FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Carpathian Ruthenia

Contents

Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov kraj and Košice kraj). In 1939 the region briefly declared independence as "Carpatho-Ukraine." Image File history File links CarpathianRutheniaCoA.svg‎ Based on Image:Czechoslovakia_COA_medium. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... PreÅ¡ov city centre Torysa riverbank in PreÅ¡ov Cathedral of PreÅ¡ov Neptune‘s fountain on the Hlavná Street in PreÅ¡ov PreÅ¡ov (Hungarian: Eperjes, German: Preschau or Eperies, Polish: Preszów, Rusyn: Пряшів /Пряшyв , Romany: Peryeshis) is a town in eastern Slovakia. ... A kraj (plural: kraje) is the highest-level administrative unit in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and historically in Czechoslovakia. ... Statue of KoÅ¡ices coat of arms St. ... A kraj (plural: kraje) is the highest-level administrative unit in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and historically in Czechoslovakia. ... Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived Ukrainian state that formally existed for several days only in March 1939 in the easternmost part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Ruthenia, or Transcarpathia), and had been an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia for several months before that. ...


Nomenclature

During the region's period of Hungarian rule, it was officially referred to as Subcarpathia (Hungarian: Kárpátalja) or North-Eastern Upper Hungary. Image File history File links Map of Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine Adapted from http://www. ... Image File history File links Map of Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine Adapted from http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920 and until 1938-9, when Hungary gained it in two phases, the region was part of Czechoslovakia and it was referred to as Subcarpathian Rus (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Rus) or Subcarpathian Ukraine (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Ukrajina), and from 1927 as the Subcarpathian Rus Land (Czech and Slovak: Země/Zem podkarpatskoruská). Alternative, unofficial names used in Czechoslovakia before World War II included Subcarpathia (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatsko), Transcarpathia (Czech and Slovak: Zakarpatsko), Transcarpathian Ukraine (Czech and Slovak: Zakarpatská Ukrajina), Carpathian Rus/Ruthenia (Czech and Slovak: Karpatská Rus) and, rarely, Hungarian Rus/Ruthenia (Czech and Slovak: Uherská/Uhorská Rus). The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The region briefly declared its independence in 1939 as Carpatho-Ukraine. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived Ukrainian state that formally existed for several days only in March 1939 in the easternmost part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Ruthenia, or Transcarpathia), and had been an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia for several months before that. ...


Since 1945, as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the subsequent independent state of Ukraine, the region has been referred to as Zakarpattia (Ukrainian: Закарпаття) or Transcarpathia, as well as Carpathian Rus’ (Ukrainian: Карпатська Русь, translit. "Karpats’ka Rus’"), Transcarpathian Rus’ (Ukrainian: Закарпатська Русь, translit. "Zakarpats’ka Rus’"), Subcarpathian Rus’ (Ukrainian: Підкарпатська Русь, translit. "Pidkarpats’ka Rus’"). 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ...


Geography

Carpathian Ruthenia rests on the southern slopes of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, bordered to the east by the Tisza River, and to the west by the Hornád and Poprad Rivers, and makes up part of the Pannonian Plain. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ... Hornád (Hungarian: Hernád, German: Kundert) is a river in eastern Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. ... the river Poprad by SpiÅ¡ská Belá in the district Kežmarok The Poprad (German Popper) is a river in northern Slovakia and southern Poland, and a tributary of the Dunajec River (near Stary Sacz). ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1181x825, 16 KB) Image (Map) made by Sven Teschke, Germany --Steschke 09:12, 2004 Nov 8 (UTC) see also: english version: Image:Map_of_Ukraine_political_enwiki. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1181x825, 16 KB) Image (Map) made by Sven Teschke, Germany --Steschke 09:12, 2004 Nov 8 (UTC) see also: english version: Image:Map_of_Ukraine_political_enwiki. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Cities and towns

