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Encyclopedia > Carrack
The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. 1628 shows the famous carrack of Christopher Columbus

A carrack or nao was a three- or four-masted sailing ship developed in the Mediterranean in the 15th century. It had a high rounded stern with an aftcastle and a forecastle and bowsprit at the stem. It was square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and lateen-rigged on the mizzenmast. Download high resolution version (700x857, 110 KB)The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... Download high resolution version (700x857, 110 KB)The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... The Santa Maria was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... Christopher Columbus portrait, painted by Alejo Fernándõ between 1505 and 1536. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... Sailing at sunset Wooden sailing boat Sailing is the skillful art of controlling the motion of a sailing ship or sailboat, across a body of water. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ... Aftcastle ... forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... Bowsprit of the Falls of Clyde, showing the dolphin striker, the use of chain for the bobstays, and three furled jibs. ... Square rig is a generic type of sailing vessel in which the main horizontal spars are perpendicular to the keel of the ship. ... The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... A lateen (from Latin) is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ...


Carracks were the first proper ocean-going ships in Europe; large enough to be stable in heavy seas, and roomy enough to carry provisions for long voyages. They were the ships in which the Spanish and Portuguese explored the world in the 15th and 16th centuries. In Spanish this type was called carraca or nao, while in Portuguese it was called nau (both of which meant simply "ship"). In French it was nef. The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean Oceans (from Okeanos in Greek, the ancient Greeks noticing the strong current that flowed off Gibraltar and assuming it was a great river) cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


English military carracks were called great ships. Name often given to English military carracks from 1400 onwards, particularly as built by Henry VIII. Examples of his include:- Mary Rose Henri Grâce à Dieu Also Grace Dieu (ship), flagship of Henry V The phrase was also used of the RMS Titanic in the song It Was Sad When...

Contents

Early origins

The word carrack is usually traced back through the medieval European languages to the Arabic, and thence to the Greek κερκουρός (kerkouros) meaning approximately "lighter (barge)". Its attestation in Greek literature is distributed in two closely related lobes. The first distribution lobe, or area, associates it with certain light and fast merchantmen found near Cyprus and Corfu. The second is an extensive attestation in the Oxyrhynchus corpus, where it seems most frequently to describe the Nile barges of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Both of these usages may lead back through the Phoenician to the Akkadian kalakku, which denotes a type of river barge. The Akkadian term is assumed to be derived from a Sumerian antecedent.[1] A modern reflex of the word is found in Arabic and Turkish kelek "raft; riverboat".[2] The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Lighter riding the current under Tower Bridge, London, circa 1928 A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed barge used to transfer goods to and from moored ships. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Pharaoh is a title used to refer to any ruler, usually male, of the Egyptian kingdom in the pre-Christian, pre-Islamic period. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called Phoenicia /Canaan (now Lebanon, coastal Syria and northern Israel ). Phoenician is a Semitic language of the Canaanite subgroup, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 1800 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the first century AD... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


The kalakku was a barge with goatskin or bladder floats, which might measure up to 15 m in a square or rectangular form, and which, in its later manifestations, was capable of being poled, dragged, rowed, or even sailed up the Tigris or the Euphrates.[3]


The European carrack may have resulted from a fusion of this design, or that of the Phoenician lighter, with that of the Germanic longship when the latter diffused into the Mediterranean. The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European...


Advantages

The carrack was the high seas beast of burden of choice and has been described as the "perfected transport ship".

  • it offered the space for crew, provisions and also cargo.
  • they were virtually impregnable to attack from small craft, which was often a problem in the East Indies.
  • their ability to carry cargo and provisions made them independent of ports en route, and so they had a longer range using the most efficient route.
  • the combination of four sails allowed for a fair degree of flexibility - the large square sails provided propulsion, but were reduced in size during storms. The smaller sails at bow and stern allowed for maneuvering, and the lateen sails allowed for sailing across the wind.
  • the stable deck allowed for placement of guns, thus making the vessel an effective gun platform. This fact would greatly assist the Portuguese in convincing non-compliant rulers like the Samoothiri Raja in Asia.

