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Encyclopedia > Carolus Linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné)

Carl von Linné, Alexander Roslin, 1775. Currently owned by and hanging at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Born May 13, 1707(1707-05-13)
Råshult, Älmhult, Sweden
Died January 10, 1778 (aged 70)
Uppsala, Sweden
Residence Sweden
Nationality Swedish
Field Zoology, medicine, botany
Alma mater Uppsala University
University of Harderwijk
Known for Taxonomy
Ecology
Botany
Botany auth. abbrev. L.
Religion Church of Sweden
Linnaeus adopted the name Carl von Linné after his 1761 ennoblement awarded him the title von. He is the father of Carolus Linnaeus the Younger.

Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné , (May 13, 1707[1]January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy." He is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology (see History of ecology). Image File history File linksMetadata Carolus_Linnaeus_(cleaned_up_version). ... Alexander Roslin – ”Baroness de Neubourg-Cromière” (1756) Alexander Roslin (July 15, 1718 - July 5 1793) was a Swedish portait painter born in Malmö. Married 1759 to Marie-Suzanne Giroust. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... RÃ¥shult is a village in Kronoberg County, Sweden. ... This page deals with both Älmhult Municipality and the urban area (tätort) Älmhult Älmhult Municipality is a Municipality in central Kronoberg County, in southern Sweden, where the town of Älmhult (pop. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... The University of Harderwijk (1648-1811), also named the Guelders Academy, was located in the town of Harderwijk, in the Republic of the United Provinces (now: the Netherlands). ... Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to the person (or team) who valid published the name, i. ... Bishop Lennart Koskinen with some young people. ... External link Riddarhuset - Official site Categories: Stub | Swedish history | Stockholm buildings ... Von (generally in small case only as von) is a German preposition which approximately means of or from. ... Portrait by Jonas Forslund Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus the Younger (20 January 1741 – 1 November 1783) was a Swedish naturalist. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ... Image File history File links Sv-Carl von Linné.ogg Carl von Linné in Swedish. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Ecology is generally spoken of as a new science, really not coming into prominence before the middle of the 20th Century. ...


He was the most renowned botanist of his time, and one of the most acclaimed scientists of the era. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."[3] The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly."[3] Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist".[4] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ...

Contents

Name

The name of this botanist comes in different variants: 'Carl Linnaeus', 'Carolus Linnaeus' and 'Carl von Linné', sometimes just 'Carl Linné'. There is often confusion about his real Swedish name, as opposed to the Latinized form 'Carolus Linnaeus' he used most when he published his scientific works in Latin.


In Linnaeus' time, most Swedes had no surnames. Linnaeus' grandfather was named Ingemar Bengtsson (son of Bengt), according to Scandinavian tradition. Linnaeus' father was known as Nils Ingemarsson (son of Ingemar). Only for registration purposes, for example when matriculating at a university, one needed a surname. In the academic world, Latin was the language of choice, so when Linnaeus' father went to the University of Lund, he coined himself a Latin surname: Linnaeus, referring to a large linden (lime) tree,[5] the warden tree of the family property Linnagård (linn being an archaic form of Swedish lind, the linden). Nils Ingemarsson Linnaeus gave his son the name Carl. So the Swedish name of the boy was Carl Linnaeus.[6] Lund University Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is a university in Lund in southernmost Sweden. ... Binomial name Tilia cordata Mill. ... In Norse mythology, a vörðr (warden, watcher or caretaker) is a warden spirit, believed to follow from birth to death the soul (hugr) of every person. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ...


When Carl Linnaeus enrolled in private school as student at the University of Lund, he was registered as 'Carolus Linnaeus'. This Latinized form was the name he used when he published his works in Latin. After he was ennobled, in 1761,[7] he took the name Carl von Linné. 'Linné' is thus a shortened version of 'Linnaeus', 'von' is added to signify his ennoblement.

Signature of Carolus Linnaeus (who at the time wrote it as Carl v. Linné).
Signature of Carolus Linnaeus (who at the time wrote it as Carl v. Linné).