Motto: Oblast Zakarpattia Oblast Mayor Serhiy Ratushnyak Area 31. ... Location Map of Zakarpattia Oblast with Mukacheve. ... Hust may refer to: Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), a leading university of China. ... Berehove (in Ukrainian: Берегове (Berehove), in Ruthenian: Берегово (Berehovo), in Russian: Берегово (Beregovo), in Rumanian: Berg, in Hungarian: Beregszász, in German: Bergsaß, in Slovak and Czech: Berehovo) is a city in western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. ... Vynohradiv (Ukrainian: Rusyn:Сивлюш (Sevlyush), Hungarian: Nagyszőllős, Romanian: Seleuşu Mare) is a city in western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. ... Chop (Ukrainian Чоп) is a city in the Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine. ... Svaliava (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: Szolyva) is a city located on the Latorytsia River in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ... Rakhiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: Rahó, Romanian: Rahău, Russian: , translit. ... Tiachiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: Técső, Romanian: Teceu) is a city located on the Tisza River in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ... Irshava (Ukrainian: Hungarian: Ilosva) is a city in Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast. ...

Historic overview

Slavic tribes began settling in the area of Carpathian Ruthenia in the 6th century, following the invasion of the Huns. By the 7th and 8th centuries, a denser population referred to as the White Croats had settled on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. A great deal of this territory and its settlers subsequently became the western edge of the Kievan Rus’ principality at the start of the 9th century, while the western part of this territory came to be part of Great Moravia. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples (Greek: , Latin: , Arabic: ‎ Saqaliba, Old Church Slavonic: , Russian: , Polish: , Serbian: ), Croatian: , Bulgarian: ) are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... White Croats migrated to modern Dalmatia (coastal part of Croatia) as part of the migration of the Croats in 610-641 A.D.[1] ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Great Moravia was a Slavic empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ...


When Tsar Simeon the Great began expanding his kingdom of Bulgaria, he gained control of a segment of this "White Croatia", forcing Prince Laborec (a local ruler) to recognize his authority by the end of the 9th century. In 896 the Proto-Magyars crossed the Carpathian Range and migrated into this territory. Prince Laborec fell from power under the efforts of the Magyars and the Kievan forces; many of these forces remained behind and were assimilated by the White Croats. Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... White Croatia is the area of modern-day Poland, Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Slovakia from which the White Croats migrated in the 7th century into Dalmatia, Croatia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 981, the western border of Kievan Rus’ was redefined when Volodimir I (the Great) of Kiev signed non-aggression pacts with Bolesław I (the Brave) of Poland and Stephen I (the Great) of Hungary. At this point Carpathian Ruthenia was wholely incorporated as a part of Kievan Rus’ lands, although this union did not last long after the death of Volodimir. Bolesław deployed his troops into Rus' for about half a year, and incorporated several western Ruthenian cities in 1019. These "Cherven towns" or Red Ruthenia, were recovered by the Rus’ forces of Halych-Volhynia in 1031. The rest of Carpathian Ruthenia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... Reign 992 — 1025. ... King Stephens statue in his hometown, Esztergom A statue of the king in Miskolc Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: ; Latin: ; Slovak: , German: ) (circa 975 – 15 August 1038) was a ruling prince of Hungary, the first King of Hungary and a ruling prince of Nitra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


As the Magyars had migrated through Carpathian Ruthenia in the 9th century, many of the local inhabitants were assimilated Hungarians, and the local Ruthenian nobility often intermarried with the Hungarian nobles to the south. Prince Rostislav, a Ruthenian noble unable to continue his family's rule of Kiev, governed a great deal of Carpathian Ruthenia from 1243 to 1261 for his father-in-law, Béla IV of Hungary. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rostislav Mikhailovich (1225-62), Ban of Slavonia and Machva, stemmed from the Rurikid House of Chernigov. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Father-in-law A father-in-law is a spouses father. ... Béla IV c. ...


The territory's ethnic diversity increased with the influx of some 40,000 Cuman settlers, who came to settle in the area after their defeat by Volodimir II (Monomakh) of Kiev in the 12th century and their ultimate defeat at the hands of the Tatars in 1238. The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Vladimir Monomakh (Russian: Владимир Мономах; Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was undoubtedly the best loved Velikiy Kniaz of Kievan Rus. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...


