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Encyclopedia > Carthage
Site of Carthage*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Ruins of Roman-era Carthage
State Party Flag of Tunisia Tunisia
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Reference 37
Region Arab States
Inscription history
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Roman Carthage with former military harbor
Roman Carthage with former military harbor

Carthage (Greek: Καρχηδών: Karkhēdōn, Latin: Carthago, from the Phoenician קרת חדת Qart-ḥadat meaning new town Arabic: قرطاج also قرطاجةQarṭāǧ(a)) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the city's sphere of influence. The city of Carthage is located on the eastern side of Lake Tunis across from the center of Tunis. According to legend it was founded by Phoenician colonists under the leadership of Elissa (Queen Dido). It became a large and rich city and thus a major power of the Mediterranean until its destruction in the Third Punic War in 146 BC. Although the center of the Punic culture was destroyed, it continued into Roman times. Rome also refounded Carthage, which became one of the three most important cities of the Empire, a position that would last until the Muslim conquest when it was destroyed a second time in 698. Today Carthage is being resettled as a suburb of Tunis. Carthage is the name of a number of places: The ancient city-state of Carthage The ancient Christian Church synods held there, Synods of Carthage For the primatial (arch)episcopal see, read Primate Carthage, Arkansas, USA Carthage, Illinois, USA Carthage, Indiana, USA Carthage, Maine, USA Carthage, Mississippi, USA Carthage, Missouri... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 796 KB) Beschreibung Column at the excavation site of the Antoninus Pius Therms in Carthage Source: Self-made, October 2004 Author: BishkekRocks Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Satellite picture of Tunis The Lake of Tunis (Arabic: , French: ) is a natural lagoon located between the Tunisian capital city of Tunis and the Gulf of Tunis (Mediterranean Sea). ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of...

Contents

Topography

Carthage was built on a promontory with inlets to the sea to the north and south. The city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Two large, artificial harbors were built within the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors.

The two Punic ports of Carthage.

The city had massive walls, 23 miles (37 kilometers) in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore, and thus could be less impressive as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult. The 2½–3 miles (4–4.8 kilometers) of wall on the isthmus to the west were truly large and in fact were never penetrated. Image File history File links Carthage_port2_s. ... Image File history File links Carthage_port2_s. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ...


The city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market places, council house, towers, and a theatre, and was divided into four equally-sized residential areas with the same layout. Roughly in the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa. It was one of the largest cities in Hellenistic times (by some estimates only Alexandria was larger) and was among the largest cities in pre-industrial history. For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...

Layout of the city.

Image File history File links Carthage. ... Image File history File links Carthage. ...

History

Main article: History of Carthage

The historical study of Carthage is problematic. ...

Question of Carthage

The historical study of Carthage is problematic. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive. There are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa.[1] However, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus. Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Polybius (c. ... Appian (c. ... Cornelius Nepos (c. ... Silius Italicus, in full Titus Catius Silius Italicus (AD 25 or 26 - 101), was a Latin epic poet. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


The cultures of these authors were in competition and often in conflict with Carthage. Greek cities contested with Carthage for Sicily,[2] and the Romans fought three Punic Wars against Carthage.[3] Inevitably, accounts of Carthage by outsiders include significant bias. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ...


Recent excavation has brought much more primary material to light. Some of these finds contradict or confirm aspects of the traditional picture of Carthage, but much of the material is still ambiguous.


Foundation of Carthage

Carthage was founded in 814 BC by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre, bringing with them the city-god Melqart.[citation needed][4] Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC Events and Trends 817 BC - Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... A tutelary spirit is a god, usually a minor god, who serves as the guardian or watcher over a particular site, person, or nation. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ...


Legends of the foundation of Carthage

According to tradition, the city was founded by Queen Dido (or Elissa or Elissar) who fled Tyre following the murder of her husband in an attempt by her younger brother to bolster his own power. A number of foundation myths have survived through Greek and Roman literature, see Byrsa for one example. The literature of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire written in the Latin language. ... Byrsa was the walled citadel above the harbour in ancient Carthage. ...


Queen Elissa

Queen Elissa (also known as "Alissar", and by the Arabic name[5] اليسار also اليسا and عليسا), who in later accounts became known as Queen Dido, was a princess of Tyre who founded Carthage. At its peak, her metropolis came to be called the "shining city," ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean and leading the Phoenician (or Punic) world. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Elissa was a princess of Tyre. Her brother, King Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered her husband, the high priest. Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country and founded the "new city" of Carthage and subsequently its later dominions. Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources. According to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Matten of Tyre (also known as Muttoial or Belus II). When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her and her brother, Pygmalion. She married her uncle Acherbas (also known as Sychaeus) the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acherbas. Pygmalion assassinated Acherbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husband's death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, causing dissent within the royal family. Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ...