However, the large superstructures of these ships made them prone to toppling in strong winds. The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Zamorin (also Samoothiri) is a title of the kings of Kozhikode (Calicut), India. ...

A Portuguese "Nanban" carrack in Nagasaki, Japan, 17th century.
A Portuguese "Nanban" carrack in Nagasaki, Japan, 17th century.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1038x958, 165 KB) Summary A Portuguese Nanban carrack, 17th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1038x958, 165 KB) Summary A Portuguese Nanban carrack, 17th century. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Famous carracks

A functional sailing replica of the Santa Maria found in Funchal, Madeira Islands, Portugal. ... Christopher Columbus portrait, painted by Alejo Fernándõ between 1505 and 1536. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 HMS Mary Rose was an English carrack and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. ... Henri Grâce à Dieu, nicknamed Great Harry, was an English warship of the 16th century. ... For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ... Name often given to English military carracks from 1400 onwards, particularly as built by Henry VIII. Examples of his include:- Mary Rose Henri Grâce à Dieu Also Grace Dieu (ship), flagship of Henry V The phrase was also used of the RMS Titanic in the song It Was Sad When... Santa Catarina was a Portuguese carrack that was seized by the Dutch East India Company (also known as V.O.C) during February, 1603 off Singapore. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... The Victoria was one of the five ships of Ferdinand Magellan. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, irrigated by the river Guadalquivir (, ). It is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Sevilla. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... St Anthony or San Antonio was a Portuguese carrack which foundered in Gunwalloe Bay in 1527 en-route from Lisbon to Antwerp. ... Gunwalloe is a small community in the county of Cornwall, England. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... A model of Great Michael in the Royal Museum Great Michael was a carrack of the Royal Scottish Navy. ...

Carracks in Asia

From around 1515, Portugal had trade exchanges with Goa in India, consisting in 3 to 4 carracks leaving Lisbon with silver to purchase cotton and spices in India. Out of these, only one carrack went on to China in order to purchase silk, also in exchange for Portuguese silver. 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisbon  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


From the time of the acquisition of Macao in 1557, and their formal recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese Crown started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder the annual "Captaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year. That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited on the ground that the ships were smuggling priests into Japan. Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...


During the 16th century the carrack developed into the galleon. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A Spanish galleon A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. ...


Trivia

The carrack is thought to be the inspiration behind the fictional Carrack-Class Light Cruiser of the Star Wars saga. The Carrack-class Light Cruiser is a starship from the fictional Star Wars Expanded Universe. ... The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the revamped original Star Wars Trilogy. ...


Additional reading

  • Kirsch, Peter, The Galleon (1990), Conway Maritime Press, ISBN 0-85177-546-2

External links

  • The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger

References

  1. ^ Sumerian antecedent
  2. ^ Gong, Y. "kalakku: Überlegungen zur Mannigfaltigkeit der Darstellungsweisen desselben Begriffs in der Keilschrift anhand des Beispiels kalakku", Journal of Ancient Civilizations, 5, 1990, 9-24.
  3. ^ Sailing a kelek
Types of sailing vessels and rigs
Barque | Barquentine | Bermuda rig | Bilander | Brig | Brigantine | Caravel | Carrack | Catamaran | Catboat | Clipper | Dutch Clipper | Cog | Corvette | Cutter | Dhow | Fifie | Fluyt | Fore & Aft Rig | Frigate | Full Rigged Ship | Gaff Rig | Galleon | Gunter Rig | Hermaphrodite Brig | Junk | Ketch | Longship | Mersey Flat | Multihull | Nao | Norfolk Wherry | Pink | Pocket Cruiser | Polacca | Pram | Proa | Schooner | Ship of the Line | Sloop | Smack | Snow | Square Rig | Tall Ship | Thames Sailing Barge | Trimaran | Wherry | Windjammer | Windsurfer | Xebec | Yacht | Yawl

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CARRACK Measurement Technology (123 words)
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In one of rock's circuitous success stories, Paul Carrack was the lead-singing keyboardist in Ace, a pub-rock outfit before "pub-rock" became a rock press sub-genre — strictly background music for soaking up suds.
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