FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Carotene" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Carotene
β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram
β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram
Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables.
Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables.

The term carotene is used for several related substances having the formula C40H56. Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis. It is responsible for the orange colour of the carrot and many other fruits and vegetables. It contributes to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy it absorbs to chlorophyll. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 204 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 255 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 204 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 255 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links CarrotDiversityLg. ... Image File history File links CarrotDiversityLg. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... It has been suggested that Photosynthetic Pigments be merged into this article or section. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


Chemically, carotene is a terpene, synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units. It comes in two primary forms designated by characters from the Greek alphabet: alpha-carotene (α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). Gamma, delta and epsilon (γ, δ and ε-carotene) also exist. Beta-carotene is composed of two retinyl groups, and is broken down in the mucosa of the small intestine by beta-carotene dioxygenase to retinol, a form of vitamin A. Carotene can be stored in the liver and converted to vitamin A as needed, thus making it a provitamin. Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... A provitamin is a substance that can be converted into a vitamin by animal tissues. ...

Contents

Dietary sources

The following foods are particularly rich in carotenes:

Absorption from these foods is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble, and if the food is cooked for a few minutes until the plant cell wall splits and the colour is released into any liquid. Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus, The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ... Binomial name Daucus carota A carrot (Daucus Carota) is a root vegetable, typically orange or white in color with a woody texture. ... Kale (also called Borecole) is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Cucumis melo reticulatus Naudin. ... Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Subsp. ... Winter squash is a warm-seasoned vegetable. ... Collards, also called collard greens or borekale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), are various loose-leafed cultivars of the cabbage plant. ... Binomial name Coriandrum sativum Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb commonly used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian, Latin American and Southeast Asian cooking. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Romaine lettuce Romaine or Cos lettuce (often called simply Romaine or Cos) (Lactuca sativa L. var. ... Species Lycium barbarum L. Lycium chinense Mill. ... Binomial name (L.) J. Voigt Coccinia grandis, also called tindora (tindori, tindoori), giloda, kundri, kundru, kowai, kovai, tindla, gentlemans toes (compare ladys fingers), tendli, thendli, thainli or ivy gourd, is a tropical vine grown for its small edible fruits. ... Binomial name Crantz The cassava, casava, yuca or manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) native to South America that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ...


The two forms

α-carotene
β-carotene

The two primary isomers of carotene, α-carotene and β-carotene, differ in the position of double bonds in the cyclic group at the end. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x313, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carotene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x313, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carotene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x313, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carotene ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x313, 12 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carotene ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


β-Carotene is the more common form and can be found in yellow, orange, and green leafy fruits and vegetables. These can be carrots, spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, cantaloupe, oranges, and winter squash. As a rule of thumb, the greater the intensity of the colour of the fruit or vegetable, the more β-carotene it contains. A yellow Tulip. ... The orange, a fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... Leafy green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Binomial name Daucus carota A carrot (Daucus Carota) is a root vegetable, typically orange or white in color with a woody texture. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. “Camote” redirects here. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Cucumis melo reticulatus Naudin. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... A rule of thumb is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. ...


β-carotene is present in yellow orange bell peppers (called yellow capsicum in Australia) but is not the principal colour in red bell peppers, chillis and other varieties and species in the genus Capsicum. A wide range of carotenoids and other colourful compounds abound in the plant kingdom. We can attribute benefits to the plant in expending resources to produce these compounds from their role in attracting insects for pollination and alluring animals for seed distribution, to protecting vital cell functions against the destructive effects of ultraviolet light. Capsicum is a genus of plants from the nightshade family (Solanaceae), native to Mexico, and now cultivated worldwide. ...


β-Carotene is an anti-oxidant and as such can be useful for curbing the excess of damaging free radicals in the body. However, the usefulness of β-carotene as a dietary supplement (i.e. taken as a pill) in cancer prevention is still subject to debate.[3] β-Carotene is fat-soluble. An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ...


Beta-carotene and cancer

It has been shown in trials that the use of synthetically-produced beta carotene (that is, beta carotene in supplement form such as the pills typically sold in stores) increases the rate of lung cancer and prostate cancer, and increases mortality in smokers. These results have been observed in beta carotene supplements and not in foods with naturally occurring beta carotene.[4]


An article on the American Cancer Society says that The Cancer Research Campaign has called for warning labels on beta carotene supplements to caution smokers that such supplements may increase the risk of lung cancer.[5] The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... The Cancer Research Campaign was a cancer research organization in the United Kingdom. ...


The New England Journal of Medicine published an article[6] in 1994 about a trial which examined the relationship between daily supplementation of beta carotene and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and the incidence of lung cancer. The study was done using supplements and researchers were aware of the relationship between carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and lower lung cancer rates. The research concluded that no reduction in lung cancer was found in the participants using these supplements (beta-carotene), and furthermore, these supplements may, in fact, have harmful effects. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


The Journal of the National Cancer Institute published an article in 1996[7] about a trial that was conducted to determine if vitamin A (in the form of retinyl palmitate) and beta carotene had any beneficial effects to prevent cancer. The results indicate an increased risk of lung cancer for the participants who consumed the beta-carotene supplement. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ...