When referring to or citing the author Linnaeus, it is appropriate to use 'Carl Linnaeus', 'Carolus Linnaeus' or just 'Linnaeus'. 'Carl von Linné' seems to be less suitable, especially for the works he published before 1762. On the title page of the second edition of Species plantarum (1762) the author's name is still printed as 'Carolus Linnaeus' (or rather the genitive form 'Caroli Linnaei') but from then on, his name is quite consistently printed as 'Carolus a Linne' or 'Carl von Linné'. Stafleu[2] uses 'Carl Linnaeus' as the author's name for all his works. In Sweden, he is commonly known by his ennobled name Carl von Linné. Image File history File links Linne_autograph. ... Image File history File links Linne_autograph. ... For other uses, see Signature (disambiguation). ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ...


The adjectival form of his name is usually 'Linnaean', but the prestigious Linnean Society of London has a journal The Linnean, awards the Linnean Medal, and so on. The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... The Linnean Medal (formerly referred to as the Gold Medal) of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888, and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist or a zoologist or (as has been common since 1958) to one of each in the same year. ...


Biography

Early life

Statue of Linné outside the city library in Lund
Statue of Linné outside the city library in Lund

Linnaeus was born on the farm Råshult, located in Älmhult Municipality, in the province of Småland in southern Sweden, on May 23, 1707. He was groomed as a youth to be a churchman, walking in his father's path, but showed little enthusiasm for it. In 1717 he was sent to the primary school at the city Växjö, and in 1724 he passed to the gymnasium there, but with meager results in the clerical faculty. Instead his interest in botany made an impression on a local physician, who realized there might be a future in the field for the young Linnaeus, and on his recommendation Linnaeus's father sent his son to study at the closest university, Lund University. Linnaeus studied in Lund and tried to make something of the botanical garden there, but because it had been neglected, it was suggested to him that he would have better prospects at the University of Uppsala; Linnaeus left for Uppsala within a year.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 403 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 403 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus Metadata...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... RÃ¥shult is a village in Kronoberg County, Sweden. ... This page deals with both Älmhult Municipality and the urban area (tätort) Älmhult Älmhult Municipality is a Municipality in central Kronoberg County, in southern Sweden, where the town of Älmhult (pop. ... is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Växjö - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Lund University main building, built in 1882 by Helgo Zettervall. ... Uppsala University Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ...


His time in Uppsala was financially rough, until he became acquainted with the renowned scientist Olof Celsius, uncle of astronomer Anders Celsius, who came up with the temperature scale that was given his name. Celsius, impressed with Linnaeus's knowledge and botanical collections, offered him board and lodging.[8] A botanist, filologist and clergyman, Celsius was a professor at Uppsala university, Sweden. ... Anders Celsius The observatory of Anders Celsius, from a contemporary engraving. ...


During this period, he came upon a work which ultimately led to the establishment of his artificial system of plant classification. This was a review of Sébastien Vaillant's Sermo de Structura Florum (Leiden, 1718), a thin quarto in French and Latin. Through this, he became convinced of the importance of the stamens and pistils, about which he wrote a short treatise on the sexes of plants in 1729. This caught the attention of Olof Rudbeck the Younger (1660-1740), the professor of botany in the university, who subsequently appointed Linnaeus his adjunct. In 1730, Linnaeus began giving lectures in the faculty.[8] Sébastien Vaillant (May 26, 1669 - May 20, 1722) was a French botanist. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Olaus Rudbeckius, junior or (1660-1740), Swedish explorer and scientist, son of Olaus Rudbeck Sr. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ...


In 1732 the Academy of Sciences at Uppsala financed Linnaeus on an expedition to Lappland in northernmost Sweden, then virtually unknown. The result of this was first The Florula Lapponica (the first work to use the Sexual System) and later the Flora Lapponica published in 1737. His journey to sub-Arctic Lapland is notable for exotic and adventurous episodes. Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Laponia, or Lappland, was a historical Province or landskap in the extreme north of Sweden. ...


