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In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. They formed a coalition with Freedmen (freed slaves), and Scalawags (Southern whites) in the Republican Party, which in turn controlled ex-Confederate states for varying periods, 1867–1877. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...

"Carpetbaggers" was coined from the carpet bags used as inexpensive luggage. It was originally a derogatory term, suggesting an exploiter who does not plan to stay. Although the term is still an insult in common usage, in histories and reference works it is now used without derogatory intent. Since 1900 the term has also been used to describe outsiders attempting to gain political office or economic advantage, especially in areas (thematically or geographically) to which they previously had no connection. A carpet bag is a traveling bag made of carpet, commonly from an oriental rug, ranging in size from a small purse to a large duffel bag. ...



Reforming impulse

While some Northerners went South with reformist impulses after the United States was restored at the end of the Civil War, not all Northerners who went South were reformers.[1] The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy...

Beginning in 1862, thousands of Northern abolitionists and other reformers moved to areas in the South where secession by the Confederates states had failed. Many schoolteachers and religious missionaries arrived in the South, and some of them were sponsored by northern churches. Many were abolitionists who sought to continue the struggle for racial equality; many of these became employees of the federal Freedmen's Bureau, which started operations in 1865 to assist the newly freed people and also white refugees. The bureau established public schools in rural areas of the South where public schools had not previously existed and other Northerners who went to live in the South participated in the politics of introducing rail travel where it had not previously existed.[2][3] This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau or (mistakenly) the Freedmans Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed to aid distressed refugees of the United States Civil War, including former slaves and poor white...

Hundreds of white women moved South, many to teach newly freed African-American children[4] who, for the period their families were held in bondage, were prohibited by law from learning to read or attending school. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...

Economic motives

Many carpetbaggers were businessmen who purchased or leased plantations and became wealthy landowners, hiring Freedmen to do the labor. Most were former Union soldiers eager to invest their savings in this promising new frontier, and civilians lured south by press reports of "the fabulous sums of money to be made in the South in raising cotton." The investors were warmly received.[5] However, Foner also notes that "joined with the quest for profit, however, was a reforming spirit, a vision of themselves as agents of sectional reconciliation and the South's "economic regeneration." Accustomed to viewing Southerners—black and white—as devoid of economic initiative and self-discipline, they believed that only "Northern capital and energy" could bring "the blessings of a free labor system to the region."[6] The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...

Carpetbaggers tended to be well educated and middle class in origin. Some had been lawyers, businessmen, newspaper editors, and other pillars of Northern communities. The majority (including fifty-two of the sixty who served in Congress during Reconstruction) were veterans of the Union Army.[7]

Leading "black carpetbaggers" believed the interests of capital and labor identical and the freedmen entitled to little more than an "honest chance in the race of life."[8]

Many Carpetbaggers and Scalawags shared a modernizing vision of upgrading the Southern economy and society, one that would replace the inefficient Southern plantation regime with railroads, factories, and more efficient farming. They actively promoted public schooling and created numerous colleges and universities. The Carpetbaggers were especially successful in taking control of Southern railroads, abetted by state legislatures. In 1870, Northerners controlled 21% of the South's railroads (by mileage); 19% of the directors were Carpetbaggers. By 1890, they controlled 88% of the mileage and 47% of the directors were Carpetbaggers.[9] The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... Look up Antebellum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Self Interest and Exploitation

Some were representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau and other agencies of Reconstruction; some were humanitarians with the intent to help black people; yet some were adventurers who hoped to benefit themselves by questionable methods. The characters of "the King" and "the Duke" in Mark_Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry_Finn are fictional examples; these confidence men enter the novel on the run from local authorities, and "both of them had big, fat, ratty-looking carpet bags." Many of the carpetbaggers who were unscrupulous came to manipulate the black vote and in some cases to establish dishonest governments. [1] Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Huckleberry Finn is the protagonist of Mark Twains famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ...

