the novel To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway. ... Helmut Dantine in Casablanca (1942) Helmut Dantine (October 7, 1917 - May 2, 1982) was a film actor remembered for playing many Nazis in thriller films of the 1940s. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Norma Varden, (20 January 1898-19 January 1989) was an English actress with a long film career in Hollywood. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ... In law during wartime, an enemy alien is a person who is a citizen of a country which is a state of war with the land where he or she is found. ...


Some of the exiled foreign actors were:

  • Wolfgang Zilzer who is shot in the opening scene of the movie, was a silent movie actor in Germany who left when the Nazis took over. He later married Casablanca actress Lotte Palfi.
  • Hans Twardowski as a Nazi officer who argues with a French officer over Yvonne. Born in Stettin, Germany (today Szczecin, Poland), he fled Germany because he was a homosexual.
  • Ludwig Stössel as Mr. Leuchtag, the German refugee whose English is "not so good". Born in Austria, the Jewish actor was imprisoned following the Nazi Anschluss. When he was released, he left for England and then America. Stössel became famous for doing a long series of commercials for Italian Swiss Colony wine producers. Dressed in an Alpine hat and lederhosen, Stössel was their spokesman. His motto was, "That Little Old Winemaker, Me!"
  • Ilka Grünig as Mrs. Leuchtag. Born in Vienna, she was a silent movie star in Germany who came to America after the Anschluss.
  • Lotte Palfi as the refugee trying to sell her diamonds. Born in Germany, she played stage roles at a prestigious theater in Darmstadt, Germany. She journeyed to America after the Nazis came to power in 1933. She later married another Casablanca actor, Wolfgang Zilzer.
  • Trude Berliner as a baccarat player in Rick's. Born in Berlin, she was a famous cabaret performer and film actress. Being Jewish, she left Germany in 1933.
  • Louis V. Arco as another refugee in Rick's. Born Lutz Altschul in Austria, he moved to America shortly after the Anschluss and changed his name.
  • Richard Ryen as Strasser's aide, Colonel Heinze. The Austrian Jew acted in German films, but fled the Nazis.

Hans Twardowski Born Hans Heinrich von Twardowski on May 5, 1898 in Stettin, Germany about 80 miles northeast of Berlin (today it is Szczecin, Poland). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ludwig Stössel (February 12, 1883 - January 29, 1973) Stössel was born in Lockenhaus, Austria. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Men in lederhosen Lederhosen (leather trousers in German; singular: Lederhose) are knee-breeches (knickerbockers or shorts) made of leather. ... Ilka Grünig (September 4, 1876 - November 11, 1964) Born in Vienna in the old Austrian-Hungarian Empire. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... Trude Berliner (February 28, 1903 - February 26, 1977) Born Gertrude Berliner in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the card game. ... Louis V. Arco in Casablanca Louis V. Arco was an Austrian born actor (July 24, 1899 - April 3, 1975) who was born Lutz Altschul in Baden, Austria-Hungary (now Austria), about five miles south of Vienna. ... Richard Ryen - An Hungarian born actor who was expelled from Germany by the Nazis prior to World War II. Richard Ryen in Casablanca Richard Anton Robert Felix was born on September 13, 1885 in Hungary. ...

Reception

A poster used to advertise the original release of the film.

The film premiered at the Hollywood Theater in New York City on November 26, 1942, to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of Casablanca; it went into general release on January 23, 1943, to take advantage of the Casablanca conference, a high-level meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt in the city. It was a substantial but not spectacular box-office success, taking $3.7 million on its initial U.S. release (making it the seventh best-selling film of 1943).[35] Initial critical reaction was generally positive, with Variety describing it as "splendid anti-Axis propaganda";[36] as Koch later said, "it was a picture the audiences needed... there were values... worth making sacrifices for. And it said it in a very entertaining way."[37] Other reviews were less enthusiastic: The New Yorker rated it only "pretty tolerable".[38] The Office of War Information prevented screening of the film to troops in North Africa, believing it would cause resentment among Vichy supporters in the region.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (515x755, 72 KB) This image is of a film poster, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the film or the studio which produced the film in question. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (515x755, 72 KB) This image is of a film poster, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the film or the studio which produced the film in question. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... American president Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Free French leaders Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, January 14, 1943 The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, then a French... Churchill redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was a U.S. government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services. ...


At the 1944 Oscars, the film won three awards: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Director, and Best Picture. Wallis was resentful when Jack Warner, rather than he, collected the best picture award; the slight led to Wallis severing his ties with the studio in April that year.[40] Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... This article is about Jack Warner, the head of Warner Brothers. ...