He married Sara Elisabeth Morea and had seven children, Carolus, Elisabeth, Sara Magdalena, Lovisa, Sara Christina, Johannes and Sophie. Portrait by Jonas Forslund Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus the Younger (20 January 1741 – 1 November 1783) was a Swedish naturalist. ...


Travel and Research

Carl Linnaeus dressed in Lapp costume. Portraited while in Netherlands, by Martin Hoffman in Hartecamp, 1737 [9]

In 1735 Linnaeus moved to the Netherlands, where he was to spend the next three years. Here he earned his only academic degree, at the University of Harderwijk, in 6 days. This degree in Medicine consisted of a three day printing job of his botanical notes in Latin. He met with botanist Jan Frederik Gronovius and showed him a draft of his work on taxonomy, the Systema Naturae. This was published in the Netherlands the same year, as an eleven page work. [8] Linnaeus stayed in the Netherlands for 12 months, until he made a journey to London in 1736, where he visited Oxford University and met several highly regarded people, such as the physicist Hans Sloane, the botanist Philip Miller and the professor of botany J. J. Dillenius. The journey lasted a few months, after which he returned to Amsterdam, and continued the printing of his Genera Plantarum, the starting point of his taxonomy. Download high resolution version (500x735, 361 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (500x735, 361 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... View of Hartekamp from the Herenweg, the road from Haarlem to Leiden that leads along 17th and 18th century summer homes. ... The University of Harderwijk (1648-1811), also named the Guelders Academy, was located in the town of Harderwijk, in the Republic of the United Provinces (now: the Netherlands). ... Jan Frederik Gronovius (also seen as Johann Frederik and Johannes Fredericus) (1690-1762) was a Dutch botanist notable as a patron of Linnaeus. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Hans Sloane. ... Philip Miller (1691 - December 18, 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent. ...

View of Hartekamp from the Leiden-Haarlem canal, with the famous 'Hortus Cliffortianus' or garden of George Clifford in Heemstede as it is today
View of Hartekamp from the Leiden-Haarlem canal, with the famous 'Hortus Cliffortianus' or garden of George Clifford in Heemstede as it is today

In 1737 Linnaeus spent a year studying and working on the Heemstede garden of George Clifford, a wealthy Amsterdam banker introduced to him by Herman Boerhaave. Clifford had many business connections with Dutch merchants and collected plants from around the world. His garden was famous. Linnaeus published the description of Clifford's garden as Hortus Cliffortianus. In 1738, the work was done, and he started his journey back home. On his way he stayed in Leiden for a year, during which he had his Classes Plantarum printed; then travelling to Paris, before setting sail for Stockholm.[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 695 KB) View of villa Hartekamp in Heemstede from the Leiden-Haarlem canal towpath. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 695 KB) View of villa Hartekamp in Heemstede from the Leiden-Haarlem canal towpath. ... View of Hartekamp from the Herenweg, the road from Haarlem to Leiden that leads along 17th and 18th century summer homes. ... Heemstede (population 25,660 in 2004) is a town in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... George Clifford III (1685 - 1760) was a wealty dutch bankier and director for the Dutch East India Company. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 - September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ... View of Hartekamp from the Herenweg, the road from Haarlem to Leiden that leads along 17th and 18th century summer homes. ... Leyden redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Back in Sweden

Returning to Sweden in 1738, he practiced medicine (specializing in the treatment of syphilis) and lectured in Stockholm before being awarded a professorship at Uppsala in 1741. At Uppsala, in the University's botanical garden, he arranged the plants according to his system of classification; he then made three more expeditions to various parts of Sweden and inspired a generation of students. Linnaeus continued to revise his Systema Naturae, which grew from a slim pamphlet into a multivolume work, as his ideas were changing and more and more plant and animal specimens were sent to him from every corner of the globe. His pride in his work was very much evident; he thought of himself as a second Adam. He liked to say ' Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit, ' Latin for, "God created, Linnaeus organized". This self-perception was further shown by the artwork on the cover of his Systema Naturae, which depicts a man giving Linnaean names to new creatures as they are created in the Garden of Eden.