State politics


Union General Adelbert Ames, a native of Massachusetts was the appointed military governor and had himself elected as Republican governor of Mississippi. Ames tried unsuccessfully to ensure equal rights for black Mississippians. His battles with the Scalawags and African Americans ripped apart his party.[10] Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 12, 1933) was a Union general in the American Civil War, a Mississippi politician, and a general in the Spanish-American War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

The "Black and Tan" (biracial) constitutional convention in Mississippi in 1868 included 29 Scalawags, 17 blacks and 24 Carpetbaggers, nearly all of whom were veterans of the Union army. They include four who had lived in the South before the war, two of whom had served in the Confederate States Army. Among the more prominent were General Beroth B. Eggleston, a native of New York who had enlisted as a private in an Ohio regiment; Colonel A. T. Morgan, of the Second Wisconsin Volunteers; General W. S. Barry, former commander of a Colored regiment raised in Kentucky; an Illinois general and lawyer who graduated from Knox College; Major W. H. Gibbs, of the Fifteenth Illinois infantry; Judge W. B. Cunningham, of Pennsylvania; and Captain E. J. Castello, of the Seventh Missouri infantry. These were among the founders of the Republican party in Mississippi and were prominent in the politics of the state until 1875, but nearly all left Mississippi in 1875–76.[11] Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Knox College is a four-year coeducational private liberal arts college located in Galesburg, Illinois. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ...

Albert T. Morgan, the carpetbagging Republican sheriff of Yazoo, Mississippi, received a brief flurry of national attention when insurgent whites took over the county government and forced him to flee. He later wrote Yazoo; Or, on the Picket Line of Freedom in the South (1884). Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yazoo City is a city located in Yazoo County, Mississippi. ...

On November 6, 1875, Hiram Revels, a Mississippi Republican and the first African American U.S. Senator, wrote a letter to President Ulysses S. Grant that was widely reprinted. Revels denounced Ames and the Carpetbaggers for manipulating the Black vote for personal benefit, and for keeping alive wartime hatreds: is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Hiram Rhoades Revels (September 27, 1827–January 16, 1901) was the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate representing Mississippi. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...

Since reconstruction, the masses of my people have been, as it were, enslaved in mind by unprincipled adventurers, who, caring nothing for country, were willing to stoop to anything no matter how infamous, to secure power to themselves, and perpetuate it..... My people have been told by these schemers, when men have been placed on the ticket who were notoriously corrupt and dishonest, that they must vote for them; that the salvation of the party depended upon it; that the man who scratched a ticket was not a Republican. This is only one of the many means these unprincipled demagogues have devised to perpetuate the intellectual bondage of my people.... The bitterness and hate created by the late civil strife has, in my opinion, been obliterated in this state, except perhaps in some localities, and would have long since been entirely obliterated, were it not for some unprincipled men who would keep alive the bitterness of the past, and inculcate a hatred between the races, in order that they may aggrandize themselves by office, and its emoluments, to control my people, the effect of which is to degrade them.[12]

North Carolina

Corruption was a powerful charge for Democrats in North Carolina, notes historian Paul Escott, "because its truth was apparent." [Escott 160] For example, General Milton S. Littlefield, dubbed the "Prince of Carpetbaggers," bought votes in the legislature "to support grandiose and fraudulent railroad schemes." Escott concludes that some Democrats were involved, but Republicans "bore the main responsibility for the issue of $28 million in state bonds for railroads and the accompanying corruption. This sum, enormous for the time, aroused great concern." Foner says Littlefield disbursed $200,000 (bribes) to win support in the legislature for state money for his railroads, and Democrats as well as Republicans were guilty. [Foner 387] North Carolina Democrats condemned the legislature's "depraved villains, who take bribes every day;" one local Republican officeholder complained, "I deeply regret the course of some of our friends in the Legislature as well as out of it in regard to financial matters, it is very embarrassing indeed."[13] Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...

Extravagance and corruption were inflating taxes and the costs of government in a state that had always favored low expenditure, Escott points out. "Some money went to very worthy causes—the 1869 legislature, for example, passed a school law that began the rebuilding and expansion of the state's public schools. But far too much was wrongly or unwisely spent," primarily to aid the Republican Party leadership. A Republican county commissioner in Alamance eloquently denounced the situation: "Men are placed in power who instead of carrying out their duties . . . form a kind of school for to graduate Rascals. Yes if you will give them a few Dollars they will liern you for an accomplished Rascal. This is in reference to the taxes that are rung from the labouring class of people. With out a speedy refformation I will have to resign my post."[14]

South Carolina

The leading carpetbag politician in South Carolina was Daniel Henry Chamberlain, a New Englander who was an officer in a predominantly black regiment. He served as South Carolina's attorney general from 1868 to 1872 and as Republican governor from 1874 to 1877, losing his office as a result of the Compromise of 1877. In South Carolina, Chamberlain was a strong supporter of Negro rights, but he later became a white supremacist, a result of his conversion to states' rights, laissez-faire, and evolution. By 1896, liberty meant the right to save oneself from the rising tide of equality. Chamberlain justified white supremacy by arguing that, in evolutionary terms, the Negro obviously belonged to an inferior social order.[15] Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Daniel Henry Chamberlain (June 23, 1835–1907) was a governor of South Carolina and member of the Yale based Skull and Bones Society. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ...