The film has maintained its popularity: Murray Burnett has called it "true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow".[41] By 1955, the film had brought in 6.8 million dollars, making it only the third most successful of Warners' wartime movies (behind Shine On, Harvest Moon and This is the Army).[42] On April 21, 1957, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts showed the film as part of a season of old movies. It was so popular that it began a tradition of screening Casablanca during the week of final exams at Harvard University which continues to the present day, and is emulated by many colleges across the United States. Todd Gitlin, a professor of sociology who himself attended one of these screenings, had said that the experience was, "the acting out of my own personal rite of passage".[43] The tradition helped the movie remain popular while other famous films of the 1940s have faded away, and by 1977, Casablanca was the most frequently broadcast film on American television.[44] Shine On, Harvest Moon is the name of a popular early-1900s song credited to Jack Norworth and his wife Nora Bayes. ... This Is the Army is a 1943 American motion picture produced by Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner, and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Brattle Theatre The Brattle Theatre is a repertory movie theater located in Harvard Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Gitlin on the cover of Letters to a Young Activist Dr. Todd Gitlin is an American sociologist, political writer, novelist, and cultural commentator. ...


However, there has been anecdotal evidence that Casablanca may have made a deeper impression among film-lovers than within the professional movie-making establishment. In the November/December 1982 issue of American Film, Chuck Ross claimed that he retyped the screenplay to Casablanca, only changing the title back to Everybody Comes to Rick's and the name of the piano player to Dooley Wilson, and submitted it to 217 agencies. Eighty-five of them read it; of those, thirty-eight rejected it outright, thirty-three generally recognized it (but only eight specifically as Casablanca), three declared it commercially viable, and one suggested turning it into a novel.[45] Arthur Dooley Wilson (April 3, 1886 - May 30, 1953) was an African American actor and singer. ...


Critical response

According to Roger Ebert, Casablanca is "probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other single title, including Citizen Kane" because of its wider appeal; while Citizen Kane is "greater", Casablanca is more loved.[11] Ebert said that he has never heard of a negative review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticized, citing unrealistic special effects and the stiff character/portrayal of Laszlo.[21] Rudy Behlmer emphasized the variety in the picture: "it's a blend of drama, melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue".[21] Leonard Maltin has stated that this is his favorite movie of all time. Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... Leonard Maltin (born December 18, 1950 in New York City) is a widely known and respected American film critic. ...


Ebert has said that the film is popular because "the people in it are all so good". As the Resistance hero, Laszlo is ostensibly the most noble, although he is so stiff that he is hard to like.[11] The other characters, in Behlmer's words, are "not cut and dried": they come into their goodness in the course of the film. Renault begins the film as a collaborator with the Nazis, who extorts sexual favours from refugees and has Ugarte killed. Rick, according to Behlmer, is "not a hero, ... not a bad guy": he does what is necessary to get along with the authorities and "sticks his neck out for nobody". Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is "caught in the emotional struggle" over which man she really loves. By the end of the film, however, "everybody is sacrificing."[21]


A dissenting note comes from Umberto Eco, who wrote that "by any strict critical standards... Casablanca is a very mediocre film." He viewed the changes the characters undergo as inconsistency rather than complexity: "It is a comic strip, a hotch-potch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects." However, he argued that it is this inconsistency which accounts for the film's popularity by allowing it to include a whole series of archetypes: unhappy love, flight, passage, waiting, desire, the triumph of purity, the faithful servant, the love triangle, beauty and the beast, the enigmatic woman, the ambiguous adventurer and the redeemed drunkard. Centermost is the idea of sacrifice: "the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film."[46] It was this theme which resonated with a wartime audience that was reassured by the idea that painful sacrifice and going off to war could be romantic gestures done for the greater good.[47] Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... A love triangle refers to a romantic relationship involving three people. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with intoxication Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


Interpretation

Critics have subjected Casablanca to many different readings. William Donelley, in his Love and Death in Casablanca, argues that Rick's relationship with Sam, and subsequently with Renault, is, "a standard case of the repressed homosexuality that underlies most American adventure stories".[48] Harvey Greenberg presents a Freudian reading in his The Movies on Your Mind, in which the transgressions which prevent Rick from returning to the U.S. constitute an Oedipus complex, which is resolved only when Rick begins to identify with the father figure of Laszlo and the cause which he represents.[49] Sidney Rosenzweig argues that such readings are reductive, and that the most important aspect of the film is its ambiguity, above all in the central character of Rick; he cites the different names which each character gives Rick (Richard, Ricky, Mr Rick, Herr Blaine and so on) as evidence of the different meanings which he has for each person.[50] Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ...