From 1526, the region was under Habsburg rule (within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary). Since 1570, the region was divided between the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and Ottoman Transylvania. During this period, an important factor in the Ruthenian cultural identity, namely religion, came to the fore. The Unions of Brest-Litovsk (1595) and of Uzhorod [1646) were instituted, causing the Byzantine Orthodox Churches of Carpathian and Transcarpathian Rus to come under the jurisdiction of Rome, thus establishing so-called "Unia", or Eastern Catholic churches in the region, the Ruthenian Catholic Church and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. In the 17th century (until 1648) the entire region was part of Transylvania, and between 1682 and 1685, its north-western part belonged to the Principality of the prince Imre Thököly, while south-eastern parts belonged to Transylvania. Since 1699, the entire region was part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Count Imre Thököly de Késmárk (Thököly/Tököly/Tökölli Imre in Hungarian; Imrich Tököli in Slovak; Emericq Thököly according to his most frequent signature) (1657-1705), statesman, leader of an anti-Habsburg uprising, prince of Transylvania. ...

West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918), incorporating Carpathian Ruthenia ("Transcarpathia")
West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918), incorporating Carpathian Ruthenia ("Transcarpathia")

Between 1850 and 1860 the Kingdom of Hungary was divided into five military districts, and the region was part of the Military District of Košice. In 1918 and 1919, the region for the short time was part of the independent West Ukraine Republic. Carpathian Ruthenia, as well as a broader region, was occupied by Romania from April 1919 until July or August 1919, and then was recoccupied by Hungary. Image File history File links West_ukraine. ... Image File history File links West_ukraine. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Statue of KoÅ¡ices coat of arms St. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ...


After World War I and the Treaty of Trianon (1920), Carpathian Rus became part of Czechoslovakia. Whether this was widely popular among the mainly peasant population, is debatable; clearly, however, what mattered most to Ruthenians was not which country they would join, but that they be granted autonomy within it. After their experience of Magyarization, few Carpathian Rusyns were eager to remain under Hungarian rule, and they desired to ensure self-determination. This article is becoming very long. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Magyarization or Magyarisation is the common name given to a number of forced assimilation policies applied by the Hungarian authorities at different times in history. ...


On November 8, 1918, the first National Council (the Lubovňa Council, which was later reconvened as the Prešov Council) was held in western Ruthenia. The first of many councils, it simply stated the desire of its members to separate from Hungary, but did not specify a particular alternative — only that it must involve the right to self-determination. Over the next months, councils met every few weeks, calling for various solutions. Some wanted to remain part of Hungary but with greater autonomy; the most notable of these, the Uzhhorod Council (November 9, 1918), declared itself the representative of the Rusyn people and began negotiations with Hungary, resulting in the adoption of Law no. 10, making four of the Rusyn counties autonomous. Other councils, such as the Carpatho-Ruthenian National Council meetings in Khust (November 1918), called for unification with a Ukrainian state. It was only in early January 1919 that the first calls were heard in Rus for union with Czechoslovakia.[citation needed] November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Prior to this, in July 1918, Rusyn immigrants in the United States had convened and called for complete independence. Failing that, they would try to unite with Galicia and Bukovina; and failing that, they would demand autonomy, though they did not specify under which state. They approached the American government and were told that the only viable option was unification with Czechoslovakia. Their leader, Grigoriy Žatkovič, then signed the "Philadelphia Agreement" with Czech President Tomáš Masaryk, guaranteeing Rusyn autonomy upon unification with Czechoslovakia. A referendum was held among American Rusyn parishes, with a resulting 67% in favor. Another 28% voted for union with Ukraine, and less than one percent each for Galicia, Hungary and Russia. Less than 2% desired complete independence. Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl, 1918 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (IPA: ), sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, (March 7, 1850 - September 14, 1937) was an advocate of Czechoslovak independence during WW I and became the first President of Czechoslovakia. ...