Charles Stearns, also from Massachusetts, wrote an account of his own carpetbagging in South Carolina: The Black Man of the South, and the Rebels: Or, the Characteristics of the Former and the Recent Outrages of the Latter (1873).

Francis L. Cardozo, a black minister from New Haven, Connecticut, served as a delegate to South Carolina's Constitutional Convention (1868); he made eloquent speeches advocating that the plantations be broken up and distributed among the freedmen.[16] “New Haven” redirects here. ...


Henry C. Warmoth, the Republican governor of Louisiana from 1868 to 1874, represents a decidedly less idealistic strand of carpetbagging. As governor, Warmoth was plagued by accusations of corruption that continued long after his death. He supported voting rights for blacks, and at the same time, he used his position as governor to trade in state bonds for his own personal benefit. The newspaper company he owned also had a contract with the state government. Warmoth remained in Louisiana after Reconstruction, and died in 1931 at age 89.[17] Henry Clay Warmoth (1842-1931) was a Republican politician who served as Governor of Louisiana from 1868 until his impeachment and suspension from office in December 1872. ...


George E. Spencer was a prominent U.S. Senator. His 1872 Senate reelection campaign in Alabama opened him to allegations of "political betrayal of colleagues; manipulation of Federal patronage; embezzlement of public funds; purchase of votes; and intimidation of voters by the presence of Federal troops." He was a major speculator in a distressed financial paper.[18] This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Tunis Campbell, a black New York businessman, was hired in 1863 by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to help former slaves in Port Royal, South Carolina. When the Civil War ended, Campbell was assigned to the Sea Islands of Georgia, where he engaged in an apparently successful land reform program for the benefit of the freedmen. He eventually became vice-chair of the Georgia Republican Party, a state senator, and the head of an African-American militia which he hoped to use against the Ku Klux Klan.[19] Tunis Campbell (1812-1891) Born on April 1, 1812 in Middlebrook, New York. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Port Royal is a town located in Beaufort County, South Carolina. ... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


William Hines Furbush, born a slave in Kentucky in 1839, left Ohio, where he received an education, for Helena, Arkansas, in 1862. Back in Ohio in February 1865, he joined the Forty-second Colored Infantry at Columbus. After the war, Furbush migrated to Liberia through the American Colonization Society. He returned to Ohio after 18 months and had moved back to Arkansas by 1870.[Wintory 2004] Furbush was elected to two terms in the Arkansas House of Representatives, 1873–74 (Phillips County) and 1879–80 (Lee County). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Helena-West Helena, Arkansas. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ...

In 1873, following the passage of the state's civil rights law, Furbush—with three other black leaders, including the bill's primary sponsor, state Senator Richard A. Dawson—sued a Little Rock barkeeper for refusing the group service. The suit resulted in the only successful Reconstruction prosecution under the state's civil rights law. In the legislature, he worked to create a new county, Lee, from portions of Phillips, Crittenden, Monroe and St. Francis counties. Location in Pulaski County, Arkansas Coordinates: , Country State County Pulaski Founded 1821 Incorporated 1831 Government  - Mayor Mark Stodola Area  - City  116. ... Lee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Phillips County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Crittenden County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... St. ...

Following the end of his 1873 legislative term, he was appointed sheriff by Republican Governor Elisha Baxter. Furbush won reelection as sheriff twice and served from 1873 to 1878. During his term, he adopted a policy of "fusion," a post-Reconstruction power-sharing compromise between Democrats and Republicans. Furbush was originally elected as a Republican, but switched to the Democratic Party at the end of his time in the sheriff's office. In 1878, he was again elected to the Arkansas House. His election is noteworthy because he was elected as a black Democrat in an election season notorious for the intimidation of black and Republican voters in black majority eastern Arkansas. Furbush is the first known black Democrat elected to the Arkansas General Assembly. Redemption, in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the reversion of the U.S. South to conservative Democratic Party rule after the period of Reconstruction (1865-1877), which in turn followed the U.S. Civil War. ...