Queen Dido

In the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Queen Elissa, is first introduced as an extremely respected character in his legend. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule. Her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. The messenger god, Mercury, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido, but to sail to Italy to found Rome. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, she orders a pyre to be built where she falls upon Aeneas' sword. As she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas' people and her own: "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" (4.625, trans. Fitzgerald) she says, an obvious invocation of Hannibal. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... An Ubud cremation ceremony in 2005. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ...


The Carthaginian Empire

Main article: Carthaginian Empire
Carthaginian Empire in the 3rd century BC
Carthaginian Empire in the 3rd century BC

The Carthaginian Empire was one of the longest living and largest empires in the ancient Mediterranean. Reports state several wars with Syracuse and Rome, leading finally to the destruction of Punic Carthage during her third war with Rome. Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Army

Main article: Punic Military Forces

According to Polybius, Carthage relied heavily, though not exclusively, on foreign mercenaries,[6] especially in overseas warfare. The core of its army was from its own territory in Africa (ethnic Libyans and Numidians, as well as "Liby-Phoenicians" — i.e. Punics proper). These troops were supported by mercenaries from different ethnic groups and geographic locations across the Mediterranean who fought in their own national units; Celtic, Balearic, and Iberian troops were especially common. Later, after the Barcid conquest of Iberia, Iberians came to form an even greater part of the Carthaginian forces. Carthage seems to have fielded a formidable cavalry force, especially in its African homeland; a significant part of it was composed of Numidian contingents of light cavalry. Other mounted troops were African Forest Elephants, trained for war, which were used for frontal assaults or as anti-cavalry protection and were used for many other uses. An army could field up to several hundreds of these animals, but on most reported occasions less than a hundred were deployed. The riders of these elephants were armed with a spike and hammer to kill the elephants in case they charged toward their own army The military forces of the Punic people are all military forces from the State of Carthage in North Africa and troops of Punic ethnicity after the destruction of Carthage in the Third Punic War. ... This article is about the European people. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Binomial name Matschie, 1900 The green white orange African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) was until recently considered a subspecies of the African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana); however, DNA testing has now shown that there possibly are three extant elephant species: the two African types, typically considered to be different populations...


Navy

The navy of Carthage was one of the largest in the Mediterranean, using serial production to maintain high numbers at moderate cost. The reputation of her skilled sailors implies that there was in peacetime a training of oarsmen and coxswains, giving their navy a cutting edge in naval matters. The trade of Carthaginian merchantmen was by land across the Sahara and especially by sea throughout the Mediterranean and far into the Atlantic to the tin-rich islands of Britain and to West Africa. There is evidence that at least one Punic expedition under Hanno sailed along the West African coast to regions south of the Equator, describing how the sun was in the north at noon. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines. ... Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Polybius wrote in the sixth book of his History that the Carthaginians were "more exercised in maritime affairs than any other people."[7] Their navy included some 300 to 350 warships. The Romans, who had little experience in naval warfare prior to the First Punic War, managed to finally defeat Carthage with a combination of reverse engineering captured Carthaginian ships, recruitment of experienced Greek sailors from the ranks of its conquered cities, the unorthodox corvus device, and their superior numbers in marines and rowers. In the Third Punic War Polybius describes a tactical innovation of the Carthaginians, augmenting their few triremes with small vessels that carried hooks (to attack the oars) and fire (to attack the hulls). With this new combination, they were able to stand their ground against the superior Roman numbers for a whole day. Polybius (c. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of...


Fall of Carthage

The fall of Carthage was at the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC.[8] In spite of the initial devastating Roman naval losses at the beginning of the series of conflicts and Rome's recovery from the brink of defeat after the terror of a 15-year occupation of much of Italy by Hannibal, the end of the series of wars resulted in the end of Carthaginian power and the complete destruction of the city by Scipio Aemilianus. The Romans pulled the Phoenician warships out into the harbor and burned them before the city, and went from house to house, capturing and enslaving the people. Fifty thousand Carthaginians were sold into slavery.[9] The city was set ablaze, and in this way was razed with only ruins and rubble to field the aftermath. After the fall of Carthage, Rome annexed the majority of the Carthaginian colonies, including other North African locations such as Volubilis, Lixus, Chellah and Mogador.[10] Through a series of misunderstandings, a belief that the Carthaginian farmland was salted to ensure that no crops could be grown there developed in the modern period.[11] Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Storybook illustration depicting Scipio as the reluctant servant of the Senate as he orchestrated the genocide of the Carthaginians. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... Volubilis (Arabic: Walili) is an archaeological site in Morocco situated near Meknes between Fez and Rabat. ... Lixus refers to the following things: The Latin word for boiled The ancient city of Lixus in Morocco The insect genus Lixus which includes several species of weevils Lixus corporation, a Japanese distribution company A line of high-performance scientific cameras produced by German company Optologic This is a disambiguation... The Necropolis of Chellah or Chella is a complex of ancient and medieval ruins that lie on the outskirts of the Rabat, Morocco’s Ville Nouvelle, or modern section. ... The ramparts of Essaouira Essaouira is a city and tourist resort in Morocco, near Marrakesh. ...