Arriving in Stockholm, he settled as a physician. In September 1739 Linnaeus married Sara Elisabeth Morea (Moræaus) and the marriage took place at her family farm Sveden outside Falun; Sara he had met on one of his first scientific journeys to the county of Dalarna already five years earlier 1734. In 1739 he was one of the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Kungliga vetenskapsakademin). In 1741 he ascended to the chair of medicine at Uppsala and moved there. The position was soon exchanged for the chair of botany.[8] For other uses, see Doctor. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ...


In 1743-44, Linnaeus designed today's thermometer scale by reversing that invented by Anders Celsius (1701-1744)--originally 100 was the melting point of ice and 0 water’s boiling point[2]. Throughout the 1740s he conducted numerous field trips to many locations in Sweden to classify plants and animals: in 1741 to the Stora Alvaret on Öland and also to Gotland; in 1746 to Västergötland; and in 1749 to Scania including visits to the Kullaberg. The reports of each travel were published in the Swedish language to be accessible for the general public. Apart from containing many important reports of common life of that time, they have in recent years been appreciated for their fine treatment of the Swedish language, indeed putting Linnaeus as one of the foremost Swedish writers of the 18th century.[10] Anders Celsius The observatory of Anders Celsius, from a contemporary engraving. ... Stora Alvaret on southeast of Öland with Eketorp Fortress in background. ... For the Finnish island, see Ã…land. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... Kullaberg northwest coast Kullaberg is a nature reserve situated on a peninsula of land protruding into the Kattegat in Höganäs Municipality near the town of Mölle in southwest Sweden. ...

The Linnaean garden has been maintained and can still be visited in Uppsala today
The Linnaean garden has been maintained and can still be visited in Uppsala today

When not on travels, Linnaeus worked on his classifications, extending them to the kingdom of animals and the kingdom of minerals. The last may seem somewhat odd, but the theory of evolution was still a long time away. Linnaeus was only attempting a convenient way of categorizing the elements of the natural world. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 638 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 638 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


The Swedish king, Adolf Fredrik, ennobled Linnaeus in 1757, and after the privy council finally had confirmed the ennoblement (in 1761 after a few years of discussions) Linnaeus took the surname von Linné, later often signing just Carl Linné. Adolf Frederick King of Sweden Adolf Frederick (Adolf Fredrik) (May 14, 1710 – February 12, 1771), was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. ...


Last years

Tombstone of father and son Linnaeus in Uppsala Cathedral
Tombstone of father and son Linnaeus in Uppsala Cathedral

After his ennoblement, he continued teaching and writing. His reputation had spread over the world, and he corresponded with many different people. For example, Catherine II of Russia sent him seeds from her country.[11] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 976 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 976 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Carolus Linnaeus ... The Cathedral of Uppsala. ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ...


Of Linnaeus' children, five reached adult age: four girls and one boy. Only the boy, Carolus Linnaeus the Younger, was allowed to study. He did not have the same passion as his father, but managed to make a reputation in botany. At the father's death, the son succeeded him as professor; however, he died only five years later. The son is commonly referred to as filius (abbreviated "L. f.") to distinguish him from his famous father.[11] Portrait by Jonas Forslund Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus the Younger (20 January 1741 – 1 November 1783) was a Swedish naturalist. ...


Linnaeus' last years were troubled by weak health, and he suffered from gout and tooth aches.[11] A stroke in 1774 greatly weakened him, and two years later he suffered another, losing the use of his right side. He died on January 1778 in Uppsala, during a ceremony in the Uppsala Cathedral. He was buried in the cathedral.[8] For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The Cathedral of Uppsala. ...