Influence

Many subsequent films have drawn on elements of Casablanca: Passage to Marseille reunited Bogart, Rains, Curtiz, Greenstreet and Lorre in 1944, while there are many similarities between Casablanca and a later Bogart film, Sirocco. Parodies have included the Marx Brothers' A Night in Casablanca (1946), Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam (1972), Neil Simon's The Cheap Detective (1978), Barb Wire (1996), and Out Cold (2001), while it provided the title for the 1995 hit The Usual Suspects. Casablanca itself was an elemental plot device in the science fiction television movie Overdrawn at the Memory Bank (1983), based on John Varley's story. Warner Brothers produced its own parody of the film in the homage Carrotblanca, a 1995 Bugs Bunny cartoon included on the special edition DVD release. Spanish film poster for Passage to Marseille Passage to Marseille is a 1944 war film made by Warner Brothers, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Hal B. Wallis with Jack L. Warner as executive producer. ... Sirocco is a black-and-white film starring Humphrey Bogart. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ... Sheet Music Cover A Night in Casablanca (1946) is the twelfth Marx Brothers movie. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Play It Again, Sam was a play and 1972 film written by and starring Woody Allen, originally entitled Aspirins for Three. ... Neil Simon (1966) Neil Simon (born Marvin Neil Simon July 4, 1927 in The Bronx, New York City), is a Jewish American playwright and screenwriter. ... The Cheap Detective is a 1978 spoof comedy movie, written by Neil Simon and directed by Robert Moore as a follow-up to their successful Murder By Death. ... Barb Wire was a superhero published by Comics Greatest World, an imprint of Dark Horse Comics. ... Out Cold is a 2001 comedy film about a group of snowboarders in Alaska. ... The Usual Suspects is a 1995 American neo-noir film written by Christopher McQuarrie and directed by Bryan Singer. ... Overdrawn at the Memory Bank was a 1983 television movie. ... John Varley John Herbert Varley (born August 9, 1947 in Austin, Texas) is a Hugo Award, Nebula Award, Seiun Award and Prometheus Award Winning science fiction author. ... Warner Bros. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... For the band, see Cartoons (band). ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...


Steven Soderbergh paid homage to Casablanca with The Good German, a post-World War II Berlin-set murder mystery shot in black and white using technology from the period in which Casablanca was made. The film ends with a scene between two former lovers (played by George Clooney and Cate Blanchett) at an airport. The film's poster echoes the iconic one for Casablanca. Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ... The Good German is a 2006 feature film adaptation of a novel by Joseph Kanon. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Sherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; together these characters popularized the genre. ... Black-and-white is a broad adjectival term used to describe a number of monochrome forms of visual arts. ... George Timothy Clooney (May 6, 1961) is an American actor, director, producer and screenwriter who gained fame as one of the lead doctors in the long-running television drama, ER (1994–99), but is best known for his subsequent rise as an A-List movie star in contemporary American cinema. ... Catherine Élise Blanchett (born on May 14, 1969) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning Australian actress. ...


Awards and nominations

Casablanca won three Oscars: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...

It was also nominated for another five Oscars: // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to directors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Julius J. Epstein (born August 22, 1909, New York, New York; died December 30, 2000, Los Angeles, California) was an American screenwriter, who had a long career, most noted for the adaptation -— in partnership with his twin brother, Philip, and others —- of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks... Philip G. Epstein (August 22, 1909 - February 7, 1952) was an American screenwriter most known for his adaptation in partnership with his twin brother, Julius, and others of the unproduced play Everybody Comes to Ricks that became the screenplay for the Academy Award-winning film Casablanca (1942). ... Howard Koch (December 2, 1902 - August 17, 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ...

In 1989, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In 1999, it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the second greatest American film ever made, behind only Citizen Kane. The 2007 revised AFI list moved it down to third, after Citizen Kane and The Godfather. In 2005, it was named one of the 100 greatest films of the last 80 years by Time.com (the selected films were not ranked). The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ... The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is one of the awards given to male actors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Claude Rains (November 10, 1889 – May 30, 1967) was a British-born theatre and film actor, who later held American citizenship, best known for his many roles in Hollywood films. ... Charles Rosher the first recipient in 1928 The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ... Arthur Edeson (October 24, 1891 - February 14, 1970) was a film cinematographer. ... The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934. ... The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2006, the Writers Guild of America voted the screenplay of Casablanca the best of all time in its list of the 101 Greatest Screenplays.[51] The Writers Guild of America (WGA) is the collective bargaining representative, or labor union, for writers in the motion picture and television industries in the United States. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...


Sequels and other versions

Scenes from the controversial colorized version.

Almost from the moment Casablanca became a hit, talk began of producing a sequel. One entitled Brazzaville (in the final scene, Renault recommends fleeing to that Free French-held city) was planned, but never produced. Since then, no studio has seriously considered filming a sequel or outright remake. François Truffaut refused an invitation to remake the film in 1974, citing its cult status among American students as his reason.[52] However, it has been reported that Bollywood filmmaker Rajeev Nath is remaking the film, describing it as a "tribute to the original."[53] Image File history File links Casablanca_(colorized). ... Image File history File links Casablanca_(colorized). ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... It has been suggested that cult debate be merged into this article or section. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


The novel, As Time Goes By, written by Michael Walsh and published in 1998, was authorized by Warner.[54][55] The novel picks up where the movie leaves off, and also tells of Rick's mysterious past in America. The book met with little success.[56] David Thomson provided an unofficial sequel in his 1985 novel Suspects. For other persons named Michael Walsh, see Michael Walsh (disambiguation). ... David Thomson (born 1941 in London, UK) is a noted film critic in the United States and the author of the lauded New Biographical Dictionary of Film. ...


