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Encyclopedia > Carpathian Mountains
Satellite image of the Carpathians.
Satellite image of the Carpathians.
The Southern Carpathians in Romania.
The Southern Carpathians in Romania.
The Transylvanian Western Carpathians (Apuseni Mountains).
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Poland.
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Poland.
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Slovakia.
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Slovakia.

The Carpathian Mountains (Romanian: Munţii Carpaţi; Polish, Czech, and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати (Karpaty); German: Karpaten; Serbian: Karpati / Карпати; Hungarian: Kárpátok) are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Austria, Serbia, and northern Hungary. Image File history File links Carpathians-satellite. ... Image File history File links Carpathians-satellite. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x714, 738 KB) Carpatii Meridionali in Romania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x714, 738 KB) Carpatii Meridionali in Romania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x714, 740 KB) CarpaÅ£ii Apuseni in Romania File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carpathian Mountains Apuseni Mountains ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1006x714, 740 KB) CarpaÅ£ii Apuseni in Romania File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carpathian Mountains Apuseni Mountains ... The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (838x629, 215 KB) Summary West Carpathian, Tarta, Dolina 5 Stawow Polskich, Poland, Marek Silarski Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (838x629, 215 KB) Summary West Carpathian, Tarta, Dolina 5 Stawow Polskich, Poland, Marek Silarski Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 156 KB)GFDL ,Tatra view from Rysy, Zakopane, Poland, Marek Silarski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 156 KB)GFDL ,Tatra view from Rysy, Zakopane, Poland, Marek Silarski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ...

Contents

Name

The name 'Karpetes' may ultimately be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word kar "rock", perhaps by Dacian cognate which meant 'mountain,' rock, or rugged (cf. Old Norse harfr "harrow", Middle Low German shcarf "potsherd", Lithuanian kar~pas "cut, hack, notch", Latvian cìrpt "to shear, clip"). Archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots or trunks". The more common word skarpa is sharp cliff or other vertical terrain. Otherwise, the name may instead come from IE *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek karpós "wrist", perhaps referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape[1]. See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ...


In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates. The name Carpates is first recorded in Ptolemy's Geography. Around 310 AD the Carpathians are mentioned as Montes Serrorum by the Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ...


The name of the Carpi, a Dacian tribe may have been derived from the name of the Carpathian Mountains. Name recorded in late Roman Empire documents (Zosimus) as living until 381 on the Eastern Carpathian slopes. Alternatively the mountain range's name may be derived from the Dacian tribe. The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ...


In Hungarian XIII- i XIV century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal or less frequently Montes Nivium.


In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which describes ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum (see Grimm's law). Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It...


Geography

The Carpathians begin on the Danube near Bratislava. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near Orşova, in Romania. The total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km, and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km. The greatest width of the Carpathians corresponds with its highest altitudes. The system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the meridian of the Tatra group (the highest range, with Gerlachovský štít, at 2,655 m (8,705 feet) above sea level in Slovak territory near the Polish border). It covers an area of 190,000 km² and, after the Alps, is the most extensive mountain system in Europe. The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Zakarpattya or Transcarpathia (Закарпатська область, Zakarpats’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) is an oblast (region) of Ukraine. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... OrÅŸova (Hungarian: Orsova, German: Orschowa) is a port town on the Danube river in southwestern Romanias Mehedinti county. ... Tatras Panorama of Tatras The Tatra mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry in both Slovak) and Polish, constitute a mountain range which forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. ... Gerlachov Peak or Gerlachovský Peak (Slovak: Gerlachovský Å¡tít meaning peak of [the village] Gerlachov) or - based on the colloquial or old name- Gerlach Peak (Slovak:Gerlach) is the highest peak of the Tatra mountains, of Slovakia and of the whole Carpathians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although commonly referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not actually form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps. The Carpathians, which in only a few places attain an altitude of over 2,500 m, lack the bold peaks, extensive snow-fields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, and numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. No area of the Carpathian range is covered in snow year-round and there are no glaciers. The Carpathians at their highest altitude are only as high as the Middle Region of the Alps, with which they share a common appearance, climate, and flora. Orography is the average height of land, measured in geopotential meters, over a certain domain. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ...


The Carpathians are separated from the Alps by the Danube. The two ranges meet only at one point: the Leitha Mountains at Bratislava. The river also separates them from the Stara Planina, or "Balkan Mountains," at Orşova, Romania. The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe. Unlike the other wings of the system, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the Pannonian plain on the southwest, the plain of the Lower Danube (Romania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the northeast. Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Stara Planina (Old Mountain) or Balkan mountain range is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ... OrÅŸova (Hungarian: Orsova, German: Orschowa) is a port town on the Danube river in southwestern Romanias Mehedinti county. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ...


