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Encyclopedia > Carriage
Catherine II's carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum)
Catherine II's carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum)
George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939
George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939

The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century) or leather strapping for suspension, whether light, smart and fast or large and comfortable. Compare the public conveyances stagecoach, charabanc, and omnibus. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Elizabethboweslyonandkinggeorgeincanada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Elizabethboweslyonandkinggeorgeincanada. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... A traditional leaf spring arrangement. ... The front suspension components of a Ford Model T. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... A charabanc (pronounced sha-ra-bang) is a kind of open-topped bus common in Britain during the early part of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Bus (disambiguation). ...


A vehicle that is not sprung is a wagon. An American buckboard or Conestoga wagon or "prairie schooner" was never taken for a carriage, but a waggonette was a pleasure vehicle, with lengthwise seats. A wagon (in British English waggon) or dray is a wheeled vehicle, ordinarily with four wheels, usually pulled by an animal, or animals, such as horses, mules or oxen and used for transport of heavy goods. ... A four-wheeled wagon of simple construction meant to be drawn by a horse or other large animal. ... A Conestoga wagon The Conestoga Wagon is a heavy, broad-wheeled covered freight carrier used extensively during the United States Westward Expansion in the late 1700s and 1800s. ...


The word car meaning "wheeled vehicle", came from Norman French at the beginning of the 14th century [citation needed]; it was extended to cover automobile in 1896. The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ...


In the British Isles and many Commonwealth countries, a railway carriage (also called a coach) is a railroad car designed and equipped for transporting passengers. This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... An interior view of a modern Finnish bilevel intercity coach. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ...


In the United States, a baby carriage is a wheeled conveyance for reclining infants (in English outside North America: perambulator or pram), usually with a hood that can be adjusted to protect the baby from the sun. It has been suggested that Child carrier be merged into this article or section. ...


In some parts of New England, a carriage (or shopping carriage) is sometimes a shopping cart. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A row of parked (and very colorful) shopping carts equipped with a coin-operated mechanism. ...

Contents

History of carriages

A Gala Coupé, 17th Century; Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels
A Gala Coupé, 17th Century; Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels

Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints that their platform was suspended in a frame, elastically [1]. The Romans in the first centuries BC used sprung waggons for overland journeys [2]. With the decline of the antique civilizations these techniques almost disappeared. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1814x1038, 723 KB) own work File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carriage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1814x1038, 723 KB) own work File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carriage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Royal Museums of Art and History (French:Musées royaux dArt et dHistoire, Dutch: Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis) is a group of museums in Brussels. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Carriage at daylight in the traffic of Manhattan, New York, USA. (Photo: June 14, 2007)
Carriage at daylight in the traffic of Manhattan, New York, USA. (Photo: June 14, 2007)

In the Middle Ages all travellers who were not walking rode, save the elderly and the infirm. A trip in an unsprung cart over unpaved roads was not lightly undertaken. Closed carriages began to be more widely used by the upper classes in the 16th century. In 1601 a short-lived law was passed in England banning the use of carriages by men, it being considered effeminate. Better sprung vehicles were developed in the 17th century. New lighter and more fashionably varied conveyances, with fanciful new names, began to compete with one another from the mid-18th century. Coachbuilders cooperated with carvers, gilders, painters, lacquerworkers, glazers and upholsterers to produce not just the family's state coach for weddings and funerals but light, smart fast comfortable vehicles for pleasure riding and display. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Made and uploaded by John Manuel - JMK. Hecho y subido por John Manuel - JMK. Réalisé et mis en ligne par John Manuel - JMK. File... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1152 × 864 pixel, file size: 491 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Made and uploaded by John Manuel - JMK. Hecho y subido por John Manuel - JMK. Réalisé et mis en ligne par John Manuel - JMK. File... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... “NY” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for carriages or automobiles. ... Carved wooden cranes Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. ... Gilder is a character in the video game Skies of Arcadia; see Skies of Arcadia characters. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Glazier is a profession in which the person cuts flat glass to size as well as carpentery tasks. ... Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. ...