A review of all randomized controlled trials in the scientific literature by the Cochrane Collaboration published in JAMA in 2007 found that beta carotene increased mortality by 5% (Relative Risk 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.08).[8] The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Carotenemia

Main article: Carotenodermia

Carotene is often labeled as good for you. However, your body converts this yellow pigment to Vitamin A, and too much Vitamin A can be harmful to your body. Carotenemia or hypercarotenemia is excess carotene, but unlike excess vitamin A, carotene is non-toxic. Although hypercarotenemia is not particularly dangerous, it can lead to a yellowing of the skin (carotenodermia). It is most commonly associated with consumption of an abundance of carrots, but it also can be a medical sign of more dangerous conditions. A randomised trial into the use of β-carotene and vitamin A for prevention of lung cancer had to be stopped early due to the apparent increase in the incidence of lung cancer in those with lung irritation from smoking or asbestos exposure.[3] Carotenodermia (also carotenaemia, carotenemia or hypercarotenemia) is a yellowish/orange discoloration of the skin, most often occurring in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet as a result of high levels of carotene in the body. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Blue asbestos (crocidolite) from Wittenoom, Western Australia. ...


Production

Most of the world's synthetic supply of carotene comes from a manufacturing complex located in Freeport, Texas and owned by DSM. In Spain Vitatene produces natural beta carotene form Blakeslea trispora. In Australia, organic beta-carotene is produced by Aquacarotene Limited from dried marine algae Dunaliella salina grown in harvesting ponds situated in Karratha, Western Australia. Freeport is a city located in Brazoria County, Texas and is situated in East Texas. ... DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM N.V.) is a multinational chemicals company. ... Pink-colored Dunaliella salina within sea salt. ... Karratha ( ; post code: 6714) is an important centre in the resource-rich WAs northwest. ...


Carotene is also found in corn, and in the milk of Guernsey dairy cows. Carotene causes the milk of the Guernsey cow to turn yellow.


Total synthesis

There are currently two commonly used methods of total synthesis of β-carotene. The first was developed by the Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik (BASF) and is based on the Wittig reaction. The second is a Grignard reaction, elaborated by Hoffman-La Roche from the original synthesis of Inhoffen et al. They are both symmetrical; the BASF synthesis is C20 + C20 , and the Hoffman-La Roche synthesis is C19 + C2 + C19. A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ... This article is about the German chemical company. ... The Wittig reaction is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a phosphonium ylide to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide. ... The Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction involving alkyl- or aryl-magnesium halides, also called Grignard reagents, with electrophiles. ... Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ...


Nomenclature

Carotenes are carotenoids containing no oxygen. Carotenoids containing some oxygen are known as xanthophylls. Carotenoids are organic pigments naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The two ends of the β-carotene molecule are structurally identical, and are called β-rings. Specifically, the group of nine carbon atoms at each end form a β-ring.


The α-carotene molecule has a β-ring at one end; the other end is called an ε-ring. There is no such thing as an "α-ring".


These and similar names for the ends of the carotenoid molecules form the basis of a systematic naming scheme, according to which:

  • α-carotene is β,ε-carotene;
  • β-carotene is β,β-carotene;
  • γ-carotene (with one β ring and one uncyclized end that is labelled psi) is β,ψ-carotene;
  • δ-carotene (with one ε ring and one uncyclized end) is ε,ψ-carotene;
  • ε-carotene is ε,ε-carotene,

Look up Ψ, ψ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j What can foods rich in beta-carotene do for you?
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al (1996). "Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 334 (18): 1150-5. PMID 8602180. 
  4. ^ Beta Carotene, Mayo Clinic
  5. ^ British Cancer Organization Calls for Warning Labels on Beta-Carotene (2000-07-31). Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  6. ^ The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers". N. Engl. J. Med. 330 (15): 1029-35. PMID 8127329. 
  7. ^ Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al (1996). "Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88 (21): 1550-9. PMID 8901853. 
  8. ^ Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA 297 (8): 842-57. DOI:10.1001/jama.297.8.842. PMID 17327526. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
It:Beta Carotene - ChemWiki (311 words)
Beta-carotene belongs to a family of natural chemicals known as carotenes which is widely found in plants, fruits and vegetables which are orange red in colour.
As excessive amounts of dietary vitamin A is toxic, beta carotene is a safer supplement because the body will only convert the need amounts of carotene into vitamin A, thus not poisoning the body.
It is a symmetrical reaction using two C19 chains combined with a C2 Grignard reactant to give a C40 carotene chain.
Beta Carotene Chemoprevention Trials: Q & A - National Cancer Institute (1485 words)
The purpose of the study was to see if the combination of beta carotene and vitamin A (a retinol) supplements would prevent lung and other cancers in men and women ages 50 to 69 who are smokers or former smokers, and men ages 45 to 69 who have been exposed to asbestos.
The purpose of the study was to test whether a beta carotene supplement reduced the risk of cancer and heart disease as well as whether low-dose aspirin reduced the risk of heart disease.
Beta carotene, which is found in plants, is a precursor of vitamin A. The body converts beta carotene to vitamin A. It occurs mainly in fruits and vegetables that are deep yellow, orange, or dark green in color, such as carrots, squash, yams, peaches, apricots, spinach, collard or mustard greens, and broccoli.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m