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Encyclopedia > Carotenoid
The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria.
The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria.

Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. There are over 600 known carotenoids; they are split into two classes, xanthophylls and carotenes. They absorb blue light. Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Grand Prismatic Spring. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota Fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ...

Contents

Properties

Carotenoids belong to the category of tetraterpenoids (i.e. they contain 40 carbon atoms). Structurally they are in the form of a polyene chain which is sometimes terminated by rings. Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain one or more sequences of alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds. ...

  • Carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls.
  • The unoxidized (oxygen free) carotenoids such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene are known as carotenes. Carotenes typically contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Probably the most well-known carotenoid is the one that gives this second group its name, carotene, found in carrots and responsible for their bright orange colour. Crude palm oil, however, is the richest source of carotenoids in nature. Lutein (LOO-teen) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ...


Their color, ranging from pale yellow through bright orange to deep red, is directly linked to their structure. Xanthophylls are often yellow, hence their class name. The double carbon-carbon bonds interact with each other in a process called conjugation, which allows electrons in the molecule to move freely across these areas of the molecule. As the number of double bonds increases, electrons associated with conjugated systems have more room to move, and require less energy to change states. This causes the range of energies of light absorbed by the molecule to decrease. As more frequencies of light are absorbed from the short end of the visible spectrum, the compounds acquire an increasingly red appearance. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ...


Physiological effects

In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids play a vital role in the photosynthetic reaction centre. They either participate in the energy-transfer process, or protect the reaction center from auto-oxidation. In non-photosynthesizing organisms, carotenoids have been linked to oxidation-preventing mechanisms. Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides. ...

Carotenoids disposition in proteins. Left: in cyanobacterium photosystem I carotenoids are outside (orange) PDB 1jb0. Right: in rhodopsin retinal is deep inside (pink) PDB 1f88.
Carotenoids disposition in proteins. Left: in cyanobacterium photosystem I carotenoids are outside (orange) PDB 1jb0. Right: in rhodopsin retinal is deep inside (pink) PDB 1f88.

Carotenoids have many physiological functions. Given their structure (above) carotenoids are efficient free-radical scavengers, and they enhance the vertebrate immune system. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that people with high beta-carotene intake and high plasma levels of beta-carotene have a significantly reduced risk of lung cancer. But studies of supplementation with large doses of beta-carotene in smokers have shown an increase in cancer risk (possibly because excessive beta-carotene results in breakdown products that reduce plasma vitamin A and worsen the lung cell proliferation induced by smoke). Similar results have been found in other animals. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ...


Animals are incapable of synthesizing carotenoids, and must obtain them through their diet, yet they are common and often in ornamental features. For example, the pink colour of flamingos and salmon, and the red colouring of lobsters are due to carotenoids. It has been proposed that carotenoids are used in ornamental traits because, given their physiological and chemical properties, they can be used as honest indicators of individual health, and hence they can be used by animals when selecting potential mates. Digimon, the only known animals. ... Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... For the magazine, see Lobster (magazine) Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ...

Simplified carotenoid synthesis pathway.
Simplified carotenoid synthesis pathway.

The most common carotenoids include lycopene and the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. In plants, the xanthophyll lutein is the most abundant carotenoid and its role in preventing age-related eye disease is currently under investigation. Lutein and the other carotenoid pigments found in leaves are not obvious because of the presence of other pigments such as chlorophyll. Simplified carotenoid biosynnthesis, showing the role of the genes added to golden rice, created by user:Petaholmes File links The following pages link to this file: Golden rice Categories: GFDL images ... Simplified carotenoid biosynnthesis, showing the role of the genes added to golden rice, created by user:Petaholmes File links The following pages link to this file: Golden rice Categories: GFDL images ... Lutein (LOO-teen) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


Aroma chemicals

Products of carotenoid degradation such as ionones, damascones, and damascenones are also important fragrance chemicals that are used extensively in the perfumes and fragrance industry. Both beta-damascenone and beta-ionone although low in concentration in rose distillates are the key odour-contributing compounds in flowers. In fact, the sweet floral smells present in black tea, aged tobacco, grape, and many fruits are due to the aromatics compounds resulting from carotenoid breakdown. Ionone or 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-Buten-2-one or cyclocitrylideneacetone or irisone C13H20O is a chemical substance and part of the terpene family. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Species Between 100 and 150, see list Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosa A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis lincecumii Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ...


See Also

List of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carotenoids

  Results from FactBites:
 
Carotenoid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (374 words)
Carotenoids are characterized by a large (35-40 carbon atoms) polyene chain, sometimes terminated by rings.
Carotenoids where some of the double bonds have been oxidized such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls; the un-oxidized carotenoids such as alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene are known as carotenes.
Carotenoids are used in ornamental traits because, given their physioloigcal and chemical properties, they can be used as honest indicators of individual health, and hence they can be used by animals when selecting potential mates.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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