In British and French coaches, the coachman drove from a raised coachbox at the front. In Spain the driver continued to ride one of the horses, as also in the 1939 state visit procession in Canada (illustration, left).


From the 1860s, few rich Europeans continued to use their posting coaches for long-distance travel: a first-class railway carriage was the faster modern alternative. Then, in the 1890s, just as automobiles came into use, "coaching" became an upper-class sport in Britain and America, where gentlemen would take the reins of the kinds of large vehicles of types generally driven by a professional coachman.


Types of horse-drawn carriages

An almost bewildering variety of horse-drawn carriages existed. Arthur Ingram's Horse Drawn Vehicles since 1760 in Colour lists 325 types with a short description of each. By the early 19th century one's choice of carriage was only in part based on practicality and performance; it was also a status statement and subject to changing fashions. The types of carriage included the following:

In Vienna, rentable landaus called fiacres carry tourists around the old city.

The names of many have now been relegated to obscurity but some have been adopted to describe automotive car body styles: coupé, victoria, Brougham, landau and landaulet, cabriolet, (giving us our cab), phaeton, and limousine— all once denoted particular models of carriages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1040, 1400 KB) A fiaker in front of Stephansdom, Vienna, Austria Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Carriage ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1040, 1400 KB) A fiaker in front of Stephansdom, Vienna, Austria Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Carriage ... A landau (named after the German city) is a coachbuilding term for a specific body style. ... Saint Fiacre (or Fiachra) was born in Ireland in the seventh century. ... A barouche was a fashionable type of horse-drawn carriage in the 19th century. ... A Berlin (or Berline) carriage was a type of light, fast four-wheeled travelling carriage with a separate hooded seat at the rear. ... A brake, also known as a break, was a type of horse-drawn carriage used in the nineteenth and early 20th centuries. ... A britzka or brichka is a type of horse-drawn carriage. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Invented by Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, a brougham (pronounced broom) was a four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage of the 1800s. ... A horse and buggy circa 1910 The horse and buggy was a carriage drawn by a horse. ... A cabriolet was a light, two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage with a folding calash top, seating two persons facing forwards, one of whom was the driver. ... A barouche, also known as a calash or calèshe, was a fashionable type of horse-drawn carriage in the 19th century. ... A Cape cart was a two-wheeled four-seater carriage formerly used in South Africa. ... A cariole (also spelled carriole) was a type of carriage used in the 19th century. ... A carryall is a type of carriage used in the United States in the 19th century. ... A chaise (the French for chair, through a transference from a sedan-chair to a wheeled vehicle) is a light two- or four-wheeled carriage with a movable hood or calash ; the post-chaise was the fast-travelling carriage of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... The Chariot horse carriage is a light four-wheeled horse carriage popular in the early 19th century. ... A clarence was a type of carriage popular in the 19th century. ... The Peugeot 406 Coupé, designed by Pininfarina 1990 Mercedes-Benz 560SEC coupé, noted for its large, angular design 1997 Rover Vitesse Coupe, club coupé Rover P5 Coupe, a traditional four-door coupé Mercedes CLS, a modern four-door coupé Gala-Coupé of Leopold II, Brussels 1970s Sunbeam Alpine fastback coup... A Croydon is a type of horse-drawn two-wheeled carriage. ... A curricle was a smart light two wheeled chariot large enough for the driver and a passenger and— most unusual for a vehicle with a single axle—drawn by a carefully-matched pair. ... A dogcart is: normally, a cart (light wheeled vehicle): either an open, often horse-drawn cart designed to carry hunting dogs in a cage between two cross-seats back to back; the dogs could be penned between the rear-facing seat and the back end. ... Note: A cart may also be short for cartridge, particularly in the radio industry, where 8-track cartridges (and later CDs and zip drives) were used. ... A four-in-hand is a carriage drawn by four horses that has the reins rigged in such a way that it could be driven by a single driver. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in London (for the area within the M25 motorway) or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the... Categories: Stub | Road transport ... Herdics are a type of horse-drawn carriage invented by Peter Herdic in 1881. ... The Irish jaunting car was a popular mode of transportation in 19th Century Dublin popularized by Valentine Vousden in a song by that name. ... A landau (named after the German city) is a coachbuilding term for a specific body style. ... A print showing a mail coach decorated in the black and scarlet Post Office livery near Newmarket, Suffolk in 1827. ... The Park Drag carriage was a lighter, more elegant version of the Road Coach. ... A phaeton A Jump-seat type phaeton. ... A chaise (the French for chair, through a transference from a sedan-chair to a wheeled vehicle) is a light two- or four-wheeled carriage with a movable hood or calash; the post-chaise was the fast-travelling carriage of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... A sulky is a lightweight two-wheeled racing cart that is used in most forms of harness racing in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, including both trotting and pacing races. ... A Tilbury is a light open two-wheeled carriage developed in the early nineteenth century by the London firm of coachbuilders in Mount Street,[1]. A Tilbury rig is little more than a single Tilbury seat—the firms characteristic spindle-backed seat with a curved padded backrest— mounted over... The Victoria was an elegant carriage style, possibly based on a Phaeton made for King George IV. It was very popular amongst wealthy families. ... Cars can come in a large variety of different body styles. ... Brougham could be Brougham (band), a rap rock/nu-metal band. ... A landau (named after the German city) is a coachbuilding term for a specific body style. ... A landau (named after the German city) is a coachbuilding term for a specific body style. ... The word cab has a number of meanings, most of which are abbreviations: A cabriolet is kind of a light, horse-drawn carriage which replaced the heavier hackney carriage in the 19th century as the vehicle for hire of choice in Paris and London, and was the forerunner of the... Phaeton, Phaëton, or Phaethon may refer to many different things, all deriving ultimately from the mythological figure. ... Look up limousine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Competitive driving

