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Encyclopedia > Carronade
24-pounder carronade (140 mm)
24-pounder carronade (140 mm)
68-pounder British naval carronade
68-pounder British naval carronade

The carronade was a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, developed for the Royal Navy by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland, UK used from the 1770s to the 1860s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 634 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 968 pixel, file size: 325 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 634 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 968 pixel, file size: 325 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Carron Company was an ironworks established in 1759 on the banks of the River Carron near Falkirk, in Stirlingshire, Scotland. ... Ironworks at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and/or steel products are made. ... Falkirk (An Eaglais Bhreac in Scottish Gaelic) is a town in central Scotland. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


The carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity, and is said to have been invented by Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759 and developed by Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. It was adopted by the Royal Navy in 1779, and its early years was also known as a "gasconade" or "melvillade". The lower muzzle velocity of a carronade's round shot was intended to create many more of the deadly wooden splinters when hitting the structure of an enemy vessel, leading to its nickname, the smasher. However, the small powder charge of the carronade was only able to project a heavy cannonball over a relatively limited distance. The short barrel, low muzzle velocity and short range also increased the risk that a carronade would eject burning wadding onto nearby combustible materials, increasing the risk of fire. A guns muzzle velocity is the speed at which the projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Robert Melville (12 October 1723 - 29 August 1809) was a general in the British Army and an antiquary. ... Charles Gascoigne (1738–August 1, 1806) was a British industrialist at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ... // A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Bob, Rob, Robby, Robbie, Robi, Robin, Bobby, Rab, Rabbie, Bert, Bertie, Butch, Bobbers, Bobert, Beto, Bobadito, and Robban (in Sweden), are all nicknames for Robert). ... Cannonball can refer to: The ammunition for a cannon. ...


A carronade was much shorter and a third to a quarter of the weight of an equivalent long gun: for example, a 32 pounder carronade weighed less than a ton, but a 32 pounder long gun weighed over 3 tons. Carronades were manufactured in the usual naval gun calibres (12, 18, 24, 32 and 42 pounders, but 6 pdr and 68 pdr versions are known), but they were not counted in a ship of the line's rated number of guns. As a result, the classification of Royal Navy vessels in this period can mislead, since they would often be carrying more pieces of ordnance than they were described as carrying. A long gun is a firearm with an extended barrel, usually designed to be fired braced against the shoulder. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic quâlib, meaning mould. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ...


Although the carronade, like other naval guns, was mounted with ropes to restrain the recoil, the details of the gun mounting were usually quite different. The carronade was typically mounted on a sliding, rather than wheeled, gun carriage, and elevation was achieved with a turnscrew, like field guns, rather than the quoins (wooden wedges) usual for naval guns. In addition, a carronade was usually mounted on a lug underneath the barrel, rather than the usual trunnions to either side. As a result, the carronade had an unusually high centre of gravity. Towards the end of the period of use, some carronages were fitted with trunnions to lower their centre of gravity, to create a variant known as the gunnade. An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ... Franklin D. Roosevelts funeral procession. ... In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... Generally, a quoin is a wedge, used to support or anchor other items. ... Lug or LUG can refer to: // Lug is a place in Serbia. ... The trunnions are the part of the cannon that mounts the barrel to the carriage A Trunnion is a cylindrical protrusion used for mounting. ... In physics, the center of gravity (CoG) of an object is the average location of its weight. ... In physics, the center of gravity (CoG) of an object is the average location of its weight. ...