Roman Carthage

Roman villas, Carthage
Roman villas, Carthage

When Carthage fell, its nearby rival Utica, a Roman ally, was made capital of the region and replaced Carthage as the leading center of Punic trade and leadership. It had the advantageous position of being situated on the Lake of Tunis and the outlet of the Majardah River, Tunisia's only river that flowed all year long. However, grain cultivation in the Tunisian mountains caused large amounts of silt to erode into the river. This silt was accumulated in the harbor until it was made useless, and Rome was forced to rebuild Carthage. Image File history File links Roman-Villas-Carthage. ... Image File history File links Roman-Villas-Carthage. ... This article is about the ancient city of Utica in Tunisia. ... The Medjerda River (also known as the Wadi Majardah, Wadi Medjerha, Oued Majardah, and Bagradas) is a river in Algeria and Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ...


By 122 BC, Gaius Gracchus founded a short-lived colonia, called Colonia Iunonia, after the Latin name for the punic goddess Tanit, Iuno caelestis. The purpose was to obtain arable lands for impoverished farmers. The Senate abolished the colony some time later, in order to undermine Gracchus power. After this ill-fated attempt, a new city of Carthage was built on the same land, and by the 1st century it had grown to the second largest city in the western half of the Roman empire, with a peak population of 500,000. It was the center of the Roman province of Africa, which was a major breadbasket of the empire. Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Carthage also became a center of early Christianity. In the first of a string of rather poorly reported Councils at Carthage a few years later, no fewer than seventy bishops attended. Tertullian later broke with the mainstream that was represented more and more by the bishop of Rome, but a more serious rift among Christians was the Donatist controversy, which Augustine of Hippo spent much time and parchment arguing against. In 397 at the Council at Carthage, the biblical canon for the western Church was confirmed. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the broader Catholic community. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The Council of Carthage occured in Carthage in 397 AD as a function of the Catholic Church, and was attended by more then 70 Bishops of the ancient Church. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ...

Vandal Empire in 500 AD, centered in Carthage.
Vandal Empire in 500 AD, centered in Carthage.

The political fallout from the deep disaffection of African Christians is supposedly a crucial factor in the ease with which Carthage and the other centres were captured in the 5th century by Gaiseric, king of the Vandals, who defeated the Roman general Bonifacius and made the city his capital. Gaiseric was considered a heretic too, an Arian, and though Arians commonly despised Catholic Christians, a mere promise of toleration might have caused the city's population to accept him. After a failed attempt to recapture the city in the 5th century, the Byzantines finally subdued the Vandals in the 6th century. Geiseric (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Count Boniface (in Latin, Comes Bonifacius) (d. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


During the emperor Maurice's reign, Carthage was made into an Exarchate, as was Ravenna in Italy. These two exarchates were the western bulwarks of Byzantium, all that remained of its power in the west. In the early 7th century, it was the Exarch of Carthage, Heraclius (of Armenian origin), who overthrew Emperor Phocas. A solidus of Maurikios reign. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a proconsul or viceroy who governed a province at some remove from the central authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Phocas on a contemporary coin Flavius Phocas Augustus, Eastern Roman Emperor (reigned 602–610), is perhaps one of the most maligned figures to have held the Imperial title in the long history of Rome and Byzantium. ...