In May 1919, a Central National Council convened under Žatkovič and voted unanimously to accept the Czechoslovak solution. Back in Rus, on May 8, 1919, a general meeting of representatives from all the previous councils was held, and declared that "The Central Russian National Council... completely endorse the decision of the American Uhro-Rusin Council to unite with the Czech-Slovak nation on the basis of full national autonomy." Žatkovič was appointed governor of the province by Masaryk on April 20, 1920 and resigned almost a year later, on April 17,1921, to return to his law practice in Pittsburgh. Pa. The reason for his resignation was dissatisfaction with the autonomy granted by Prague. His tenure is a historical anomaly as the only American citizen ever acting as governor of a province that later became a part of the USSR. (He died in Pittsburgh PA in 1967). May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The Treaty of St. Germain (September 10, 1919) granted the Carpathian Rusyns that autonomy, which was later upheld to some extent by the Czechoslovak constitution. Some rights were, however, withheld by Prague, which justified its actions by claiming that the process was to be a gradual one; and Rusyn representation in the national sphere was less than that hoped for. In 1927, the Czechoslovakia was divided into four provinces and one of them was Sub-Carpathian Rus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x497, 89 KB)Map of Czechoslovakia (self made) Note: The provinces shown on the map were introduced by Act No. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Karpatska Rus) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was a part of the Hungarian kingdom (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the Gregorian calendar (254th in leap years). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


While it was the Rusyns themselves who had arrived at the decision to join the Czechoslovak state, it is debatable whether their decision had any influence on the outcome. At the Paris Peace Conference, several other countries (including Hungary, Ukraine and Russia) laid claim to Carpathian Rus. The Allies, however, had few alternatives to choosing Czechoslovakia. Hungary had lost the war and therefore gave up its claims; Ukraine was seen as politically unviable; and Russia was in the midst of a civil war. Thus the Rusyns' decision to become part of Czechoslovakia can only have been important in creating, at least initially, good relations between the leaders of Carpathian Rus and Czechoslovakia. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ...


In November 1938, under the First Vienna Award — which was a result of the Munich Agreement — Czechoslovakia, and later Slovakia, were forced by Germany and Italy to cede the southern third of Slovakia and southern Carpathian Rus to Hungary. The remainder of Carpathian Rus received autonomy. Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...


Following Adolf Hitler's seizure of Czechoslovakia in 1939, on March 15 Carpatho-Rus declared its independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, with Avhustyn Voloshyn as head of state, and was immediately invaded and annexed by Hungary. On March 23 Hungary annexed further parts of eastern Slovakia west of Carpatho-Rus. Hitler redirects here. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... Carpatho-Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Karpats’ka Ukrayina), also called Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Підкарпатська Русь, Pidkarpats’ka Rus’), was an autonomous state within Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. ... Avhustyn Voloshyn (Ukrainian: , 1874–1945) was a Subcarpathian politician, teacher, and essayist. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ...


After World War II, in June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Rus to the Soviet Union. In 1946, Rus was incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


The latter in 1991 became the independent state of Ukraine, with Carpatho-Rus as an integral part. Currently, the region is a province within Ukraine, officially known as Zakarpattia Oblast. (See Zakarpattia Oblast for history past that time.) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Population

Carpathian Ruthenia is inhabited mainly by Ruthenian-speakers (Ukrainians, Rusyns, Lemkos who may refer to themselves and their language as Rusnak or Lemko). Places inhabited by Rusyns also span other, adjacent regions of the Carpathian Mountains, and include small regions of present day Poland, Hungary, Romania, and the Balkans as well. Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Lemkos (Ukrainian: ,) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect. ... Places inhabited by Rusyns include or have included the following places inhabited by each of the smaller ethnicities: Lemko: Poland: Subcarpathian Voivodship [] Boyko: Poland: Subcarpathian Voivodship [] Ukraine: Zakarpattia Oblast Slovakia: Presov Region Hucul: Ukraine: Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast Romania: MaramureÅŸ County, Suceava County Rusins-proper Trans-Carpathian Rus (Red... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


According to the 1880 census, the population of the present-day territory of Carpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpattia Oblast) was composed of:

According to the 1989 census, the population of the present-day territory of Carpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpattia Oblast) was composed of: Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...