In March 1879, he left Arkansas for Colorado, where he worked as an assayer and barber. In Bonanza, Colorado, he avoided a lynch mob after shooting and killing a town constable. In his trial he was acquitted of murder. He returned to Little Rock, Arkansas, by 1888, following another stay in Ohio. In 1889, he and E. A. Fulton, a fellow black Democrat, announced plans for the National Democrat, a party weekly that was supposed to attract black voters to the Democratic Party. After failing to get black voters in the Democratic Party and with the passage Arkansas's 1891 Election Law that disenfranchised many black voters in the state, Furbush left Arkansas. He traveled to South Carolina and Georgia. His last stop was in October 1901 at Marion, Indiana's National Home for Disabled Veterans. Furbush died at the home on September 3, 1902, and was interred at the Marion National Cemetery.[20] Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Bonanza is a town located in Saguache County, Colorado. ... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... Marion (IPA: ) is a city in Grant County, Indiana, United States. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Carpetbaggers were least visible in Texas. Republicans were in power from 1867 to January 1874. Only one state official and one justice of the state supreme court were carpetbaggers. About 13%-21% of district court judges were carpetbaggers, along with about 10% of the delegates who wrote the "radical" constitution of 1869. Of the 142 men who served in the 12th legislature, only 12 to 29 were carpetbaggers. At the county level they included about 10% of the commissioners, county judges, and sheriffs.[21] Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...

New Yorker George T. Ruby, was sent by the Freedmen's Bureau to Galveston, Texas, where he settled. As a Texas state senator, Ruby was instrumental in various economic development schemes and in efforts to organize African-American dockworkers into the Labor Union of Colored Men. When Reconstruction ended, Ruby became a leader of the Exoduster movement, which encouraged Southern blacks to homestead in Kansas.[22] Galveston redirects here. ... For now, see African American history and Black Canadian and please view the discussion page if you are a past editor of this article. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...

Other prominent carpetbaggers

  • Albion W. Tourgée, formerly of Ohio and a friend of President James A. Garfield, was a lawyer and judge in North Carolina. He once claimed that "Jesus Christ was a carpetbagger." Tourgée later wrote A Fool's Errand, a largely autobiographical novel about an idealistic carpetbagger who is persecuted by the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.
  • Lee John Chambers
  • Carrie Highgate (in some sources, "Carolyn"), was the African-American wife of Albert T. Morgan.

Albion Winegar Tourgée was an American abolitionist, and an active participant in Reconstruction about which he wrote a novel, A Fools Errand, by One of the Fools, decrying the lack of support they received from the Grant Administration. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ...


The Dunning school of American historians (1900–1950) viewed carpetbaggers unfavorably, arguing that they degraded the political and business culture. The revisionist school in the 1930s called them stooges of Northern business interests. After 1960, the neoabolitionist school emphasized their moral courage. The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used by some historians to refer to the rebirth of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and in a limited number of cases, to the late 20th century historiographic tradition in United States history by...

Modern usage

United States

"Carpetbagger" is in common use when a politician runs for office in a place to which he previously had no connection. In 1964, Robert Kennedy moved to New York to run for the Senate and deflected the carpetbagger image with humor, opening one speech with, "My fellow New Yorkites!" In 2000, some New Yorkers considered Hillary Clinton to be a "carpetbagger" when she moved to New York to run for the Senate. Both Kennedy and Clinton were elected, though Clinton barely beat Republican challenger and native New Yorker, Rick Lazio. Some Southerners consider George W. Bush to be a carpetbagger in that he was born in Connecticut and educated at Andover and Yale, but identifies himself as being a Texan. Bush won both of his presidential bids. In 2004, Republican Alan Keyes was called a carpetbagger when he moved to Illinois only one month before the election for Senator, which he lost to Illinoisan Barack Obama. John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953), an American politician, was the 43rd Governor of Florida. In retrospect he is considered by some a good example of what might be called a "modern day carpetbagger". Though he relocated from Texas to Florida several years prior to his political career, the concept of carpetbagger could apply considering he had no historical ties to his constituency, and channeled tax monies from state residents to business interests and associates outside the state. He was known for his initiatives to "privatize" government and reduce taxes for corporate interests. Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American political activist, author and former diplomat. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953), an American politician, was the 43rd Governor of Florida, as well as the first Republican to be re-elected to that office. ...