Arabs

The Byzantine Exarchate was not, however, able to withstand the Muslim conquerors of the 7th century. Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik in 686 AD sent a force led by Zuhayr ibn Qais who won a battle over Byzantines and Berbers led by Kusaila, on the Qairawan plain, but could not follow that up. In 695 AD Hasan ibn al-Nu'man captured Carthage and advanced into the Atlas Mountains. A Byzantine fleet arrived, retook Carthage but in 698 AD Hasan ibn al-Nu'man returned and defeated Tiberios III at the Battle of Carthage. The Byzantines withdrew from all of Africa except Ceuta. The Roman Carthage was destroyed, just as the Romans had done in 146 BC. Carthage was replaced by Tunis as the major regional center. The destruction of the Exarchate of Africa marked a permanent end to Roman or Byzantine influence there, as the rising tide of Islam shattered the empire. Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Kusaila (? - 690; also spelled Kusayla, Kosaila and Kasila) was a 7th century chief of the berbers in resistance to Arabs in the Aures mountains, and preceeded el-kahina. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a Muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius and becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Tiberius III, the German commander Apsimar. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire Commanders Hassan bin al-Numan Ioannes the Patrician and Tiberius Apsimar Strength 40,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown total loss of a territory The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 between the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa, and the armies of the Umayyad Caliphate. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ...


Culture

Language

Carthaginians spoke Punic, a subset of Phoenician. Punic was a Roman contraction of Phoenician, and was used by the Romans after the Punic wars as an adjective meaning treacherous. In archaeological and linguistic usage, it refers to the later culture and dialect of Carthage and its empire, as distinct from their Phoenician originals. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ...


Commerce

Carthaginian commerce was by sea throughout the Mediterranean and far into the Atlantic and by land across the Sahara desert. According the Aristotles the Carthaginians and others had treaties of commerce to regulate their exports and imports.[12] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The empire of Carthage depended heavily on its trade with Tartessos and other cities of the Iberian peninsula, from which it obtained vast quantities of silver, lead, and, even more importantly, tin ore, which was essential to the manufacture of bronze objects by the civilizations of antiquity. Its trade relations with the Iberians and the naval might that enforced Carthage's monopoly on trade with tin-rich Britain and the Canary Islands allowed it to be the sole significant broker of tin and maker of bronze. Maintaining this monopoly was one of the major sources of power and prosperity for Carthage, and a Carthaginian merchant would rather crash his ship upon the rocky shores of Britain than reveal to any rival how it could be safely approached. In addition to being the sole significant distributor of tin, its central location in the Mediterranean and control of the waters between Sicily and Tunisia allowed it to control the eastern nations' supply of tin. Carthage was also the Mediterranean's largest producer of silver, mined in Iberia and the North African coast, and, after the tin monopoly, this was one of its most profitable trades. One mine in Iberia provided Hannibal with 300 Roman pounds(3,75 talents) of silver a day.[13] Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


Carthage's economy began as an extension of that of its parent city, Tyre. Its massive merchant fleet traversed the trade routes mapped out by Tyre, and Carthage inherited from Tyre the art of making the extremely valuable dye Tyrian Purple. It was one of the most highly-valued commodities in the ancient Mediterranean, being worth fifteen to twenty times its weight in gold. High Roman officials could only afford togas with a small stripe of it. Carthage also produced a less-valuable crimson pigment from the cochineal. The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Binomial name Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ...


Carthage produced finely embroidered and dyed textiles of cotton, linen, wool, and silk, artistic and functional pottery, faience, incense, and perfumes. It worked with glass, wood, alabaster, ivory, bronze, brass, lead, gold, silver, and precious stones to create a wide array of goods, including mirrors, highly-admired furniture and cabinetry, beds, bedding, and pillows, jewelry, arms, implements, and household items. It traded in salted Atlantic fish and fish sauce, and brokered the manufactured, agricultural, and natural products of almost every Mediterranean people. This article is about the type of fabric. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ...

Punic pendant in the form of a bearded head, 4th–3rd century BC.
Punic pendant in the form of a bearded head, 4th–3rd century BC.

In addition to manufacturing, Carthage practiced highly advanced and productive agriculture, using iron plows, irrigation, and crop rotation. Mago wrote a famous treatise on agriculture which the Romans ordered translated after Carthage was captured. After the Second Punic War, Hannibal promoted agriculture to help restore Carthage's economy and pay the war indemnity to Rome (10000 talents or 800,000 Roman pounds of silver[14]), and he was largely successful. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (560x750, 321 KB) Summary fr: Tête dhomme barbu, IVe–IIIe siècles av. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (560x750, 321 KB) Summary fr: Tête dhomme barbu, IVe–IIIe siècles av. ... Mago was a Carthaginian writer, author of an agricultural manual in Punic which was a record of the farming knowledge of Carthage. ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ...


Carthage produced wine, which was highly prized in Rome, Euturia (Etruscans), and Greece. Rome was a major consumer of raisin wine, a Carthaginian specialty. Fruits, nuts, grain, grapes, dates, and olives were grown, and olive oil was exported in competition with Greece. Carthage also raised fine horses, similar to today's Arabian horses, which were greatly prized and exported. The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ...