As a result of irregularities in the size of cannon balls and the difficulty of boring out gun barrels, there was usually a considerable gap (known as the windage) between the ball and the inside of the gun barrel. The windage of a cannon was often as much as a quarter of an inch and caused a considerable loss of projectile power. The manufacturing practices introduced by the Carron Company reduced the windage considerably. Despite the reduced windage, carronades had a much shorter range, typically a third to a half, than the equivalent long gun because they used a much smaller propellant charge (the chamber for the powder was smaller than the bore for the ball). However, typical naval tactics in the late 18th Century emphasised short-range broadsides, so the short range was not thought to be a problem: indeed, their much lighter weight allowed a ship to carry more carronades, or carronades of a larger calibre, than long guns, and carronades could be mounted on the upper decks, where heavy long guns could cause the ship to be top-heavy and unstable. Carronades also required a smaller gun crew, were faster to reload, and were easier to aim. HMS Victory used the two 68 pdr carronades which she carried on her forecastle to great effect at the Battle of Trafalgar, clearing the gun deck of the Bucentaure by firing a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls through the Bucentaure's stern windows. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s when sailing ships replaced oared galleys to the 1860s when steam-powered ironclad warships rendered sailing line of battle ships obsolete. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ... forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line France: 18 ships of the line and 8 others. ... Gun deck originally referred to a deck aboard a ship that was primarily used for the mounting of cannon in broadsides. ... The Bucentaure was the flagship of Vice-Admiral Latouche Tréville, who died on board on 18 August 1804. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ... A musket ball was an early form of ammunition used for loading muskets. ...


The carronade was initially very successful and widely adopted, and a few experimental ships (for example, HMS Glatton) were fitted with a carronade-only armament. However, the lack of range against an opponent who could keep well clear and still use his long guns led to the demise of the carronade. In the 1810s and 1820s, greater emphasis was placed on the accuracy of long-range gunfire, and less on the weight of a broadside. Indeed, Captain David Porter of USS Essex complained when his 12 pounder long guns were replaced with 32 pounder carronades. The carronade disappeared from the Royal Navy from the 1850s after the development of steel, jacketed cannon by William George Armstrong and Joseph Whitworth. Nevertheless, carronades were used in the American Civil War in the 1860s. HMS Glatton HMS Glatton was a 64-gun 4th rate ship of the line. ... David Porter (February 1, 1780 – March 3, 1843) was an officer in the United States Navy and later the commander-in-chief of the Mexican Navy. ... The first USS Essex of the United States Navy was a sailing frigate that participated in the Quasi-War with France and in the War of 1812, wherein she was captured by the British (1814). ... William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (November 26, 1810 - December 27, 1900) was an English industrialist, the effective founder of the Armstrong-Siddeley manufacturing empire. ... Sir Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet (December 21, 1803 - January 22, 1887) was an English engineer and entrepreneur. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


See also

USS Carronade (IFS-1/LFR-1) was a ship of the United States Navy commissioned in 1955. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Firing of a 18-pounder aboard of French ship During the Age of Sail, when large, sail-powered wooden naval warships dominated the high seas (roughly: 1571-1863), these warships mounted a bewildering variety of different types and sizes of cannons as their main armament. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal. ... Carronade Island lies of the northern coast of Western Australia (). See also Theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia Categories: | ...

External links

The Historical Maritime Society-The Naval Re-Enactors The Historical Maritime Society is a UK - based reenactment organisation researching and portraying life in Horatio Nelsons Royal Navy. ... Museum of Scotland. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ...

References

  • Originally from http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/gen1.htm, with the author's permission.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Lavery, Brian (1989). Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organisation 1793-1815. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 1-59114-611-9. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carronade - LoveToKnow 1911 (200 words)
He designed the piece in 1759, and called it the "smasher," but it was not adopted in the British navy till 1779, and was then known as the "carronade," from the Carron works on the Carron river in Stirlingshire, Scotland, where it was first cast by Mr Gascoigne.
The carronade had a powder chamber like many of the earliest guns known, and was similar to a mortar.
A 38-gun frigate carried ten carronades, and was therefore armed with 48 pieces of ordnance.
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (783 words)
The carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity, and is said to have been invented by Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759 and developed by Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779.
A carronade was much shorter and a third to a quarter of the weight of an equivalent long gun: for example, a 32 pounder carronade weighed less than a ton, but a 32 pounder long gun weighed over 3 tons.
Carronades were manufactured in the usual naval gun calibres (12, 18, 24, 32 and 42 pounders, but 6 pdr and 68 pdr versions are known), but they were not counted in a ship of the line's rated number of guns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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