See also: Parachute candidate

The term is also used in a more jocular manner to refer to the masses of northerners who have relocated to the South since the 1960s. The word is commonly used in areas of massive influx such as Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina; and Dallas, Texas. [citation needed] A parachute candidate, also known as a carpetbagger in the United States, is a political term for an election candidate who does not live in the area he is running to represent. ... Jocular means with humour. For example, He was a jocular man, always laughing and joking with everyone! ... The Atlanta metropolitan area, commonly referred to as Metro Atlanta in Georgia, is the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the United States and consists of 28 counties in Georgia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ...

United Kingdom

Carpetbagging was used in Britain in the late 1990s during the wave of demutualizations of building societies, the term indicating members of the public who join mutual societies with the hope of making a quick profit from the conversion. Investors in these mutuals would receive shares in the new public companies, usually distributed at a flat rate, thus equally benefiting small and large investors, and providing a broad incentive for members to vote for conversion-advocating leadership candidates. The word was first used in this context in early 1997 by the chief executive of the Woolwich Building Society, who announced the society's conversion with rules removing the most recent new savers' entitlement to potential windfalls and stated in a media interview, "I have no qualms about disenfranchising carpetbaggers." The chief executive was subsequently removed from office in disgrace after it was widely reported that he was receiving unauthorised benefits from the society's gardeners.[citation needed] The term demutualization (or demutualisation) describes the process by which mutual organizations or companies (mutuals) convert themselves to for-profit (or profit-making) public companies which distribute profits to their shareholders in the form of dividends. ... Building society was the name given in 19th century Britain for working mens co_operative savings groups: by pooling savings, members could buy or build their own homes. ... The Woolwich was the trading name of the Woolwich Building Society, founded in 1847 as one of the first permanent building societies. ...

In the 2005 general election, Respect MP George Galloway was accused of being a carpetbagger by Labour's Constitutional Affairs Minister David Lammy during an interview with Jeremy Paxman. Galloway, who hails from Scotland, stood for election in London's Bethnal Green and Bow constituency on an anti-war platform. It was suggested that he targeted this constituency because of its largely Muslim population, pushing the issue of war in Iraq for his own gain while ignoring the basic concerns facing this area, one of the UK's poorest constituencies. His response was that his old constituency had been dissolved and that it is perfectly reasonable for a new party to stand its best known candidate in the area it has the strongest support. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... George Galloway,. (born 16 August 1954 in Dundee) is a Scottish politician and author noted for his left-wing views, confrontational style, and rhetorical skill. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... David Lindon Lammy (born July 19, 1972) is a British politician who has been tipped as Britains first Black Prime Minister Lammy was born in Tottenham, a working-class area of North London, and brought up by his mother after his father left the family. ... Jeremy Dickson Paxman (born 11 May 1950) is an English BBC journalist, news presenter and author. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Bethnal Green and Bow is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


During World War II, the U.S. Office of Strategic Services surreptitiously supplied necessary tools and material to anti-Nazi resistance groups in Europe. The OSS called this effort Operation Carpetbagger, and the modified B-24 aircraft used for the night-time missions were referred to as "carpetbaggers." (Among other special features, they were painted a non-glare black to make them less visible.) Between January and September 1944, Operation Carpetbagger ran 2,263 sorties between Harrington, England, and various points in occupied Europe. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Royal Canadian Air Force B-24 Liberator The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft, and was used by most of the Allied air forces in World War II. Designed as a heavy bomber, it served with distinction not only in that...


  1. ^ Those Terrible Carpetbaggers by Richard Nelson Current. Oxford University Press.1988
  2. ^ The Scalawag in Alabama Poltics. 1865–1881 by Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins. University of Alabama Press. 1991.
  3. ^ Those Terrible Carpetbaggers by Richard Nelson Current. Oxford University Press.1988
  4. ^ Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom - Williams, Heather Andrea, University of North Carolina Press, 2006
  5. ^ Foner 1988 pp 137, 194
  6. ^ Foner 1988 pp 137
  7. ^ Foner 1988 pp 294–295
  8. ^ Foner 1988 pp 289
  9. ^ Klein 1968 p 269
  10. ^ Garner (1902); Harris (1979)
  11. ^ Garner 187–88
  12. ^ full text in Garner pp. 399–400
  13. ^ Escott 160
  14. ^ Escott 160
  15. ^ Simkins and Woody. (1932)
  16. ^ Simkins and Woody. (1932)
  17. ^ Foner (1968)
  18. ^ Woolfolk (1966); Foner (1968) p 295
  19. ^ Foner (1968)
  20. ^ Foner Freedom's Lawmakers" p. 79; Wintory 2004, 2006; Daniel Phillips Upham; Gov. Powell Clayton
  21. ^ Campbell (1994)
  22. ^ Campbell (1994)