There have been two short-lived television series based upon Casablanca, both considered prequels to the movie. The first aired from 1955 to 1956, with Charles McGraw as Rick and Marcel Dalio, who played Emil the croupier in the movie, as Renault; it aired on ABC as part of the wheel series Warner Bros. Presents.[57] It produced a total of 10 hour-long episodes. Another series, briefly broadcast on NBC in 1983, starred David Soul as Rick, Ray Liotta as Sacha and Scatman Crothers as a somewhat elderly Sam.[58] A total of 5 hour-long episodes were produced A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... A prequel is a work that portrays events which include the structure, conventions, and/or characters of a previously completed narrative, but occur at an earlier time. ... Born Charles Butters in Ohio May 10, 1914, square-jawed Charles McGraw grew up to become an actor and eventually made his first movie in 1942. ... Marcel Dalio (17 July 1900 in Paris, France – 20 November 1983 in Paris) was a French character actor. ... For the 1998 Clive Owen film, see Croupier (film). ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... A wheel series is a term applied in the broadcast television industry to a television program in which two or more regular series are rotated with the same time slot. ... Warner Bros. ... This article is about the television network. ... David Soul (born August 28, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actor and British citizen and singer best known for his role as the seat-of-the-pants California police detective Ken Hutch Hutchinson (opposite co-star and long-time friend Paul Michael Glaser) in the cult television program... Ray Liotta[1] (born December 18, 1954) is a Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... Benjamin Sherman Scatman Crothers (May 23, 1910 – November 22, 1986) was an African-American actor, singer, dancer and musician. ...


Several radio adaptations of the film have been created. The two most well-known adaptations were the thirty minute adaptation on The Screen Guild Theater on April 26, 1943, starring Bogart, Bergman and Henreid, and the hour-long adaptation on the Lux Radio Theater on January 24, 1944, featuring Alan Ladd as Rick, Hedy Lamarr as Ilsa, and John Loder as Victor Laszlo. Two other adaptations that were aired were a thirty minute adaptation on the Philip Morris Playhouse on September 3, 1943 and another half hour adaptation on the Theater of Romance on December 19, 1944, where Dooley Wilson reprises his role as Sam. The Screen Guild Theater was a popular radio anthology series during the Golden Age of Radio that began airing on the CBS network on January 8, 1939 and lasted for fourteen seasons and 527 episodes. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lux Radio Theater, one of the genuine classic radio anthology series (NBC Blue Network (1934-1935); CBS (1935-1954); NBC (1954-1955)) adapted first Broadway stage works, and then (especially) films to hour-long live radio presentations. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan Walbridge Ladd (September 3, 1913 – November 7, 1964) was an American film actor. ... Hedy Lamarr (November 9, 1913 – January 19, 2000) was an Austrian/Jewish-American actress and communications technology innovator. ... John Loder, born on 3 January 1898 in Selbourne, England, died on 26 December 1988, was an English actor best known for his tall, debonair and suave looks and his marriage to Hedy Lamarr. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Julius Epstein made two attempts to turn the film into a Broadway musical, in 1951 and 1967, but neither made it to the stage.[59] The original play, Everybody Comes to Rick's, was produced in Newport, Rhode Island in August 1946, and again in London in April 1991, but met with no success.[60] Julius Epstein (pianist) (born 1832), Austrian pianist; born at Agram Julius Julie Epstein is Klezemer band member Julius J. Epstein This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ...


Casablanca was also part of the film colorization controversy during the 1980s,[61] when a color version aired on television. This was briefly available on home video, but it was unpopular with purists. Bogart's son, Stephen, said "if you're going to colorize Casablanca, why not put arms on the Venus de Milo?"[62] A colorized image of Laurel and Hardy, from March of the Wooden Soldiers (formally Babes in Toyland). ... Not to be confused with the group of prehistoric statuettes known as Venus figurines. ...


Rumors

Several rumors and misconceptions have grown up around the film, one being that Ronald Reagan was originally chosen to play Rick. This originates in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by that time the studio already knew that he was due to go work for the army, and he was never seriously considered.[63] Reagan redirects here. ... A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ...


Another well-known story is that the actors did not know until the last day of shooting how the film was to end. The original play (set entirely in the cafe) ended with Rick sending Ilsa and Victor to the airport. During scriptwriting, the possibility was discussed of Laszlo being killed in Casablanca, allowing Rick and Ilsa to leave together, but as Casey Robinson wrote to Hal Wallis before filming began, the ending of the film "set up for a swell twist when Rick sends her away on the plane with Victor. For now, in doing so, he is not just solving a love triangle. He is forcing the girl to live up to the idealism of her nature, forcing her to carry on with the work that in these days is far more important than the love of two little people."[64] It was certainly impossible for Ilsa to leave Laszlo for Rick, as the production code forbade showing a woman leaving her husband for another man. Such dispute as there was concerned not whether Ilsa would leave with Laszlo, but how this result could be engineered.[65] The confusion was most probably caused by Bergman's later statement that she did not know which man she was meant to be in love with. While rewrites did occur during the filming, Aljean Harmetz' examination of the scripts has shown that many of the key scenes were shot after Bergman knew how the film would end: any confusion was, in Ebert's words, "emotional", not "factual".[11] The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ...