In most European and English-speaking countries, show driving is a competitive equestrian sport. Many shows host driving competitions for a particular breed of horse or type of carriage.


Other competitors compete in the all-around test of driving: Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian discipline regulated by the FEI (Federation Equestre Internationale) and with National Federations representing each member country. Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. ... Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. ...


World Championships take place on alternate years, including Single Horse Championships, Horse Pairs Championships and Four-in-Hand Championships as well as the Four-in-Hand competition at the World Equestrian Games, held every four years.


For pony drivers, the World Combined Pony Championships are held every two years and include singles, pairs and four-in-hand.


See also

The term harness has been used for many centuries for part of the collection of equipment known as horse tack, essential in the domestic, military, and agrarian use of horses. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ...

Carriage collections

Façade of the museum. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... View from the Park The Nymphenburg Palace (German: Schloss Nymphenburg) is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. ... , For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Coordinates: , Country United States State Kentucky Counties Fayette Government  - Mayor Jim Newberry (D) Area  - City  285. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... The Mossman Carriage collection is held at Stockwood Park, Luton, Bedfordshire and is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. ... It has been suggested that Culture in Luton be merged into this article or section. ... A Ford Model T, used for giving tourist rides, is shown above at Greenfield Village. ... Location in Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Government  - Mayor John B. O’Reilly, Jr. ...

External links

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carriages
  1. ^ Raimund Karl: Überlegungen zum Verkehr in der eisenzeitlichen Keltiké = Deliberations on Traffic in the Ironage Celtic Culture (Dissertation in German, PDF)
  2. ^ Rekonstructions of a Roman travelling waggon and of a waggon from the Hallstadt bronze culture (in German)
  • Sallie Walrond, Looking at Carriages
  • Arthur Ingram, Horse Drawn Vehicles since 1760 in Colour, Blanford Press 1977.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carriage return - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (249 words)
In computing, the carriage return (CR) is one of the control characters in ASCII code, unicode or EBCDIC that commands a printer or other sort of display to move the position of the cursor to the first position on the same line.
It was mostly used along with line feed, a move to the next line, while carriage return precedes line feed to indicate a new line.
Many computers use the carriage return character, alone or with a line feed, to signal the end of a line of text, but other characters are also used for this function.
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