Geology

The Carpathian Mountains were formed during the Alpine orogeny. The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ...


Divisions

Main article: Divisions of the Carpathians Map of the main divisions of the Carpathians. ...


Horizontal division

  • Outer Carpathians (= Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians, usually incl. the corresponding Outer Carpathian Depressions)
  • Inner Carpathians (= Inner Western Carpathians, Inner Eastern Carpathians, and all the remaining Carpathians)

A major part of the western and northeastern Outer Carpathians in Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia is traditionally called Beskids. Outer Carpathians is a part of Carpathian Mountains, comprising Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians, including the corresponding Outer Carpathian Depressions. ... Beskidy Mountains (Beskid Mountains, Beskidy, Beskydy, Beskids) is a series of Czech Republic, northwestern Slovakia, and southern Poland, along the border between Poland and the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ...


Vertical and general division

What follows is a practical outline of the Carpathian subdivisions (clockwise from the west, numbers refer to the map):

  • Western Carpathians:
    • 1 Outer Western Carpathians:
      • Austrian - South-Moravian Carpathians
      • Central Moravian Carpathians
      • Slovak-Moravian Carpathians
      • West-Beskidian Piedmont
      • Western Beskids
      • Central Beskids
      • Eastern Beskids
      • Podhale-Magura Area
Map of the Carpathian subdivisions.
Map of the Carpathian subdivisions.
    • 2 Inner Western Carpathians:
      • Slovenské rudohorie (Slovak Ore Mountains)
      • Fatra-Tatra Area
      • Slovenské stredohorie
      • Lučensko-košická zníženina
      • Mátra-Slanec Area/Northern Medium Mountains
  • South Eastern Carpathians (= Eastern Carpathians in a wider sense):
    • Eastern Carpathians:
      • 3 Outer Eastern Carpathians:
        • Central Beskidian Piedmont
        • Low Beskids
        • Eastern Beskids
        • Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathians
        • Eastern Subcarpathians
      • 4 Inner Eastern Carpathians:
        • Vihorlat-Gutin Area
        • Bistriţa Mountains
        • Căliman-Harghita Mountains
        • Giurgeu-Braşov Depression
        • Rakhiv Massif and Maramureş Mountains
        • Maramureş Depression
        • Rodna Mountains
    • 5 Southern Carpathians (also known as Transylvanian Alps):
      • Făgăraş Mountains group
      • Parâng Mountains group
      • Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group
    • 6 Romanian Western Carpathians:
      • Apuseni Mountains
      • Poiana Ruscă Mountains (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)
      • Banat Mountains (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)
    • 7 Transylvanian Plateau (sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all):
    • 8 Serbian Carpathians (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians, or not considered part of the Carpathians at all)
  • Outer Carpathian Depressions (they surround the Carpathians and are normally considered part of the corresponding adjacent above main groups)

The geological border between the Western and Eastern Carpathians runs approximately along the line (south to north) between the towns Michalovce - Bardejov - Nowy Sącz - Tarnów. In older systems the border runs more in the east – at the line (north to south) along the rivers San and Osława (PL) – the town of Snina (SK) – river Tur'ia (UA). Biologists, however, shift the border even further to the east. Satellite image of the Carpathians The Southern Carpathians in Romania The Transylvanian Western Carpathians (Apuseni Mountains) The Romanian Eastern Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland... Panorama of Czech Beskids. ... Image File history File links Annotated version of image file http://commons. ... Image File history File links Annotated version of image file http://commons. ... The Slovak Ore Mountains (Slovak: Slovenské rudohorie) is an extensive mountainous region in the SpiÅ¡ region of Slovakia in the Carpathians. ... Location of Slovak Medium Mountains in Slovakia (in gray) Slovenské stredohorie is a group of mountain ranges in southern central Slovakia. ... The Northern Medium Mountains[1] (Hungarian: Északi-középhegység) or the Northern Hills are overall terms referring to the northern, mountainous parts of Hungary. ... The Northern Medium Mountains or Northern Hills (in Hungarian Északi-középhegység) or Mátra-Slanec Area (in Slovak Matransko-slanská oblasÅ¥) is the northern, mountainous part of Hungary and the adjacent part of Slovakia. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and northern Hungary. ... Panorama of Czech Beskids. ... Rodna Mountains (MunÅ£ii Rodnei) are a subdivision of the Eastern Carpathians in Northern Romania. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... The FăgăraÅŸ mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians. ... The Parâng mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians. ... The Retezat-Godeanu mountain group is a subgroup of mountains in the Southern Carpathians. ... The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians. ... Transylvanian Plateau is an plateau in central Romania almoast entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. ... Transylvanian Plateau is an plateau in central Romania almoast entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. ... Michalovce (German: Großmichel, Hungarian: Nagymihály, Romani: Nadymihaya, Yiddish: Mikhaylovets or Mykhaylovyts) is a city on the Laborec river in eastern Slovakia. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat City County Gmina Nowy SÄ…cz Estabilished 1292 City Rights 1292 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Nowak Area  - Town 57 km²  (22 sq mi) Population (2005)  - Town 84,594  - Density 1,484. ... Tarnów is a city in south-eastern Poland with 121,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Length 433 km Basin area 16,861 km² Origin Carpathian Mountains Tributary of Vistula River Countries Poland, Ukraine San River. ... Oslawa River near Zagorz Oslawa River near Mariemont hill, Zagorz, Poland Mariemont - Carmelites tower-monastry from 17th c. ... Snina (Hungarian: Szinna) is the easternmost town in Slovakia placed at the confluence of the Cirocha river and the small river Pčolinka in the valley between the Beskydy foothills and the Vihorlat mountain. ...