Carthage's merchant ships, which surpassed even those of the cities of the Levant, visited every major port of the Mediterranean, Britain, the coast of Africa, and the Canary Islands. These ships were able to carry over 100 tons of goods. The commercial fleet of Carthage was comparable in size and tonnage to the fleets of major European powers in the 18th century. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Merchants at first favored the ports of the east: Egypt, the Levant, Greece, Cyprus, and Asia Minor. But after Carthage's control of Sicily brought it into conflict with Greek colonists, it established commercial relations in the western Mediterranean, including trade with the Etruscans. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ...


Carthage also sent caravans into the interior of Africa and Persia. It traded its manufactured and agricultural goods to the coastal and interior peoples of Africa for salt, gold, timber, ivory, ebony, apes, peacocks, skins, and hides. Its merchants invented the practice of sale by auction and used it to trade with the African tribes. In other ports, they tried to establish permanent warehouses or sell their goods in open-air markets. They obtained amber from Scandinavia and tin from the Canary Islands. From the Celtiberians, Gauls, and Celts, they obtained amber, tin, silver, and furs. Sardinia and Corsica produced gold and silver for Carthage, and Phoenician settlements on islands such as Malta and the Balearic Islands produced commodities that would be sent back to Carthage for large-scale distribution. Carthage supplied poorer civilizations with simple things, such as pottery, metallic products, and ornamentations, often displacing the local manufacturing, but brought its best works to wealthier ones such as the Greeks and Etruscans. Carthage traded in almost every commodity wanted by the ancient world, including spices from Arabia, Africa, and India and slaves. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


These trade ships went all the way down the Atlantic coast of Africa to Senegal and Nigeria. One account has a Carthaginian trading vessel exploring Nigeria, including identification of distinguishing geographic features such as a coastal volcano and an encounter with gorillas (See Hanno the Navigator). Irregular trade exchanges occurred as far west as Madeira and the Canary Islands, and as far south as southern Africa. Carthage also traded with India by traveling through the Red Sea and the perhaps-mythical lands of Ophir (India/Arabia?) and Punt, which may be present-day Somalia. Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Ophir (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. ... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...


Archeological finds show evidence of all kinds of exchanges, from the vast quantities of tin needed for a bronze-based metals civilization to all manner of textiles, ceramics and fine metalwork. Before and in between the wars, Carthaginian merchants were in every port in the Mediterranean, buying and selling, establishing warehouses where they could, or just bargaining in open-air markets after getting off their ship.


The Etruscan language has not yet been deciphered, but archaeological excavations of Etruscan cities show that the Etruscan civilization was for several centuries a customer and a vendor to Carthage, long before the rise of Rome. The Etruscan city-states were, at times, both commercial partners of Carthage and military allies.


Government

The government of Carthage was an oligarchal republic, which relied on a system of checks and balances and ensured a form of public accountability. The Carthaginian heads of state were called Suffets (thus rendered in Latin by Livy 30.7.5, attested in Punic inscriptions as SPΘM /ʃuftˤim/, meaning "judges" and obviously related to the Biblical Hebrew ruler title Shophet "Judge"). Greek and Roman authors more commonly referred to them as "kings". SPΘ /ʃufitˤ/ might originally have been the title of the city's governor, installed by the mother city of Tyre. In the historically attested period, the two Suffets were elected annually from among the most wealthy and influential families and ruled collegially, similarly to Roman consuls (and equated with these by Livy). This practice might have descended from the plutocratic oligarchies that limited the Suffet's power in the first Phoenician cities.[citation needed] The aristocratic families were represented in a supreme council (Roman sources speak of a Carthaginian "Senate", and Greek ones of a "council of Elders" or a gerousia), which had a wide range of powers; however, it is not known whether the Suffets were elected by this council or by an assembly of the people. Suffets appear to have exercised judicial and executive power, but not military[citation needed]. Although the city's administration was firmly controlled by oligarchs[citation needed], democratic elements were to be found as well: Carthage had elected legislators, trade unions and town meetings. Aristotle reported in his Politics that unless the Suffets and the Council reached a unanimous decision, the Carthaginian popular assembly had the decisive vote - unlike the situation in Greek states with similar constitutions such as Sparta and Crete. Polybius, in his History book 6, also stated that at the time of the Punic Wars, the Carthaginian public held more sway over the government than the people of Rome held over theirs (a development he regarded as evidence of decline). Finally, there was a body known as the Hundred and Four, which Aristotle compared to the Spartan ephors. These were judges who oversaw the actions of generals[citation needed], who could sometimes be sentenced to crucifixion. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... In Hebrew and several other Semitic languages, shofet (plural shoftim) literally means Judge, from the verb Å -F-T, to pass judgment. In ancient Israel, the shoftim were chieftains who united various Israelite tribes in time of mutual danger to defeat foreign enemies. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... An elder refers to various Wikipedia topics. ... The Gerousia was the Spartan senate. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Politics (Greek Πολιτικά) is a work of political philosophy. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Polybius (c. ... Hundred and Four was a Carthaginian organization of judges. ... An ephor was an official of ancient Sparta. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