Linnaean taxonomy

Main article: Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaeus's prime contribution to taxonomy was to establish conventions for the naming of living organisms that became universally accepted in the scientific world--the work of Linnaeus represents the starting point of binomial nomenclature. In addition Linnaeus developed, during the great 18th century expansion of natural history knowledge, what became known as the Linnaean taxonomy; the system of scientific classification now widely used in the biological sciences. Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


The Linnaean system classified nature within a hierarchy, starting with three kingdoms. Kingdoms were divided into Classes and they, in turn, into Orders, which were divided into Genera (singular: genus), which were divided into Species (singular: species). Below the rank of species he sometimes recognized taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank (for plants these are now called "varieties"). A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ...


His groupings were based upon shared physical characteristics. Only his groupings for animals remain to this day, and the groupings themselves have been significantly changed since Linnaeus' conception, as have the principles behind them. Nevertheless, Linnaeus is credited with establishing the idea of a hierarchical structure of classification which is based upon observable characteristics. While the underlying details concerning what are considered to be scientifically valid 'observable characteristics' has changed with expanding knowledge (for example, DNA sequencing, unavailable in Linnaeus' time, has proven to be a tool of considerable utility for classifying living organisms and establishing their relationships to each other), the fundamental principle remains sound. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Mankind

Linnaeus presented a concept of 'race' as applied to humans, also including mythological creatures. Within Homo sapiens he proposed four taxa of a lower (unnamed) rank. These categories were Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus and Europeanus. They were based on place of origin at first, and later on skin colour.[citation needed] Each race had certain characteristics that he considered endemic to individuals belonging to it. Native Americans were reddish, stubborn and easily angered. Africans were black, relaxed and negligent. Asians were sallow, avaricious and easily distracted. Europeans were white, gentle and inventive.[citation needed] For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


In addition, in Amoenitates academicae (1763), he defined Homo anthropomorpha as a catch-all term for a variety of human-like mythological creatures, including the troglodyte, satyr, hydra, and phoenix. He claimed that these creatures not only actually existed but were in reality inaccurate descriptions of real-world ape-like creatures. Look up troglodyte in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... For other uses, see Hydra. ... The phoenix from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ...


He also, in Systema Naturæ, defined Homo ferus as "four-footed, mute, hairy". Included in this classification were Juvenis lupinus hessensis (wolf boys), who he thought were raised by animals, Juvenis hannoveranus (Peter of Hanover) and Puella campanica (Wild-girl of Champagne). He likewise defined Homo monstrosus as agile and fainthearted, and included in this race the Patagonian giant, the dwarf of the Alps, and the monorchid Hottentot. A feral child is a child who has lived isolated from human contact starting from a very young age. ... Peter the Wild Boy (fl. ... Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc, also called the Wild Girl of Champagne, The Maid of Châlons, and the Wild Girl of Songy, was one of the most famous feral children. ... The Patagones were a legendary tribe of native giants that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew claimed to have seen while exploring South America in the 1520s. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (San). ...


Linnaeus' scientifical research took science on a path that diverged from what had been taught by religious authorities. The Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala had accused him of "impiety." In a letter [3] to Johann Georg Gmelin dated February 25, 1747, Linnaeus wrote: The Patriarchal cross The Archbishops Palace in Uppsala, designed in the 18th century by the architect Carl HÃ¥rleman, but built on older foundations. ... Johann Georg Gmelin (August 8, 1709 - May 20, 1755) was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  • Original Latin

Non placet, quod Hominem inter ant[h]ropomorpha collocaverim, sed homo noscit se ipsum. Removeamus vocabula. Mihi perinde erit, quo nomine utamur. Sed quaero a Te et Toto orbe differentiam genericam inter hominem et Simiam, quae ex principiis Historiae naturalis. Ego certissime nullam novi. Utinam aliquis mihi unicam diceret! Si vocassem hominem simiam vel vice versa omnes in me conjecissem theologos. Debuissem forte ex lege artis.