According to the 2001 census [1], the population of Zakarpattia Oblast was composed of:

The Rusyn people living in Ukraine are not recognised as a distinct nation but rather as an ethnic group of Ukrainians. About 10,100 people (0.8%) identify themselves as Rusyns according to the last census [2]. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Rusyns

Main article: Rusyns

The area of present-day Carpathian Ruthenia was probably settled by Slavic tribes in the 6th century. The Ruthene population was ethnically the same as the population of the areas north of the Carpathian Mountains. Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ...


However, because of geographical and political isolation from the main Ukrainian-speaking territory, the inhabitants developed some distinctive features. In addition, between the 12th and 15th centuries, the area was colonized by groups of Vlach highlanders. They were assimilated into the local Slavic population, but strongly influenced the culture, making it more distinctive from the culture of other Ruthenian-speaking areas. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples (Greek: , Latin: , Arabic: ‎ Saqaliba, Old Church Slavonic: , Russian: , Polish: , Serbian: ), Croatian: , Bulgarian: ) are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


In the 19th and 20th centuries, Carpathian Ruthenia was a field of struggle between Ukrainian-nationalist and pro-Russian activists. The former asserted that the Carpatho-Ruthenians were part of the Ukrainian nation, while the latter claimed them to be a separate ethnicity and nationality, or part of the Russian ethnos. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In the 19th century and the first part of the 20th, the inhabitants of Carpathian Ruthenia called themselves "Ruthenians" ("Rusyny"). Subsequently the term "Ukrainian," which had replaced "Ruthenian" in eastern Ukraine a century earlier, became more common among western Ruthenians/Ukrainians, including those of Transcarpathia. Most present-day inhabitants consider themselves Ukrainians, although in the most recent census 10,100 people (0.8%) identified themselves as "Rusyns." Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ...


Hungarians

Carpathian Ruthenia was a part of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary from the 11th century. From 1526, the region was within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, and since 1570, it was divided between the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and Hungarian principality of Transylvania under Ottoman suzerainty. In the 17th century (until 1648) the entire region was part of Transylvania, and between 1682 and 1685, its north-western part belonged to the Hungarian Principality of the prince Imre Thököly, while south-eastern parts belonged to Transylvania. Since 1699, the entire region was part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Count Imre Thököly de Késmárk (Thököly/Tököly/Tökölli Imre in Hungarian; Imrich Tököli in Slovak; Emericq Thököly according to his most frequent signature) (1657-1705), statesman, leader of an anti-Habsburg uprising, prince of Transylvania. ...


At the beginning of the 20th century, the nobility and middle class in the region was almost solely Hungarian-speaking. Following separation of Carpathian Ruthenia from the Kingdom of Hungary, the Hungarian population decreased slightly; the Hungarian census of 1910 shows 185,433, the Czechoslovak census of 1921 shows 111,052, but much of this difference presumably reflects differences in methodology and definitions rather than such a large decline in the region's ethnic Hungarian (Magyar) or Hungarian-speaking population. Even according to the 1921 census, Hungarians still constituted about 18% of the region's total population. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On the eve of World War II, the First Vienna Award allowed Hungary to annex Carpathian Ruthenia. The pro-Nazi policies of the Hungarian government subsequently resulted in extermination and emigration of Hungarian-speaking Jews and other groups living in the territory were decimated by war. The end of the war was a cataclysm particularly for the ethnic Hungarian population of the area: 10,000 fled before the arrival of Soviet forces. Many of the remaining adult men (25,000) were deported to the Soviet Union; about 30% of them died in Soviet gulags. As a result of this development since 1938, the Hungarian-speaking population of Carpathian Ruthenia decreased from 161,000 in 1941 (according to a contested Hungarian census) to 66,000 in 1947 (an equally contested Soviet census); the low 1947 number can be partially attributed to Hungarians' fear to declare their true nationality. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image:Firstviennaaward. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: The word Gulag has also come to signify not only the administration of the...