Eratosthenes, head of the Library of Alexandria, noted that the Greeks had been wrong to describe all non-Greeks as barbarians, since the Carthaginians as well as the Romans had a constitution. Aristotle also knew and discussed the Carthaginian constitution in his Politics (Book II, Chapter 11). This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


During the period between the end of the First Punic War and the end of the Second Punic War, members of the Barcid family dominated in Carthaginian politics. They were given control of the Carthaginian military and all the Carthaginian territories outside of Africa. The Barcid family was a leading family in the ancient city of Carthage and many of its members were fierce enemies of the Roman Republic. ...


Carthaginian ethnicity and citizenship

In Carthaginian society, advancement was largely relegated to those of distinctly Carthaginian descent, and the children of foreign men generally had no opportunities. However, there are several notable exceptions to this rule. The Barcid family after Hamilcar himself was half Iberian through their mother, Hamilcar's wife — a member of the Iberian nobility, whose children all rose to leading positions in both their native cultures. Adherbal the Red and Hanno the Navigator were also of mixed origin, the former identified from his Celtiberian epithet, and the latter from a coupling much like the later Barcids. Other exceptions to this rule include children of prominent Carthaginians with Celtic nobles, as well as a single half-Sardinian admiral who was elevated simply by virtue of his own ability. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Barcid family was a leading family in the ancient city of Carthage and many of its members were fierce enemies of the Roman Republic. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Adherbal or Ad Herbal (died 230 BC) was Commander (Admiral) of the Carthaginian fleet who battled for domination of the Mediterranean Sea for Carthage in the First Punic War against Rome, 264 BC-241 BC. It is known that he was in command until at least 249 BC, during the... Route of Hanno the Navigator Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c. ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... The term Sardinian can refer to either: Sardinia the Sardinian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Owing to this social organization, citizenship in Carthage was exclusive only to those of a select ethnic background (with an emphasis on paternal relationships), though those of exceptional ability could escape the stigma of their background. Regardless, acceptance of the local religious practices was requisite of citizenship — and by extension any sort of advancement, which left many prominent and well regarded peoples out of the empire's administration.


Religion

Main article: Religion in Carthage
Ruins of Punic houses on the Byrsa Hill
Ruins of Punic houses on the Byrsa Hill
Stelae on the Tophet
Stelae on the Tophet

Carthaginian religion was based on Phoenician religion, a form of polytheism. Many of the gods the Carthaginians worshiped were localized and are now known only under their local names. See also Religions of the Ancient Near East The foundation of Carthage at the end of the ninth century B.C. encouraged the more permanent establishment in the Western Mediterranean of members of the Phoenician pantheon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 818 KB) Beschreibung Ruins of the Punic Quarter on the Byrsa hill, Carthage Source: Self-made, October 2004 Author: BishkekRocks Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 818 KB) Beschreibung Ruins of the Punic Quarter on the Byrsa hill, Carthage Source: Self-made, October 2004 Author: BishkekRocks Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 800 KB) Beschreibung Stelae on the Tophet of Carthage Source: Self-made, October 2004 Author: BishkekRocks Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carthage Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 800 KB) Beschreibung Stelae on the Tophet of Carthage Source: Self-made, October 2004 Author: BishkekRocks Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carthage Metadata This... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


Pantheon

The supreme divine couple was that of Tanit and Ba'al Hammon. The goddess Astarte seems to have been popular in early times. At the height of its cosmopolitan era, Carthage seems to have hosted a large array of divinities from the neighbouring civilizations of Greece, Egypt and the Etruscan city-states. A pantheon was presided over by the father of the gods, but a goddess was the principal figure in the Phoenician pantheon. Basic Tanit symbol Tanit was a Carthaginian lunar goddess. ... Baal () is a Semitic title and honorific meaning lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ...


Caste of priests and acolytes

Surviving Punic texts are detailed enough to give a portrait of a very well organized caste of temple priests and acolytes performing different types of functions, for a variety of prices. Priests were clean shaven, unlike most of the population. In the first centuries of the city ritual celebrations included rhythmic dancing, derived from Phoenician traditions.