  • English Translation

It is not pleasing that I place Man among the primates, but man is intimately familiar with himself. Let's not quibble over words. It will be the same to me whatever name we use. But I request from you and from the whole world the generic difference between Man and Simian, and this from the principles of Natural History. I certainly know of none. If only someone might tell me just one! If I called man a simian or vice versa I would bring together all the theologians against me. Perhaps I ought to, in accordance with the law of the discipline [of Natural History]. Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...

Bibliography

Systema Naturae

Main article: Systema Naturae
Title page of the 1760 edition of Systema Naturae
Title page of the 1760 edition of Systema Naturae

The first edition of Systema Naturae was printed in the Netherlands in 1735. It was an eleven page work. By the time it reached its 10th edition (1758), it classified 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. In it, the unwieldy names mostly used at the time, such as "Physalis annua ramosissima, ramis angulosis glabris, foliis dentato-serratis", were supplemented with concise and now familiar "binomials", composed of the generic name, followed by a specific epithet - in the case given, Physalis angulata. These binomials could serve as a label to refer to the species. Higher taxa were constructed and arranged in a simple and orderly manner. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was developed by the Bauhin brothers (see Gaspard Bauhin and Johann Bauhin) almost 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was the first to use it consistently throughout the work, also in monospecific genera, and may be said to have popularized it within the scientific community. Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Binomial name Physalis angulata L. The cutleaf groundcherry also known as wild tomato, camapu or winter Cherry and several other names is an annual herb. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gaspard Bauhin Gaspard Bauhin, or Caspar Bauhin (January 17, 1560 – December 5, 1624), was a Swiss-French botanist. ... Jean Bauhin. ...


Linnaeus named taxa in ways that personally struck him as common-sensical; for example, human beings are Homo sapiens (see sapience). He also briefly described a second human species, Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling man"). This was however likely a confusion originating from exaggerated second- or third-hand accounts of the chimpanzee (currently most often placed in a different genus, as Pan troglodytes). The group "mammalia" are named for their mammary glands because one of the defining characteristics of mammals is that they nurse their young. Not to be confused with sentience. ... Look up troglodyte in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... Binomial name Pan troglodytes Blumenbach, 1799 The Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a great ape. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex...


Species Plantarum

Main article: Species Plantarum

Species Plantarum was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today. Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ...


In 1754 Linnaeus divided the plant Kingdom into 25 classes. One, Cryptogamia, included all the plants with concealed reproductive parts (algae, fungi, mosses and liverworts and ferns).[12]


Students

Carolus imbued his students with his own thoroughness in an atmosphere of enthusiasm, trained them to close and accurate observation, and then sent them to various parts of the globe. Some of the notable students and expeditions include Pehr Kalm's visit to North America 1748–1751; Daniel Solander, traveling first with James Cook's expedition to the Pacific in 1768, then in 1771 to Iceland, the Faroes and Orkney; Fredric Hasselquist, who visited Palestine and parts of Asia Minor; and Carl Peter Thunberg, journeying to Japan, South Africa, Java, and Sri Lanka. Pehr Kalm (March 6, 1716–November 16, 1779) (He is referred to in the Finnish language as Pietari Kalm) was an explorer, a botanist, a naturalist, and an agricultural economist from what is now Finland. ... Daniel Carlsson Solander (February 19, 1733 – May 16, 1782) was a Swedish botanist. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Fredric Hasselquist (January 3, 1722 - February 9, 1752) was a Swedish traveller and naturalist. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Carl Peter Thunberg (November 11, 1743 _ August 8, 1828) was a Swedish naturalist. ... This article is about the Java island. ...


See also

The Coat of Arms of Carl von Linné

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Linnean Society of London is the worlds premier society for the study and dissemination of taxonomy. ... The Linnaeus Arboretum, on the campus of Gustavus Adolphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota, USA, contains a number of botanical gardens and an arboretum. ... Jonas Carlsson Dryander (March 5, 1748 - October 19, 1810) was a Swedish botanist. ... Peter Artedi (February 22, 1705 – September 27, 1735) was a Swedish naturalist and is known as the father of Ichthyology. Artedi was born in the province of Angermannia. ... John Hill (c. ... Phycology is the study of marine algae (seaweeds) and history is the study of the past human activities. ...