Errors

The film has several logical flaws, the foremost being the two "letters of transit" which enable their bearers to leave Vichy French territory. It is unclear whether Ugarte says the letters had been signed by Vichy General Maxime Weygand or Free French leader General Charles de Gaulle. The audio clearly says "de Gaulle" listen  and the English subtitles on the official DVD also read "de Gaulle", but the French subtitles specify "Weygand". Weygand had been the Vichy Delegate-General for the North African colonies until a month before the film is set (and a year after it was written). De Gaulle was at the time the head of the Free French government, the enemy of the Vichy regime controlling Morocco. A Vichy court martial had convicted De Gaulle of treason in absentia and sentenced him to life imprisonment on August 2, 1940. Thus, it seems implausible that a letter signed by him would have been of any benefit.[7] A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never questioned.[66] Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... General Maxime Weygand Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. // Weygand was born in Brussels. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Lettersoftransit. ... -1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the plot device. ...


Even in the film, Rick suggests to Renault that the letters would not have allowed Ilsa to escape, let alone Laszlo: "People have been held in Casablanca in spite of their legal rights." In the same vein, though Laszlo asserts that the Nazis cannot arrest him as "This is still unoccupied France; any violation of neutrality would reflect on Captain Renault." Ebert points out that "It makes no sense that he could walk around freely." "He would be arrested on sight."[11]


Other mistakes include the wrong version of the flag for French Morocco, Renault's claim that "I was with them [the Americans] when they 'blundered' into Berlin in 1918" (the German capital was not captured in World War I), and no uniformed German troops ever set foot in Casablanca during the Second World War.[7] There are the inevitable continuity errors; for example, in the final scene, Major Strasser's military overcoat is seen both with and without epaulets, and when Strasser is killed, he falls to the ground still clutching the phone receiver, even though the previous shot shows that the cord was not long enough. Also, during the scene where Rick leaves Paris on the train, it can clearly be seen when Rick's coat gets sopping wet due to heavy rain, but while stepping on to the train, the coat all of a sudden appears dry. Curtiz's attitude towards such details was clear: he said "I make it go so fast, nobody notices."[21] This article is about the capital of Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ... Emperor Norton regularly strolled the streets of San Francisco in an elaborate blue uniform complete with tarnished gold-plated epaulettes. ...


Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

One of the lines most closely associated with the film—"Play it again, Sam"—is a misquotation. When Ilsa first enters the Café Americain, she spots Sam and asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." When he feigns ignorance, she responds, "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By.' " Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick says, "You played it for her and you can play it for me." and "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!" Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... A misquotation is an accidental or intentional misrepresentation of a persons speech or writing, involving one or more of: Omission of important context: The context can be important for determining the overall argument the quoted person wanted to make, for seeing whether the quoted statement was restricted or even... As Time Goes By is a song written by Herman Hupfeld for the 1931 Broadway musical Everybodys Welcome. ...