Punic stelae

Cippi and stelae of limestone are characteristic monuments of Punic art and religion, and are found throughout the western Phoenician world in unbroken continuity, both historically and geographically. Most of them were set up over urns containing cremated human remains, placed within open-air sanctuaries. Such sanctuaries constitute striking relics of Punic civilization.


Child sacrifice

Carthage under the Phoenicians was notorious to its neighbors for child sacrifice. Plutarch (c. 46120) mentions the practice, as do Tertullian, Orosius, Philo and Diodorus Siculus.[15] Livy and Polybius do not. The Hebrew Bible also mentions child sacrifice practiced by the Canaanites, ancestors of the Carthaginians, and by some Israelites. Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please, propitiate or force supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Polybius (c. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ...


Modern archaeology in formerly Punic areas has discovered a number of large cemeteries for children and infants. But there is some argument that the reports of child sacrifice were based on a misconception, later used as blood libel by the Romans who destroyed the city. These cemeteries may have been used as graves for stillborn infants or children who died very early.[citation needed] Modern archeological excavations have been interpreted as confirming Plutarch's reports of Carthaginian child sacrifice.[16] In a single child cemetery called the Tophet by archaeologists, an estimated 20,000 urns were deposited between 400 BC and 200 BC, with the practice continuing until the early years of the Christian period. The urns contained the charred bones of newborns and in some cases the bones of fetuses and 2-year-olds. These remains have been interpreted to mean that in the cases of stillborn babies, the parents would sacrifice their youngest child. There is a clear correlation between the frequency of cremation and the well-being of the city. In bad times (war, poor harvests) cremations became more frequent, but it is not possible to know why. The correlation could be because bad times inspired the Carthaginians to pray for divine intervention (via child sacrifice), or because bad times increased child mortality, leading to more child burials (via cremation). For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... The expected result of pregnancy is the birth of a living child. ... Tophet is a location near Jerusalem where according to the Bible the Canaanites sacrificed children to the god Moloch by burning them alive. ... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... The eastern hemisphere in 200 BC. Antiochus IIIs forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria, defeating the Egyptian general Scopas at Panion near the source of the Jordan River, and thus gaining control of Palestine. ...


Accounts of child sacrifice in Carthage report that beginning at the founding of Carthage in about 814 BC, mothers and fathers buried their children who had been sacrificed to Ba`al Hammon and Tanit there.[citation needed] The practice was apparently distasteful even to Carthaginians, and they began to buy children for the purpose of sacrifice or even to raise servant children instead of offering up their own. However, in times of crisis or calamity, like war, drought or famine, their priests demanded the flower of their youth. Special ceremonies during extreme crisis saw up to 200 children of the most affluent and powerful families slain and tossed into the burning pyre. Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC Events and Trends 817 BC - Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty. ...


It has been argued by some modern scholars that evidence of Carthaginian child sacrifice is incomplete, and that it is far more likely to have been Roman blood libel against the Carthaginians to justify their conquest and destruction[citation needed]. Skeptics suggest that the bodies of children found in Carthaginian and Phoenician cemeteries were merely the cremated remains of children that died naturally. Sergio Ribichini has argued that the Tophet was "a child necropolis designed to receive the remains of infants who had died prematurely of sickness or other natural causes, and who for this reason were "offered" to specific deities and buried in a place different from the one reserved for the ordinary dead".[17] The few Carthaginian texts which have survived make absolutely no mention of child sacrifice, though most of them pertain to matters entirely unrelated to religion, such as the practice of agriculture. Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ...


Carthage in modern times

Carthage remains a popular tourist attraction and residential suburb. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


In February 1985, Ugo Vetere, the mayor of Rome, and Chedly Klibi, the mayor of Carthage, signed a symbolic treaty "officially" ending the conflict between their cities, which had been supposedly extended by the lack of a peace treaty for more than 2100 years. 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... There are several claims of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity, often by a small country named in a declaration of war being accidentally omitted from the concluding peace treaty of a wider conflict. ...