Notes

  1. ^ “Carl Linnaeus was born in Råshult, Småland, in 1707 on May 13th (Old Style) or 23rd according to our present calendar.” Citation: Linnaeus the child by Uppsala University. "Old Style" in the cited text refers to the Swedish calendar.
  2. ^ a b Stafleu, F.A. (1976-1998) Taxonomic Literature second edition. An authoritative work on the names of botanists, their works and publication data, issued under the auspices of the IAPT.
  3. ^ a b "What people have said about Linnaeus", Uppsala University website "Linné on line" English language version.
  4. ^ Linnaeus deceased Uppsala University website "Linné on line" English language version.
  5. ^ (Swedish) Lind on Den virtuella floran, by The Swedish Museum of Natural History, accessed on 14 May 2006
  6. ^ Stearn, W.T. (1992), Botanical Latin, fourth edition: p. 283-284, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-321-6.
  7. ^ W.T. Stearn, (1957), An introduction to the Species Plantarum and cognate botanical works of Carl Linnaeus, Principal events in the life of Linnaeus; in: Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum, A Facsimile of the first edition 1753, Volume I: 14, Ray Society, London.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, article Linnaeus. Suggested direct-link: [1], accessed September 1.
  9. ^ Sörling & Fagerstedt, p.32
  10. ^ Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature (1989), p.43
  11. ^ a b c Uppsala University, Linné Online, English language version
  12. ^ Hoek, C.van den, Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 2005. Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 30419 9

The Swedish Calendar in use from March 1, 1700 until February 30, 1712 was one day ahead of the Julian calendar and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Brightwell, C. L. A Life of Linnaeus. London: J. Van Voorst, 1858.
  • Hovey, Edmund Otis. The Bicentenary of the Birth of Carolus Linnaeus. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1908.
  • Sörlin & Fagerstedt, Linné och hans lärjungar, 2004. ISBN 91-27-35590-X
  • J.L.P.M.Krol, Linneaus' verblijf op de Hartekamp In: Het landgoed de Hartekamp in Heemstede. Heemstede, 1982. ISBN 90-70712-01-6
  • There is an article "A Passion for Order" published in National Geographic Magazine June 2007 edition about Linnaeus, commemorating his 300 years birth anniversary.
  • Linneaus plays a significant role in the short story entitled "Rare Bird" by Andrea Barrett (which appears in her 1996 anthology "Ship Fever").

The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ... Andrea Barrett (born November 16th, 1954) is an acclaimed American writer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • The Linnæus Tercentenary celebration
Persondata
NAME Linnaeus, Carolus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Linné, Carl von
SHORT DESCRIPTION botanist and physician
DATE OF BIRTH 1707-05-23
PLACE OF BIRTH Råshult, Älmhult, Sweden
DATE OF DEATH 1778-01-10
PLACE OF DEATH Uppsala, Sweden

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Råshult is a village in Kronoberg County, Sweden. ... This page deals with both Älmhult Municipality and the urban area (tätort) Älmhult Älmhult Municipality is a Municipality in central Kronoberg County, in southern Sweden, where the town of Älmhult (pop. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carl Linnaeus (2236 words)
Carl Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus, is often called the Father of Taxonomy.
His father, Nils Ingemarsson Linnaeus, was both an avid gardener and a Lutheran pastor, and Carl showed a deep love of plants and a fascination with their names from a very early age.
Linnaeus continued to revise his Systema Naturae, which grew from a slim pamphlet to a multivolume work, as his concepts were modified and as more and more plant and animal specimens were sent to him from every corner of the globe.
Carolus Linnaeus - MSN Encarta (547 words)
Linnaeus was born into a religious family in a small town in rural Småland.
Linnaeus discovered problems in the systematic arrangement for botany and began to sketch his own classification method as early as 1730.
Linnaeus also created a taxonomic scheme that relied only upon these sexual parts, using the stamen to determine the class and the pistil to determine the order.
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