The border between the Eastern and Southern Carpathians is formed by the Predeal Pass, south of Braşov and the Prahova Valley. County BraÅŸov County Status Town Mayor Mihai VeÅŸtea, since 2004 Area 58. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 267. ... Prahova Valley, as seen from the Caraiman Mountain Prahova Valley, in an aquarelle by Amedeo Preziosi Prahova Valley (Romanian: Valea Prahovei) is the valley where the Prahova river makes its way between the Bucegi and the Baiului Mountains, in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania. ...


The Ukrainians sometimes denote as "Eastern Carpathians" only the Ukrainian Carpathians (or Wooded Carpathians), i.e., basically the part situated largely on their territory (i.e., to the north of the Prislop Pass), while the Romanians sometimes denote as "Eastern Carpathians" only the other part, which lies on their territory (i.e., from the Ukrainian border or from the Prislop Pass to the south). Prislop may refer to several villages in Romania and Slovakia: Prislop, a village in Cornereva Commune, Caraş-Severin County Prislop, a village in Dalboşeţ Commune, Caraş-Severin County Prislop, a village in Boiu Mare Commune, Maramureş County Prislop, a village in Răşinari Commune, Sibiu County Príslop in...


Also, the Romanians divide the Eastern Carpathians on their territory into three simplified geographical groups (north, center, south), instead of Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians. These are:

  • Carpaţii Maramureşului şi ai Bucovinei (Carpathians of Maramureş and Bucovina)
  • Carpaţii Moldo-Transilvani (Moldavian-Transylvanian Carpathians)
  • Carpaţii de Curbură/Carpaţii Curburii

MaramureÅŸ (Hungarian: Máramaros) is a county (judeÅ£) in the MaramureÅŸ region, northern Romania, in the North of Transylvania with the capital city at Baia Mare (population: 149,735). ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Ukraine. ...

In popular culture

  • The Carpathian mountains was mentioned to be the territory of the last Mountain Dragon in The Last Dragon (docudrama).
  • The Carpathians (race) in Christine Feehan's Dark Series call the Carpathian Mountains their homeland.
  • In the Left Behind series, Nicolae Carpathia is a man from Eastern Europe who eventually becomes the anti-christ.
  • There is a Norwegian Black Metal band by the name of Carpathian Forest.
  • The Donnie Darko soundtrack contains a song titled "Carpathian Ridge" by Michael Andrews.

The Last Dragon, known as Dragons: A Fantasy Made Real in the United States, is a docudrama made by Animal Planet that is described as the story of the natural history of the most extraordinary creature that never existed. It posits the theoretical evolution of dragons from the Cretaceous period... See Rusyns or Carpatho-Rusyns for people of Carpathian Heritage in the non-fictional universe Carpathians are a race of people in the fictional universe of the Dark Series, a group of books by Christine Feehan. ... Christine Feehan (born in California), is a romance-paranormal writer. ... Dark Series is the name for a collection of paranormal/romance novels by the American author Christine Feehan which feature the Carpathians (race). ... Left Behind: A Novel of the Earths Last Days is a best-selling novel by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins which starts the Left Behind series. ... Carpathian Forest is a Norwegian black metal band formed by Nattefrost and Nordavind in 1990. ... Donnie Darko is a 2001 drama/psychological thriller/science fiction cult film written and directed by Richard Kelly. ...

See also

External links

Coordinates: 47°00′N, 25°30′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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Ukrainians at the fringes), the Eastern Carpathians are settled by
Mountains, which are built mostly of crystalline schists, and the Bukovynian part of the range have gentler outlines, which are not much different from those of flysch mountains.
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