The line "Here's looking at you, kid.", spoken by Rick to Ilsa, is not in the draft screenplays, and has been attributed to the poker lessons Bogart was giving Bergman between takes.[67] It was voted in a 2005 poll by the American Film Institute as the fifth most memorable line in cinema history.[68] Six lines from Casablanca appeared in the top 100, by far the most of any film (Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz were next, with three apiece). The others were: "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."(20th), "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By.'" (28th), "Round up the usual suspects." (32nd), "We'll always have Paris." (43rd), and "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." (67th). For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 15, 1996). Casablanca (1942). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  2. ^ Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935–1951). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 194. ISBN 0297792423. 
  3. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (1992). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 17. ISBN 0297812947. 
  4. ^ Harmetz, p. 18
  5. ^ Wilson, Kristi M. (2002). Casablanca. St James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture, Gale Group. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  6. ^ Harmetz, p. 30
  7. ^ a b c Robertson, James C. (1993). The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz, p. 79. ISBN 0415068045. 
  8. ^ Behlmer, p. 208
  9. ^ Behlmer, pp. 214–215
  10. ^ Harmetz, p. 237
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ebert, Roger. Commentary to Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD).
  12. ^ Harmetz, p.170
  13. ^ Harmetz, pp. 280–81
  14. ^ Harmetz, p.53–54
  15. ^ Harmetz, pp.56–59
  16. ^ Harmetz, pp.175 and 179
  17. ^ Sorel, Edward (December 1991). Casablanca. American Heritage magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  18. ^ Casablanca' writer dies at 91. CNN (January 1, 2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  19. ^ Harmetz, pp.162–166 and Behlmer, pp.207–208 and 212–213
  20. ^ Harmetz, p.75.
  21. ^ a b c d e Quoted in Ebert commentary.
  22. ^ Sarris, Andrew (1968). The American Cinema: Directors and Directions 1929–1968 (New York: Dutton, 1968), p.176.
  23. ^ Harmetz, p.75
  24. ^ Rosenzweig, Sidney (1982). Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz. Ann Arbor, Mich: UMI Research Press, pp. 158–159. ISBN 0835713040. 
  25. ^ Harmetz, p.264
  26. ^ Rosenzweig, pp.6–7
  27. ^ Harmetz, pp. 253–58
  28. ^ From quintessential "good girl" to Hollywood heavyweight. The Family of Ingrid Bergman. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  29. ^ Harmetz, pp. 88, 89, 92, 95
  30. ^ Harmetz, p. 99
  31. ^ Harmetz, p. 97
  32. ^ Harmetz, pp. 139–40, 260 and Behlmer, p. 214
  33. ^ Harmetz, p. 213
  34. ^ Harmetz, p. 214
  35. ^ Harmetz, p. 12
  36. ^ Film reviews through the years. Variety magazine (December 2, 1942). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  37. ^ Sperling, Cass Warner and Millner, Cork (1994). Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. Rocklin, CA: Prima, p. 249
  38. ^ Harmetz, pp. 12–13
  39. ^ Harmetz, p. 286
  40. ^ Harmetz, pp. 321–24
  41. ^ Interviewed in Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember This (Turner: 1992)
  42. ^ Harmetz, p. 283
  43. ^ Harmetz, p. 343
  44. ^ Harmetz, p. 346
  45. ^ Zinman, David (April 10, 1983). The Magazine (Sunday supplement to the Vancouver Province newspaper), p. 12
  46. ^ Eco, Umberto (1994). Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers (Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon, eds.) Bedford Books.
  47. ^ Gabbard, Krin; Gabbard, Glen O. (1990). "Play it again, Sigmund: Psychoanalysis and the classical Hollywood text." Journal of Popular Film & Television vol. 18 no. 1 p. 6–17 ISSN 0195-6051
  48. ^ Donnelly, William (1968). "Love and Death in Casablanca" Persistence of Vision: A Collection of Film Criticisms, ed. Joseph McBride. Madison: Wisconsin Fim Society Press, pp. 103–7 quoted in Rosenzweig, p. 78 and Harmetz, p. 347
  49. ^ Greenberg, Harvey (1975). The Movies on Your Mind New York: Saturday Review Press, p. 88 quoted in Rosenzweig, p. 79 and Harmetz, p. 348
  50. ^ Rosenzweig, p. 81
  51. ^ 101 Greatest Sceenplays. Writers Guild of America, west. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  52. ^ Harmetz, p. 342
  53. ^ "'Casablanca' to be remade by Bollywood", Independent News. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  54. ^ Borders.com presents Michael Walsh, Author of "As Time Goes By". LiveWorld, Inc (January 8, 1999). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  55. ^ Walsh, Michael (1998). How Did I Write "As Time Goes By"?. Hachette Book Group USA. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  56. ^ Lawless, Jill (May 31, 2006). 'Mrs. Robinson' Returns in Sequel. CBS News. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  57. ^ Casablanca (1955). Internet Movie Database Inc. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  58. ^ Casablanca (1983). Internet Movie Database Inc. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  59. ^ Harmetz, p. 338
  60. ^ Harmetz, p. 331
  61. ^ Krauthammer, Charles (January 12, 1987). Casablanca In Color?. Time. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  62. ^ Harmetz, p. 342
  63. ^ Harmetz, p. 74
  64. ^ Behlmer, pp. 206–207
  65. ^ Harmetz, p. 229
  66. ^ Harmetz, p. 55
  67. ^ Harmetz, p. 187
  68. ^ 'Frankly, my dear...' named number one movie quote. American Broadcasting Company (June 23, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-04.

is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aljean Harmetz is a Hollywood journalist and film historian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Writers Guild of America, west (WGAw) is a labor union representing writers of television and film and employees of television and radio news. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935–1951). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297792423. 
  • Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (1942) (with audio commentaries by Roger Ebert and Rudy Behlmer and documentary Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember This, narrated by Lauren Bacall).
  • Eco, Umberto (1994). Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers (Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon, eds.) Bedford Books. ISBN 0-312-25925-5.
  • Harmetz, Aljean (1993). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca. Warner Books Inc. ISBN 1-56282-761-8.
  • Robertson, James C. (1993). The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz London:Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06804-5
  • Rosenzweig, Sidney (1982). Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press. ISBN 0-8357-1304-0
  • The Official Ingrid Bergman Web Site. The Family of Ingrid Bergman. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.

Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Aljean Harmetz is a Hollywood journalist and film historian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Awards
Preceded by
Mrs. Miniver
Academy Award for Best Picture
1943
Succeeded by
Going My Way
Television shows produced or created by William T. Orr
Warner Brothers Presents · King's Row · Casablanca · Cheyenne · Conflict · Colt .45 · Sugarfoot · Maverick · Bronco · The Alaskans · Lawman · Bourbon Street Beat · Hawaiian Eye · The Roaring 20s · Surfside 6 · 77 Sunset Strip · Room for One More · The Gallant Men · The Dakotas · Temple Houston · Wendy and Me · No Time for Sergeants · · Hank · Mister Roberts · F Troop

Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director. ... Alraune is a 1918 science fiction horror film directed by Michael Curtiz and Edmund Fritz. ... Noah’s Ark is a 1929 American early romantic Melodrama disaster film directed by Michael Curtiz and written by Darryl F. Zanuck. ... Mammy (1930) is an All-Talking musical drama motion picture, with Technicolor sequences, which was released by Warner Brothers. ... Under A Texas Moon is a 1930 musical western film photographed entirely in Technicolor. ... The Matrimonial Bed is a 1930 Pre-Code comedy film produced and released by Warner Bros. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia on one of the following topics: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources. ... Gods Gift to Women is a 1931 Pre-Code musical romantic comedy film produced and released by Warner Bros. ... Doctor X is a First National/Warner Bros. ... 20,000 Years in Sing Sing is a 1932 black-and-white crime film set in Sing Sing, a notorious maximum security prison in New York State. ... Mystery of the Wax Museum is a mystery/horror Technicolor film released in 1933, and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... Goodbye Again is a 1933 comedy film made by First National Pictures/Warner Bros. ... Female is a 1933 comedy film, directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Ruth Chatterton, George Brent, Lois Wilson, Johnny Mack Brown and Ruth Donnelly. ... Jimmy the Gent is a 1934 black-and-white film starring James Cagney as an unscrupulous investigator and Bette Davis as his skeptical paramour. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Captain Blood is a 1935 swashbuckling film made by First National Pictures and Warner Brothers. ... The Walking Dead is a 1936 black-and-white horror film starring Boris Karloff as a wrongly executed man who is returned to life by a mad doctor (Edmund Gwenn). ... The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1936 historical film made by Warner Bros. ... Kid Galahad is a 1937 prizefighter film starring Edward G. Robinson, Bette Davis, and Humphrey Bogart. ... The Adventures of Robin Hood is an American film released in 1938 and directed by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley. ... Fours a Crowd was a romantic comedy directed by Michael Curtiz and made in 1938. ... Four Daughters is a 1938 film which tells the story of a happy musical family whose lives and loves are disrupted by the arrival of a cynical young composer who interjects himself into the daughters romantic lives. ... Angels with Dirty Faces is a well-known and often referenced 1938 Warner Brothers film noir directed by Michael Curtiz and starring James Cagney, Humphrey Bogart, Pat OBrien, and the Dead End Kids. ... Dodge City is a western movie starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. ... Daughters Courageous was a movie from 1939, starring three of the four Lane Sisters (Lola, Rosemary and Priscilla). ... The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939), is a romantic drama film based on the relationship between Queen Elizabeth I (played by Bette Davis) and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (played by Errol Flynn). ... Virginia City is a 1940 black-and-white movie starring Errol Flynn, Miriam Hopkins, and Randolph Scott, and featuring a mustachioed Humphrey Bogart in the role of the real-life outlaw John Murrell. ... Movie poster for The Sea Hawk The Sea Hawk is a 1940 adventure film about an English privateer set in the Elizabethan era, loosely based on the historical figure Sir Francis Drake. ... Santa Fe Trail is a 1940 western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. ... The Sea Wolf is a 1941 black-and-white film adaptation of Jack Londons novel The Sea Wolf with Edward G. Robinson, Ida Lupino, and John Garfield. ... Captains of the Clouds is a 1942 Warner Bros war film, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by William Cagney, with Hal B. Wallis as executive producer. ... Yankee Doodle Dandy is a 1942 biographical film about George M. Cohan, starring James Cagney, Joan Leslie, Walter Huston, Richard Whorf, Irene Manning, George Tobias, Rosemary DeCamp and Jeanne Cagney. ... Mission to Moscow is a 1943 movie directed by Michael Curtiz with a screen play by Howard Koch based on the book by Ambassador Joseph E. Davies. ... This Is the Army is a 1943 American motion picture produced by Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner, and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... Spanish film poster for Passage to Marseille Passage to Marseille is a 1944 war film made by Warner Brothers, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Hal B. Wallis with Jack L. Warner as executive producer. ... Mildred Pierce is an American film noir released in 1945 and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... DVD Cover of Night and Day Night and Day is a 1946 fictionalised biographical film made by Warner Brothers, based on the life of American composer and songwriter Cole Porter. ... The Unsuspected is a 1947 film starring Claude Rains. ... Isadore Friz Freleng (August 21, 1906[1]–May 26, 1995) was an animator, cartoonist, director, and producer best known for his work on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons from Warner Bros. ... Flamingo Road is a 1949 American drama film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Joan Crawford, Zachary Scott, Sydney Greenstreet and David Brian. ... In this 1949 