References

  1. ^ Jongeling, K. (2005). The Neo-Punic Inscriptions and Coin Legends (HTML). University of Leiden. Retrieved on April 14, 2006.
  2. ^ Herodotus, V2. 165–7
  3. ^ Polybius, World History: 1.7–1.60
  4. ^ As recounted by Timaeus, FrGrH 566, fr. 60. Archaeological attestation for so early a date is still wanting, though recent discoveries in situ may point nearly as far back in time.
  5. ^ Al-Watan Daily (Arabic). http://www.alwatan.com.sa.+Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  6. ^ Polybius, Book 6, 52. On the Perseus project

    The former (the Romans - editor's note) bestow their whole attention upon this department (upon military service on land - editor's note): whereas the Carthaginians wholly neglect their infantry, though they do take some slight interest in the cavalry. The reason of this is that they employ foreign mercenaries, the Romans native and citizen levies. It is in this point that the latter polity is preferable to the former. They have their hopes of freedom ever resting on the courage of mercenary troops: the Romans on the valour of their own citizens and the aid of their allies. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  7. ^ Polybius, History Book 6
  8. ^ Wine: The 8,000-Year-Old Story of the Wine Trade, Thomas Pellechia (2006)
  9. ^ Ancient History
  10. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2007) Volubilis, The Megalithic Portal, ed. by A. Burnham
  11. ^ Ridley, R.T., "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The Destruction of Carthage," Classical Philology vol. 81, no. 2 (1986).
  12. ^ Aristotle, Politics Book 3,IX
  13. ^ Pliny, Nat His 33,96
  14. ^ Pliny 33,51
  15. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Trans. C.H. Oldfather. Diodorus of Sicily 1, VI, VIII, IX. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954-1963 (The Loeb Classical Library).
  16. ^ Kelly A. MacFarlane, University of Alberta, Hittites and Phoenician
  17. ^ Sergio Ribichini, "Beliefs and Religious Life" in Moscati, Sabatino (ed), The Phoenicians, 1988, p.141

Sources

Commerce, Topography, Cities and Colonies

  • Holst, Sanford. Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage. Cambridge and Boston Press, 2005.
  • Salim Khalaf. "Phoenician Settlements Outside the Mainland." Phoenician Colonies. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Roy A Decker. Economy of the Punic Phoenician Empire. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • William J. Broad. "Phoenician Ship Wreck: Teaming up to find Ancient Mariners". 1999. New York Times.
  • Salim Khalaf. Phoenician Trade and Ships. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Anthony Bonanno. "Malta's Role in the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan Trade in the Western Mediterranean." Malta's Role in Phoenicia's Trade. 1999. Melita Historica.
  • Salim Khalaf. "Metals and Processees." Phoenician Mining. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Salim Khalaf. "Britain, Phoenicia's Secret Treasure, and its Conversion to Christianity – the Legendary Tin Mines of Cornwall." Britain, Phoenicia’s Secret Treasure. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Adopted by Salim Khalaf from original text by R.N. Hall and W.G. Neal. "Was South-East Africa a Major Source of Phoenician Gold Import?" Phoenician Gold Mines of Zimbabwe. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Summarized by Salim Khalaf from original text by Dr Touhami Garnaoui. "The Pursuit of the Lost Times of Deceit and Illusions: The Case of Tunisia" The Case of Tunisia. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Salim Khalaf. "Phoenician Wine." Phoenician Wines and Vines. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Salim Khalaf. "Elissar Dido: Queen of Carthage." Elissar, Dido, The Queen of Carthage and her City. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • Roy A Decker. "Carthaginians in the New World, a radical theory." Carthaginians in the New World. 1999. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.
  • William Serfaty. "The Pillars of the Phoenicians." Gibraltar, Pillars of the Phoenicians. 1997. Virtual Center for Phoenician Studies.

Each site has its own sources listed. Also see Phoenicia.org Bibliography for an extensive list of references.


Religion

  • Phoenician Religion
  • Polybius [1]
  • Hannibal's Campaigns. Tony Bath. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 1981.
  • La vie quotidienne à Carthage au temps d'Hannibal. Gilbert et Colette Charles-Picard. Paris: Hachette, 1958.
  • La légende de Carthage. Azedine Beschaouch. Paris: Gallimard, 1993.
  • Carthage: Uncovering the Mysteries and Splendors of Ancient Tunisia. David Soren, Aicha Ben Abed Ben Kader, Heidi Slim. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990.
  • The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, colonies and trade. Maria Eugenia Aubet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Itineraria Phoenicia.Edward Lipinski. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 2004. "Aeneid" Virgil

Polybius (c. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ...

Navy

The eastern hemisphere in 200 BC. Antiochus IIIs forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria, defeating the Egyptian general Scopas at Panion near the source of the Jordan River, and thus gaining control of Palestine. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC 120 BC 119 BC - 118 BC - 117 BC 116 BC...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Until 308 BC, Carthage was ruled, at least officially, by Kings. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The present day Republic of Tunisia, al Jumhuriyah at-Tunisiyah, has over ten million people, almost all Arab-Berber. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ...

External links

Coordinates: 36°53′12″N, 10°18′53″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ...


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