As of 2004, about 170,000 (12-13%) inhabitants of Transcarpathia declare Hungarian as their mother tongue. Homeland Hungarians refer to Hungarians in Ukraine as kárpátaljaiak. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jews

Main article: History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia

Memoirs and historical studies provide much evidence that in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Rusyn-Jewish relations were generally peaceful. In 1939, census records showed that 80,000 Jews lived in the autonomous province of Ruthenia. Jews were approximately 14% of the prewar population, but they were concentrated in larger towns, especially Mukachevo, where they constituted 43% of the prewar population. This article addresses the History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. ...


During the Holocaust 17 main ghettos were set up in cities in Ruthenia, from which all Jews were taken to Auschwitz for extermination. Ruthenian ghettos were set up in May 1944 and liquidated by June 1944. Most of the Jews of Carpathian Ruthenia were killed, though a number survived, either because they were hidden by their neighbours, or were forced into labor battalions, which often guaranteed food and shelter. Selection of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in May/June 1944. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Labour battalions were a form of alternative service or unfree labor in various countries. ...


Roma

There are approximately 25,000 ethnic Roma in present-day Carpathian Ruthenia. Some estimates point to a number as high as 50,000 but a true count is hard to obtain as many Roma will claim to be Hungarian or Romanian when interviewed by Ukrainian authorities. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


They are by far the poorest and least-represented ethnic group in the region and face intense prejudice. The years since the fall of the USSR have not been kind to the Roma of the region, as they have been particularly hard hit by the economic problems faced by peoples all over the former USSR. Some Roma in western Ukraine live in major cities such as Uzhhorod and Mukachiv, but most live in encampments on the outskirts of cities. These encampments are known as "taberi" and can house up to 300 families. These encampments tend to be fairly primitive with no running water or electricity. Motto: Oblast Zakarpattia Oblast Mayor Serhiy Ratushnyak Area 31. ... Mukacheve (Мукачеве, Ruthenian: Мукачів (Mukachiv), Russian: Мукачево (Mukachevo), Hungarian: Munkács, Slovak and Czech: Mukačevo, German: Munkatsch, Yiddish: Munkacz) is a city in Zakarpattya region of southwestern Ukraine. ...


For further information, see http://www.romaniyag.uz.ua/en/


Romanians

Some 30,000 Romanians live in this region, mostly around the southern towns of Rakhiv (Rahău) and Tiachiv (Teceu) and close to the border with Romania. Rakhiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: Rahó, Romanian: Rahău, Russian: , translit. ... Tiachiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: TécsÅ‘, Romanian: Teceu) is a city located on the Tisza River in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. ...


Western views

For urbane European readers in the 19th century, Ruthenia, a forgotten piece of Hungary, was one original of the 19th century's imaginary "Ruritania" the most rural, most rustic and deeply provincial tiny province lost in forested mountains that could be imagined.[citation needed] Conceived sometimes as a kingdom of central Europe, Ruritania was the setting of several novels by Anthony Hope, especially The Prisoner of Zenda (1894). Ruritania is a fictional kingdom in Central Europe which forms the setting for three novels by the writer Anthony Hope: The Prisoner of Zenda (1894), The Heart of Princess Osra (1896), and Rupert of Hentzau (1898). ... Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins (February 9, 1863 _ July 8, 1933), better known as Anthony Hope was a British novelist, best remembered today for his short novel The Prisoner of Zenda (1894, set in the fictional kingdom of Ruritania, a prequel The Heart of Princess Osra (a collection of short... The Prisoner of Zenda is an adventure novel by Anthony Hope, first published in 1894. ...


Recently Vesna Goldsworthy, in Inventing Ruritania: the imperialism of the imagination (1998) has explored the origins of the ideas that underpin Western perceptions of the “Wild East” of Europe, especially of Ruthenian and other rural Slavs in the upper Balkans, but ideas that are highly applicable to Carpathian Ruthenia, all in all "an innocent process: a cultural great power seizes and exploits the resources of an area, while imposing new frontiers on its mind-map and creating ideas which, reflected back, have the ability to reshape reality."