comedy film, Jennifer Smith (Jane Wyman) heads a Consumer Reports-type company and her reputation for honesty is her greatest asset. ... Young Man with a Horn is a 1950 film, based on a biographical novel of the same name, based on the life of Bix Beiderbecke. ... Bright Leaf is a 1949 novel written by Foster Fitzsimmons, which was adapted into a 1950 film by Henry Koster and starring Gary Cooper and Lauren Bacall. ... The Breaking Point is the second film adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novel To Have and Have Not. ... Jim Thorpe -- All-American is a 1951 biographical film produced by Warner Brothers and directed by Michael Curtiz, honoring Jim Thorpe, the great Native American athlete who won medals at the 1912 Olympics and distinguished himself in various sports, both in college and on professional teams. ... Ill See You in My Dreams was a 1951 film starring Doris Day and Danny Thomas, directed by Michael Curtiz. ... The Jazz Singer (1952) is the remake of the infamous 1927 talking picture, The Jazz Singer. ... Trouble Along the Way is a 1953 film starring John Wayne and Donna Reed. ... The Egyptian is a 1954 epic film made in Cinemascope by 20th Century Fox, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. ... White Christmas is a 1954 movie starring Bing Crosby and Danny Kaye that featured the songs of Irving Berlin, including the titular White Christmas. ... Were no Angels is a 1955 comedy picture starring Humphrey Bogart, Peter Ustinov and Aldo Ray. ... King Creole is a 1958 Elvis Presley film and soundtrack based on the 1952 Harold Robbins novel, A Stone for Danny Fisher. ... A Breath of Scandal is a 1960 film adapted from Ferenc Molnars stage play Olympia. ... The Comancheros is a 1961 western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring John Wayne and Stuart Whitman. ... Not to be confused with William Orr. ... Warner Bros. ... Kings Row is a 1942 film which tells the story of a group of children who grow up leading supposedly idyllic lives in a small town with disturbing secrets. ... This article is about the 1942 film. ... Cheyenne is a western television series broadcast on ABC from 1955 to 1962. ... Conflict is a 1956 ABC series that directly succeeded Warner Brothers Presents. ... Colt . ... Sugarfoot was the title of a TV western that aired from 1957 to 1961. ... Maverick is a comedy-western television series created by Roy Huggins that ran from September 22, 1957 to July 8, 1962 on ABC and featured James Garner, Roger Moore, and Jack Kelly as poker-playing travelling gamblers. ... Bronco was a Western series. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lawman is a western television series originally telecast from 1958 to 1962 featuring John Russell as Marshal Dan Troop. ... Bourbon Street Beat was a private detective series which ran on the American Broadcasting Company from 1959 through 1960. ... Hawaiian Eye was an American television series that ran from October 1959 to September 1963 on the American Broadcasting Company television network. ... The Roaring Twenties (or The Roaring 20s) was a US television series that aired on the ABC television network beginning on October 15, 1960 and ending September 21, 1962. ... Surfside 6 was a television series (1960-1962) about a Miami Beach detective agency set on a houseboat, featuring Van Williams as Kenny Madison (a character recycled from Bourbon Street Beat, a similar series that had appeared the the same time slot the season before), Lee Patterson as Dave Thorne... 1959 Soundtrack - (L to R): Roger Smith, Kookie Byrnes, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. ... Not to be confused with the 1952 film Room for One More, starring Cary Grant, on which the series is based. ... The Gallant Men was a 1962-63 ABC television series which depicted an infantry company of American soldiers fighting their way through Italy in World War II. Their commander was Capt. ... The Dakotas was a television western series first seen on ABC television (UK) on January 7th 1963. ... Not to be confused with the 19th Century American lawyer, Temple Houston, on whom this series is based. ... Wendy and Me is a 1964 ABC situation comedy, principally starring George Burns and Connie Stevens. ... No Time for Sergeants was a 1954 best-selling novel by Mac Hyman, which was later adapted into a popular Broadway play and 1958 motion picture (plus a forgettable 1964 television series). ... Hank is a 1965 American situation comedy which is perhaps most notable for being an early example of a program with a true series finale. ... Mister Roberts is a novel, a Tony Award–winning play, and a 1955 Academy Award–nominated film. ... F Troop is a satirical American television sitcom that originally aired from 1965-1967 on ABC. It premiered in the United States on September 14, 1965, ran for two seasons and finished its first run on April 6, 1967, for a total of 65 thirty-minute episodes. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Casablanca: Information from Answers.com (5815 words)
However, he argues that it is this inconsistency which accounts for the film's popularity by allowing it to include a whole series of archetypes: unhappy love, flight, passage, waiting, desire, the triumph of purity, the faithful servant, the love triangle, beauty and the beast, the enigmatic woman, the ambiguous adventurer and the redeemed drunkard.
Casablanca was also part of the film colorization controversy during the 1980s when a color version of the film aired on Australian television.
This originates in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by that time the studio already knew that he was due to go into the army, and he was never seriously considered.
Casablanca (film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5348 words)
Casablanca is a 1942 romantic film set during World War II in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca.
The film was directed by Michael Curtiz, and stars Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine and Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund.
Dark film noir and expressionist lighting is used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m