  • Ash, Stephen V. When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861–1865 U of North Carolina Press 1995.
  • Barnes, Kenneth C. Who Killed John Clayton Duke U.P. 1998; violence in Arkansas
  • Brown, Canter, Jr. "Carpetbagger Intrigues, Black Leadership, and a Southern Loyalist Triumph: Florida's Gubernatorial Election of 1872" Florida Historical Quarterly 1994 72(3): 275–301. ISSN 0015-4113. Shows how African Americans joined Redeemers to defeat corrupt carpetbagger running for reelection
  • Campbell, Randolph B. "Carpetbagger Rule in Reconstruction Texas: an Enduring Myth." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 1994 97(4): 587–596. ISSN 0038-478X
  • Richard Nelson Current. Those Terrible Carpetbaggers: A Reinterpretation (1988), a favorable view
  • Currie-Mcdaniel, Ruth. Carpetbagger of Conscience: A Biography of John Emory Bryant Fordham U.P. 1999; religious reformer in South Carolina
  • Durden, Robert Franklin; James Shepherd Pike: Republicanism and the American Negro, 1850–1882 Duke University Press, 1957
  • Paul D. Escott; Many Excellent People: Power and Privilege in North Carolina, 1850–1900, University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
  • Foner, Eric. Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory Of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction, Oxford University Press, 1993, Revised, 1996, LSU Press.
  • Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (1988) Harper & Row, 1988, recent standard history
  • Fowler, Wilton B. "A Carpetbagger's Conversion to White Supremacy." North Carolina Historical Review 1966 43(3): 286–304. ISSN 0029-2494
  • Garner, James Wilford. Reconstruction in Mississippi (1902)
  • Harris, William C. The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi Louisiana State University Press, 1979
  • Harris, William C. "James Lynch: Black Leader in Southern Reconstruction," Historian 1971 34(1): 40–61. ISSN 0018-2370; Lynch was Mississippi's first African American secretary of state
  • Klein, Maury. "Southern Railroad Leaders, 1865–1893: Identities and Ideologies" Business History Review 1968 42(3): 288–310. ISSN 0007-6805 Fulltext in JSTOR
  • Morrow, Ralph E.; Northern Methodism and Reconstruction Michigan State University Press, 1956
  • Olsen, Otto H. Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (1965)
  • Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. South Carolina during Reconstruction (1932)
  • Tunnell, Ted. Edge of the Sword: The Ordeal of Carpetbagger Marshall H. Twitchell in the Civil War and Reconstruction LSU Press, 2001, on Louisiana.
  • Ted Tunnell, "Creating 'the Propaganda of History': Southern Editors and the Origins of Carpetbagger and Scalawag," Journal of Southern History (Nov 2006) 72#4
  • Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk; The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865–1881 University of Alabama Press, 1991
  • Woolfolk, Sarah Van V. "George E. Spencer: a Carpetbagger in Alabama," Alabama Review 1966 19(1): 41–52. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Wintory, Blake. "William Hines Furbush: African-American Carpetbagger, Republican, Fusionist, and Democrat," Arkansas Historical Quarterly 2004 63(2): 107–165. ISSN 0004-1823
  • Wintory, Blake. "William Hines Furbush (1839–1902)" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture (2006).
  • Bryant, Emma Spaulding. Emma Spaulding Bryant: Civil War Bride, Carpetbagger's Wife, Ardent Feminist; Letters and Diaries, 1860–1900 Fordham U. Pr., 2004. 503 pp.
  • Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational, and Industrial 2 vol 1906. Uses broad collection of primary sources.
  • Louis F. Post. "A 'Carpetbagger' in South Carolina," The Journal of Negro History Vol. 10, No. 1 (Jan., 1925), pp. 10–79 in Jstor; autobiography
  • Twitchell, Marshall Harvey. Carpetbagger from Vermont: The Autobiography of Marshall Harvey Twitchell. ed by Ted Tunnell; Louisiana State U. Press, 1989. 216 pp.

  Results from FactBites:
Carpetbagger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3211 words)
Many Carpetbaggers and Scalawags shared a Whiggish vision of modernizing the South, one that would overthrow the crippled Southern plantation regime and replace it with industrial capitalism.
Carpetbaggers often filled the political vacuum and were elected to local, state and national office.
Carpetbagger from Vermont: The Autobiography of Marshall Harvey Twitchell.
  More results at FactBites »



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