References

  • Baerlein, Henri (1938). In Czechoslovakia's Hinterland, Hutchinson. ISBN B00085K1BA
  • Boysak, Basil (1963). The Fate of the Holy Union in Carpatho-Ukraine, Toronto-New York.
  • (Russian) Fent, Stefan A. (1935). Greetings from the Old Country to all of the American Russian people! (Pozdravlenije iz staroho Kraja vsemu Amerikanskomu Karpatorusskomu Narodu!). ISBN B0008C9LY6
  • Nemec, Frantisek, and Vladimir Moudry (2nd edition, 1980). The Soviet Seizure of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, Hyperion Press. ISBN 0-8305-0085-5
  • (German) Ganzer, Christian (2001). Die Karpato-Ukraine 1938/39: Spielball im internationalen Interessenkonflikt am Vorabend des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Hamburg (Die Ostreihe - Neue Folge, Heft 12).
  • (German) Kotowski, Albert S. (2001). "Ukrainisches Piemont"? Die Karpartenukraine am Vorabend des Zweiten Weltkrieges, in Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 49, Heft 1. S. 67-95.
  • Krofta, Kamil (1934). Carpathian Ruthenia and the Czechoslovak Republic. ISBN B0007JY0OG
  • Magosci, Paul R. (1975). The Ruthenian decision to unite with Czechoslovakia, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN B0006WVY9I
  • Magosci, Paul R. (1978). The Shaping of a National Identity: Subcarpathian Rus’, 1848-1948, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-80579-8
  • Magosci, Paul R. The Rusyn-Ukrainians Of Czechoslovakia
  • (Ukrainian) Rosokha, Stepan (1949). Parliament of Carpatho-Ukraine (Coйм Карпатськoї України), Ukrainian National Publishing Co., Ltd. for Culture and Knowledge (Культура й ocвiтa).
  • Shandor, Vincent (1997). Carpatho-Ukraine in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Legal History, Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-916458-86-5
  • Stercho, Peter (1959). Carpatho-Ukraine in International Affairs: 1938-1939, Notre Dame.
  • Subtelny, Orest (3rd edition, 2000). Ukraine: A History, University of Toronto Press ISBN 0-8020-8390-0
  • Wilson, Andrew (2nd edition, 2002). The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation, Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09309-8.
  • Winch, Michael (1973). Republic for a day: An eye-witness account of the Carpatho-Ukraine incident, University Microfilms. ISBN B0006W7NUW

External links

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ...

See also

Coordinates: 49°20′N, 20°14′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Kratz Family Auschwitz Memorial (1179 words)
The area of present-day Carpathian Ruthenia was probably settled by Slavic tribes in the 6th century.
The Ruthene population was ethnically the same as the population of the areas north of the Carpathian Mountains.
As a result of war losses, emigration and extermination of Hungarian-speaking Jews, the Hungarian-speaking population of Carpathian Ruthenia decreased to from 161,000 in 1941 (Hungarian census) to 66,000 in 1947 (Soviet census); the low 1947 number is doubtless in part a result of Hungarians' fear to declare their true nationality.
Carpathian Ruthenia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1072 words)
Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus') or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was a part of the Hungarian kingdom (since 1526 under Habsburg rule).
Following separation of Carpathian Ruthenia from Hungary, the Hungarian population decreased slightly; the Hungarian census of 1910 shows 185,433, the Czechoslovak census of 1921 shows 111,052, but much of this difference presumably reflects differences in methodology and definitions rather than such a large decline in the region's ethnic Hungarian (Magyar) or Hungarian-speaking population.
As a result of war losses, emigration and extermination of Hungarian-speaking Jews, the Hungarian-speaking population of Carpathian Ruthenia decreased to from 161,000 in 1941 (Hungarian census) to 66,000 in 1947 (Soviet census); the low 1947 number is doubtless in part a result of Hungarians' fear to declare their true nationality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m